Bio 102 Unit 3 Bundle
Bio 102 Unit 3 Bundle Bio 102
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by l_welden on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Bio 102 Unit 3 Notes: I. What is Ecology? 1. Ecology often begins with an observation 2. Population: group of organisms of same species living in the same geographical location 3. Ecology is: multidisciplinary science (Biology, Geography, and Meteorology, Mathematics) 4. Ecology is meshed with and influenced by: Genetics, Behavior and Physiology, and Evolution II. Nomenclature of Data: Variables 1. Independent variable: variable that stands alone and is not influenced by other variables (IV) 2. Dependent variable: depends on other factors (usually Independent Variable) (DV) 3. IV causes change in DV (usually) 4. Hypothesis Testing: If your hypothesis is not supported you accept the null hypothesis 5. Correlation does not mean or prove causation III. Observational/Discovery Science 1. Most experiments begin with an observation 2. Makes guesses about observations to form a testable hypothesis IV. Brood Parasitism 1. Bird steals eggs from a nest and put own eggs in instead 2. Ex. Cuckoo Bird 3. Could accidently throw out own child --- fixes with increasing egg design complexities to solve this problem 4. Parasitism rates are variable so actual relationship is more complex--- some birds are pickier than others (Social calls---alerts that a cuckoo is in the area) V. Levels of Ecology 1. Individual level: how an individual organism fares in his environment and interacts with it 2. Population level: how a group of individuals in the same species live and interact in the same region (ex. Pack of wolves) 3. Community: interacting populations of different species (ex. Tick infects moose) 4. Ecosystem: species interacting with other species and environment (ex. Moose eat trees and change landscape for other animals) 5. Biome: equivalent ecosystems throughout the world (ex. Rainforest) 6. Biosphere: all biomes together (essentially entire planet) Note: “Isle Royale, Canada” – track wolves and moose for many years to understand dynamic fluctuations between these populations VI. Population Ecology A. Distribution pattern 1. Distribution of organisms amongst a region important to study 2. Some distribution is random – max access to resources 3. Clumped distribution – protection and can get food easier (move around and hunt) 4. Uniform Distribution: Individuals max space by being uniformly spaced – results from territorial behavior (seen in large brooding colonies) B. Population Growth 1. Difference between the birth rate and the death rate 2. Influenced by: i. Immigration: movement of individuals into a population ii. Emigration: movement of individuals out of a population iii. Exponential Growth: unrestricted growth of a pop. At a constant growth rate iv. Logistical growth a. Starts off fast and then levels off b. Environmental factors will limit an organism’s ability to reproduce c. Ex. Access to habitat—physical environment where an organism lives and to which it is adapted d. Liebig’s Barrel/ Law of the minimum: Growth rate is limited by a single limiting resource v. Population Growth: a. Carrying Capacity: the maximum number of individuals an environment can support given available resources b. Influenced by: annual reproduction, weather, human development, loss of habitat, old age, starvation and accidents, predators/prey, death rates, disease, climate change c. Size may fluctuate: 1. Boom or bust due to above infuences 2. Anything that affects the size of a population can have a substantial effect on them d. Population Health a. Ecologists use a variety of data to monitor the health of populations (scat, bones, urine, etc.) …) e. Population Density: a. Density-dependent – (depends on size of population) ex. predation b. Density-independent – ex. weather VII. Community Ecology – interacting populations of different species in a certain area A. Herbivore exclosures : 1. Long-term impacts of deer browsing 2. Changes for forest composition 3. Lower productivity/Diversity (outside exsclosures) B. Ecosystem Engineer: an organism that either directly or indirectly shapes its habitat significantly (deer, beaver, etc. direct, wolves indirect) C. Role of Bees a. Pollinators/associated with evolution of flowering plants b. Pollination—dependent of insect pollination (75%) c. Keystone species: species on which other species depend on; hold community together---if they are left out, system collapses d. Flowering Plants: i. Male: stamen --- stem-like filament topped with pollen saturated anther ii. Female: pistil: sticky landing pad, then goes to ovary and becomes an embryo containing a seed, surrounding ovary becomes a fruit D. Food Chains: linked sequences of feeding relationships a. Producers b. Herbivores c. Predators d. Higher up on the food chain needs to eat more because they get less calories e. Trophic Energy Flow/Cycling of Nutrients E. Symbiotic Relationships 1. Parasitism: (+/-) symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits at the expense of the other (ex. Varmoa mite) a. In human host, the parasites form tissue cysts, most likely in skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain, and eyes---may last throughout life of host b. Mind Control: Mice affected with low virulence strains of Toxoplasma gondii lose aversion to cat urine 2. Mutualism: (+/+) symbiotic relationship in which both members benefit a. Ex. Lichen – algae or cyanobacteria live among filaments of a fungus b. Obese organisms and lean organisms have different gut microbacteria---different flora in intestines can influence weight (ex. Clostridium difficile) 3. Commensalism : (+/0) symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and one is unharmed F. Interspecific Interactions 1. An interaction between Species 2. Interspecific interactions can be classified according to the effect on the populations concerned. 