New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam study guides

by: Alexis Jackson

Exam study guides Bio 140

Alexis Jackson
GPA 3.0
Nutritional Science
Bethany Marshall

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Bio 140 study guides for exams 1-4
Nutritional Science
Bethany Marshall
75 ?




Popular in Nutritional Science

Popular in Department

This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Alexis Jackson on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Bio 140 at Washington State University taught by Bethany Marshall in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 207 views.


Reviews for Exam study guides


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/15
Bio 140 Introduction to Nutritional Science Chapter 1 Study Guide Fall 2014 Chapter 1 Nutrient Substance in foods used by the body for energy maintenance of body structures or regulation of chemical processes Essential nutrient must be obtained from the diet because the body needs it but either can t make it or can t make enough of it Nonessential nutrient a substance found in food and used to promote health but not required to be consumed in the diet Conditionally essential nutrient normally nonessential nutrient that under certain circumstances becomes essential Micronutrient nutrients that the body needs in small quantities vitamins minerals Macronutrient nutrient that the body needs in large quantities protein carbohydrates lipids water Organic compound substance that contains carbon Inorganic compound substance that does not contain carbon Organic food Phytochemical substance found in plants and thought to benefit human health above and beyond essential nutrients and energy Zoonutrient substance found in animal foods and thought to benefit human health above and beyond essential nutrients and energy Functional food one that contains an essential nutrient phytochemical or zoonutrient thought to bene t human health above and beyond What can be attr1buted to the essentlal nutrlents themselves Scienti c method How scientists get facts in the most unbiased fashion Steps 0 Make an Observation 0 Propose a Hypothesis 0 Collect Data Experiment 0 Observation Serves as framework for the rest of the scientific method 0 Must be valid if observation is awed resulting conclusion Will likely be awed 0 All available facts and data must be considered to determine if an observation is correct 0 Hypothesis 2 basic kinds of hypotheses Causeandeffect relationships causal relationships Correlations associations Bias when the researcher in uences the results of a study 0 Controlled for by double blinding Hawthorne effect phenomenon in which study results are in uenced by alteration of something that is not related to the actual study intervention note that this is not described in NUTR 0 Example I m in a diet study maybe I shouldn t eat that donut O Controlled for by having a control group and using random assignment to groups Placebo effect phenomenon in which there is an apparent effect of the treatment because the individual expects or believes that it will work 0 Controlled for by using placebo and blinding subjects Singleblind study when the subject doesn t know Doubleblind study when neither the subject nor scientist knows Causal relationship Association Simple relationship Complex relationship Interaction Peerreview journal Morbidity rate of illnesses in a given period of time Mortality rate of deaths in a given period of time Infant mortality rate of infant deaths lt1 years of age per 1000 births in a given year Infectious disease Caused by pathogens such as bacteria viruses fungi and parasites and are contagious 0 Major cause of death in early 1900s 0 Public health efforts reduced incidence of disease Chronic disease Noninfectious illnesses that develop slowly and persist for a long time Risk factor a lifestyle environmental or genetic factor related to a person s chances of developing a disease 0 Just because something s a risk factor doesn t mean it causes the outcome EX Tobacco use lack of physical activity N utrition transition shift from undernutrition to ovemutrition or unbalanced nutrition as societies adopt more industrialized economies Additional concepts to study Macronutrients Micronutrients Carbohydrates 4kca vitamins Proteins 4kca minerals Lipids 9kca water Carbohydrates Contain carbon oxygen hydrogen atoms FuncUons provide glucose to cells as primary source of energy ATP Manufacture genetic material DNA Maintain health of digestive system ber Regulatory component in membranes that surround cells Protein organic Contain carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen and sometimes sulfer Functions Source of energy Lipids fats and oils Contain carbon oxygen amp hydrogen Functions provide large amounts of energy Water Contain hydrogen oxygen makes up 60 of total body weight Micronutrients Vitamins Contain carbon oxygen hydrogen some contain phosphorous and sulfur Do NOT provide structure or energy Minerals 0 All inorganic substances in the body besides water 0 16 minerals are consisted essential nutrients NOT used directly for energy Chapter 2 Nutritional status extent to which a person s diet meets his or her individual nutrient requirements Nutritional adequacy condition by which a person regularly consumes the required amount of nutrient to meet physiological needs Malnutrition a state of poor nutritional status caused by an imbalance between the body s nutrient requirements amp nutrient ability Undernutrition inadequate intake of one or more nutrients andor energy Overnutrition Nutritional toxicity over consumption of a nutrient that results in dangerous toxic effects Anthropometric measurement measurement of a body s physical dimensions or composition Body mass index Additional concepts to study Primary malnutrition due to inadequate diet Secondary malnutrition factors besides diet ex Illness drug Healthy Range for BMI 185249 kgmquot2 Calculate body mass Chapter 2 Nutritional Status and Dietary Planning Vocabulary Biochemical measurement laboratory analysis of a biological sample such as blood or urine Clinical assessment medical history symptoms assessed and physical examination Dietary assessment collecting information about a person s nutrient intake Skinfold thickness assesses body fat through estimates of subcutaneous fat layer of adipose tissue below the skin Dual energy xray absorptiometry DEXA measures bone mineral content body fat and lean mass Primary malnutrition condition by which poor nutritional status is caused by strictly by inadequate diet Secondary malnutrition condition by which poor nutritional status is caused by factors other than diet such as illness Sign physical indicator of disease that can be seen by others Symptom subjective manifestation of disease that general cannot be observed by other people Dietary reference intake DRI a set of 4 dietary reference standards use to assess and plan dietary intake estimated average requirement recommended dietary allowance adequate intake level and tolerable upper intake level Estimated average requirement EAR intake value thought to meet the requirement of 50 the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and of a given sex Used to evaluate intakes in populations Recommended dietary allowance RDA the daily intake of a nutrient that meets the physiological requirements of nearly all healthy individuals in a given life stage and sex Adequate intake level Al the daily intake of a nutrient that appears to support adequate nutritional status established when RDA s cannot be determined Tolerable upper intake level UL the highest level of usual daily nutrient intake likely to be safe Acceptable macronutrient distribution range AMDR the recommended range of intake for a given energy yielding nutrient expressed as a percentage of total daily caloric intake Estimated energy requirement EER the average energy intake needed for a healthy person to maintain weight Nutrient density the relative ratio of a foods amount of nutrient to its total calories Food groups fruits vegetables grains protein foods dairy products oils and others Food guidefood pattern Dietary Guidelines for Americans a series of recommendations that provide speci c nutritional guidance and advice about physical activity alcohol intake and food safety Daily value and daily value a benchmark as to whether a food is a good source of a particular nutrient May represent a nutrients recommended daily intake or upper limit Regular Health claim health claim backed by considerable scienti c research Quali ed health claim health claim that has less scienti c backing and must be accompanied by a disclaimer Nutrient content claim an FDAregulated word or phrase that describes how much of a nutrient or its content is in a food Concepts The 4 quotformsquot of nutritional status assessment as well as their general strengths and weaknesses A Anthropometric measurements height weight circumferences Biochemical measures lab analysis of biological samples used in nutritional assessment eg blood urine Clinical assessment medical history symptoms assessed physical examination Dietary assessment collecting information about a person s nutrient intake Compare a sign with a symptom A sign physical indication where a symptom is not always Know in general how a dietary assessment is completed and what the difference between retrospective and prospective is in this regard which is more accurate A retrospective person must remember what he ate in the past Prospective person keeps track of what he ate for 1 days Understand that there are several sets of standards in the Dietary Reference Intakes DRls and how they are related and which organization put them together Estimated