1. / interactions occur when two populations in a community compete for a common resource. 2. / interactions are mutually beneficial, such as between plants and their pollinators. 3. / interactions occur when one population benefits and the other is harmed, such as in predation. G. The Ecological Niche 1. Niche: the space, environmental conditions, and resources that a species needs in order to survive and reproduce 2. If niches overlap a. 2 or more species rely on same limited resources, resulting in conpetition 3 . Competition exclusion principle: one of the competing species will be driven to extinction H. Ways Organisms fight Extincion 1. Cryptic coloration: camouflage 2. Warning coloration: brightly colored patterns to warn predators that an animal has an effective chemical defense 3. Mimicry: form of dense in which one species looks like another species 4. Herbivory defenses: plants develop spines, thorns, and chemical toxins I. Ecosystem Biotic Trophic Structure 1. Primary Consumers (Herbivores) eat plants 2. Carnivores eat consumers (above level of primary consumers) -secondary: eat primary -tertiary – eat secondary -quaternary-eat tertiary J. What is an ecosystem? 1. Complex, interwoven system of interacting components 2. Includes both community of living organisms K. Environmental Variability 1. Abiotic Factors can change over time, which change ecosystems 2. Water content, terrain, average temperature, climate/weather patterns affect ecosystems 3. Acclimation -gradual -reversible- -a physiological adjustment to an environmental change -ability is generally related to the range of environmental conditions a species naturally experiences -warm bloods can adapt better to large changes in environment - birds either migrate or puff up (air pockets are filled) -Anatomical Responses -change omn body shape or structure -reversal change, such as grow a heavier coat in the winter 4. Water -essential to all life -for terrestrial organisms, main issue is water drying out -ocean organisms—main issue is water balance - Solutions -isotonic (equal concentration) - Hypotonic (water goes into cell) - Hypertonic (water goes outside of cell) 5. Inorganic Nutrients 5. Aquatic factors -dissolved oxygen levels -salinity -currents -tides 6. Terrestrial a. Wind patterns b. Storm c. Fire --- it is destructive to put out every single fire --- Smokey bear effect ---sometimes helps both plants and animals i. Disturbance: alters the chemical or organismal components of an ecosystem - Natural to the environment - May be bad; cause emergence of unknown diseases or gives opportunity for other organisms to grow 7. Ecological Succession 1. Disturbances may cause a gradual replacement by other species 2. Secondary succession 3. Energy Flow: passage of energy through components of the ecosystem ---ultimately lost 4. Chemical Cycling: the use and reuse of chemical elements in an ecosystem L. Biomes A. Biome 1. Aquatic or terrestrial zone made up of several ecosystems B. Aquatic Biomes a. are not classified by the amount of rain they get---land (terrestrial) area is affected by the amount of rainfall b. 75 % c. Freshwater – salt concentration less than one percent a. Less than 1% b. Drinking, irrigation sanitation, industry c. Standing water (lakes/ponds) and flowing water (rivers, brooks, streams) d. Rivers and streams---bodies of water flowing in one directions, generally support different communities of organisms than lakes and pons e. Source Streams: cold, clear, swift, lower nutirents f. Downstream: warmer, turbid, slow, high nutirents d. Marine- 3% salt e. Depth and distance affect distribution of communities of pants, algae, and animals i. Photic- light available for photosynthesis ii. Aphotic -- no light, deeper iii. Benthic ---deepest --- gets energy from dead organisms that sunk to the floor (marine snow) C. Terrestrial Biomes a. Tropical Forest b. Temperate Forest i. Knoxville is a temperate forest; Smoky Mountains are a temperate rain forest c. Grassland d. Desert e. Taiga f. Tundra D. Things that affect biomes a. Sunlight i. Heated bythe direct raus of the sun, air at the equator rises, cools, forms clouds, and then rains XI. Chemical Cycling in Ecosystmes A. General Info B. Biogeochemical Cycles a. Biotic Components b. Abiotic makes up an abiotic reservoir where a chemical accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms c. Can be local or global d. 3 important chemicals: carbon, phosphorous, and nitrogen e. Viruses also impact these cycles 1. Carbon: -atmospheric reservoir -cycles globally -photosynthesis -cellular respiration 2. Phosphorous Cycle -nucleic acids -phospholipids -ATP -also required as a mineral component of vertebrae and teeth 2. Nitrogen Cycle a. Amino acids and nucleotides that make up DNA/RNA b. Nitrogen is an ingredient of proteins and nucleic acids c. Nitrogen Fixation---converts gaseous N2 to nitrogen compounds that plants can assimilate ` C. Virus a. Noncellular particle that must infect a host cell b. Not living because cannot reproduce on its own c. Infects: humans, plants, animals, other viruses d. Been around for a long time e. Bacteriophages: only attacks bacteria --- conisstes of a molecule of DNA, enclosed within a structure f. Lytic Cycle: A phage injects DNA into a cell and the cell eventually bursts, releasing the phage g. Lysogenic Cycle: Phage DNA is inserted into the bacterial chromosome and the phage is copied when the cell reproduces h. Viruses affect Biogeochemistry D. Nutrient Pollution a. The growth of algae and cyanobacteria ---algae blooms---harm aqueous ecosystems (can use up all of the oxygen in