Average Requirement EAR intake value thought to meet the requirement of 50 the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and of a given sex Used to evaluate intakes in populations Know the difference between the various DRIs and what they are used for Be able to calculate an EER given the appropriate information Be able to determine whether the distribution of calories in a meal ts with that recommended by the AMDRs Understand the relationship between the Dietary Guidelines the USDA Food Guide and MyPIate Know the basics related to the USDA s MyPIate icon and website The required components of a food label and Nutrition Facts panel and how to interpret the information found there Chapter 3 Nutritional Physiology Ion an atom that has a positive or negative electrical charge Electrolyte a molecule that when submerged in water separates into individual ions Solute substances that dissolve chemically come apart in liquids ex Table salt Solvent liquids that dissolve solutes Ex water Solution solute dissolved in solvent your body makes LOTS of solutions like plasma tears ect and transmits information via electrical impulses between nerve cells Endocrine system communicates from one tissue to another via hormones chemical signals such as insulin Additional concepts to study 0 Be able to interpret or explain a chemical formula eg how many atoms how many molecules 0 What is different between the nervous system and endocrine system in terms of how they communicate39 information in the body 0 Be able to list and identify the organs of the gastrointestinal tract A salivary glands liver gallbladder pancreas 0 be able to list the accessory organs A mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine Know where the gastroesophageal pyloric and ileocecal sphincters are as well as the sphincter of Oddi 0 Know the difference between peristalsis and segmentation in terms of what they accomplish Brie y explain what the 3 phases of digestion are Adigestion absorption elimination 0 Understand the basics of how we swallow food and how choking occurs 0 Know the parts of the stomach and small intestine 0 What are the basic functions of the mouth stomach small intestine and large intestine 0 How is the structure of the small intestine well suited for carrying out its major functions 0 What is a common cause of peptic ulcers and how are they frequently treated What organs produce digestive enzymes A small intestine What types of foods do individuals with celiac disease need to avoid Why A caffeinated beverages mint and fried foods because they irritate the esphogas 0 What bene ts do we get from having a large intestine full of bacteria A the bacteria help maintain a healthy environment in your colon Some intestional bacteria break down undigested food residue others produce nutrients such as vitamin K certain B vitamins and some lipids Know what two types of uids circulate nutrients away from the GI tract after they have been absorbed Chapter 4 Carbohydrates and Diabetes Vocabulary carbohydrate simple carbohydrate complex carbohydrate monosaccharide disaccharide oligosaccharide polysaccharide starch glycogen dietary ber diverticular disease diverticulosis diverticulitis disaccharidase sucrase actase maltase lactose intolerance pancreatic Bcells hyperglycemia hypoglycemia pancreatic dcells insulin glucagon ketone ketogenesis diabetes mellitus type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes gestational diabetes insulindependent diabetes mellitus insulinindependent diabetes mellitus juvenileonset diabetes adultonset diabetes insulin resistance Additional concepts to study 0 Be able to list the important monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides What atoms are they made of What compose the disaccharides What are their dietary sources How are glycogen starch and dietary ber similardifferent What function does glycogen have in your body Where is it stored What function does starch have in plants Understand where and how disaccharides are digested Be able to explain why some people are lactose intolerant Who is at greatest risk What are the signs and symptoms How can they adjust their diets to decrease the negative outcomes 0 Which organ converts galactose and fructose to glucose And what does that organ do with the glucose it makes 0 How is blood glucose regulated What happens during hypoglycemia What about hyperglycemia What does insulin stimulate What does glucagon stimulate Know the basic causes of and risk factors for type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes What are their signs and symptoms How are these forms of diabetes treated What are the major health impacts of diabetes 0 Why is physical activity important in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes 0 Why is a reasonable amount of insulin resistance a part of quothealthyquot pregnancy What