water) b. Nitrogen runoff form the Midwestern farm fields that drain into the Gulf of Mexico c. Eutrophication: enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus or both ---- can cause reduction in oxygen in water, algae blooms that secrete toxins, and algal “bust” after bloom leads to mass nutrient releases XII. Human Evolution A. Similarities in all humans a. We all share the same DNA blueprint and have similarities with chimps, mice, fruit flies, yeast, and plants b. We are all 99.9% similar to each other and are only .1% different c. Only a small percentage of our DNA makes us different from one another d. Molecular clock: the temporal information contained in a macromolecular sequence that are based on the acquisition of new random mutations in each round of DNA replication e. The virus HERV-K111 is on our genome on chromosome 9 because i. A retrovirus took its genetic information and integrated it into the host cell (maybe a sperm or egg cell repeatedly) and change genetic code---junk DNA affected ---evidence that many attributes in cells today can be attributed to viruses---(retro)viruses found in the placenta and may play a major role in pregnancy---in an experiment in which the viruses were taken out of a sheep, specialized cells in the placenta were not developed and the embryo could not implant into the uterus --- a retrovirus may be the reason for blue eggs in some chickens f. Facts i. Several species of humans lived at the same time j. Different human features evolved at different times g. Human Ancestry a. Primates: evolved from ---distinguished by characteristics shaped by the demands of living in trees, including limber shoulder joints, eyes in front of face, excellent eye-hand coordination, and extensive parental care ---three groups b. Humans and chimps shared a common ancestor (nor chimps) and represent two divergent branches from both ends of the tree c. Hominid: any member of the family Hominidae (humans, orangutans, chimps, gorilla, bonobos) d. Primary differences between humans and chimps: i. Bipedal---probably evolved first (Australopithecus walked around Savannah before Homo)---very old trait---maybe because of stability in the environment (evidence of change in microbial fossils) ii. Larger brain size B. History 1. Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 M) a. Small brain b. Walks upright c. Also fours in trees 2. Australopithecus (2.6 M) a. Could walk upright b. Lived on ground c. Tools! 3. Homo Habilis a. Larger brain---increase in brain cavity size b. Walked upright c. Made stone tools 4. Homo erectus a. Controlled fire b. One of the first species to extend humanity’s range outside of Africa--- dispersal began 1.8 M years ago c. Taller than H. habilis d. Larger brain 5. Homo neanderthalensis a. Regionally diverse descendants in Europe and Asia b. Shared common ancestor with modern humans c. Interbred with modern humans 6. Homo sapiens a. 200000 years b. oldest DNA from 45000 years ago in Siberia c. Longer childhoods due to brain development d. Big brains C. More on Homo sapiens a. Oldest known fossils were discovered in Ethiopia and date from 160,000 to 195,000 years ago b. DNA strongly suggests that all living humans can trace their lineage to a single African lineage that began 160,000 to 200,000 years ago---“Out of Africa” hypothesis---humans originated in Africa and then migrated to other continents c. Genetic testing supports this theory----use of mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA---inherited from mothers) to track human ancestry and build and evolutionary tree (“Mitochondrial Eve – mtEve”)---humans evolved form one lineage, not one fixed individual d. Fossil Records show that humans emerged from Africa in one or more waves---oldest outside of Africa are 50,000 years old---New World is at least 15,000 years e. Humans developed societies because of several traits: i. Primate brain grows after birth and period of growth for humans is longer than any other primate ii. Extended period of human development lengthens the time for parents to care for their offspring and pass along culture D. Genetic Diversity in Humans a. Denisovians: i. Discovered bone fragments 2000 and 2008---mtDNA and nuclear DNA obtained to sequence ii. 3 recent lineages account for much genetic diversity iii. oldest Hominid DNA found is 400,000 b. Neanderthals i. Some populations had human DNA and some didn’t c. Homo sapiens i. Most people’s genomes contain remnants from African and the two above due to ancient interbreeding E. Impact of Homo sapiens on Earth i. Cultural evolution made modern humans a new force in history---most numerous and widespread of all large animals and bring environmental change faster than many species can adapt ii. How We evolve 1. Physical Body has not changed much 2. Different Environments let different populations have special features 3. Misconception: evolution took place a long time ago 4. Lactose tolerance: 95% northern European descendants can drink milk beyond traditional weaning period 5. Loosing wisdom teeth 6. Better immune systems 7. Brains are shrinking 8. Sickle hemoglobin in some populations as an adaptation to malaria---heterozygote advantage 9. Tibetans don’t need as much oxygen in high altitudes 10. Acclimazation: adaptive physiological or behavioral changes within an organism in response to their natural climate or environment 11. Skin color due to environment ancestors were in ---weaker the UV light, the lighter the skin (melanin to protect from this light) F. The Genetic Melting Pot a. 9 ancestral regions of modern humans 1. Northeast Asian 2. Mediterranean 3. Southern African 4. Native American 5. Oceanian 6. Southeast Asia 7. Northern Europe Sub-Saharan African
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