happens to when the level of insulin resistance gets out of control 0 What is secondary diabetes Bio 140 Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 69 Lipid an organic macronutrient that is relatively insoluble in water and relatively soluble in organic solvents Hydrophobic water fearing does not easily mix with water Oil a lipid that is liquid at room temperature Fat a lipid that is solid at room temperature Fatty acid most abundant type of lipid in the body and foods comprised of a chain of carbons with a methyl CH3 group on one end and carboxylic acid group on the other Alpha end the end of a fatty acid that contains a carboxylic acid group Omega end the end of a fatty acid that contains a methyl group Chain length the number of carbon atoms in a fatty acids backbone Shortchain fatty acid a fatty acid with fewer than 8 carbon atoms in its backbone Mediumchain fatty acid a fatty acid with 812 carbon atoms in its backbone Longchain fatty acid fatty acid with more than 12 carbon atoms in its backbone Saturated fatty acid SFA fatty acid that contains only carboncarbon single bonds in its backbone Unsaturated fatty acid fatty acid that contains at least one carboncarbon double bond in its backbone Monounsaturated fatty acid MUFA fatty acid that contains one carboncarbon double bond in its backone Polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA fatty acid that contains more than one carbon carbon double bond in its backbone Cis double bond a carboncarbon double bond in which the hydrogen atoms are positioned on the same side of the double bond Trans double bond a carboncarbon double bond in which hydrogen atoms are positioned on opposite sides of the double bond Trans fatty acid a fatty acid containing at least one trans double bond Partial hydrogenation a process by which oil is converted into solid fat by changing many of the carboncarbon double bonds into carboncarbon single bonds some trans fatty acids are also produced Omega3 fatty acid a fatty acid in which the rst double bond is located between the third and fourth carbons from the omega Omega6 fatty acid a fatty acid in which the rst double bond is located between the 6th and 7th carbons from the omega end Linoeic acid an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and 2 double bonds Linoenic acid an essential 3 fatty acid with 18 carbons and 3 double bonds Eicosanoid acid a diverse group of hormone like compounds that help regulate the immune and cardiovascular systems ad act as chemical messengers Monoglyceride a lipid comprised of one fatty acid attached to a glycerol backbone Diglyceride a lipid comprised of 2 fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone Triglyceride a lipid comprised of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone Lipogenesis the metabolic process by which fatty acids combine with glycerol to form triglycerides Lipolysis the metabolic process by which a triglycerides 3 fatty acids are removed from the glycerol backbone Boxidation the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to produce ATP Adipocyte a specialized cell found in adipose tissue that can accumulate large amounts of triglycerides Subcutaneous adipose tissue adipose tissue located directly under the skin Visceral adipose tissue adipose tissue located around the vital organs in the abdomen Lanugo very ne hair that grows as a physiological response to insufficient body fat Phospholipid a lipid composed of glycerol molecule bonded to 2 hydrophobic fatty acids and a hydrophilic head group Hydrophilic water loving mixes easily with water Head group a phosphatecontaining hydrophilic chemical structure that serves as component of a phosolipid Bio 140 Exam 4 study guide Triglyceride digestion lingual lipade gastric lipase pancreatic lipase phase 1 and phase 2 emulsi cation by bile circulation in blood and lymph chylomicra additional circulation via other lipoproteins VLDL LDL HDL quotgoodquot and quotbadquot cholesterol Effects of diet on HDL concentration What raises DL uncertain if lowcarbohydrate diets offer production High MUFA intake Moderate alcohol consumption Lifestyle factors exercise AMDR for lipids AMDR 2035 energy from lipid Dietary guidelines for American amp my plate Apple to peopegt 2 years of age Choose mostly PUFA39s and MUFA39s lean meats and poultry low far or fat free dairy products SFA lt 10 of kcal Trans fatty acids lt 1 kcal Cardiovascular disease leading cause of death in US disease of the heart or vascular system 2 types 1 Heart disease heart not receiving enough blood 2 Stroke brain does not receive enough blood Both can be caused by Atherosclerosis blood clots aneurysms Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty deposits of plaque form in lumen or walls of artery As plaque accumulates blood flow is reduced Plaque can break off causing white blood cells to enter tissue immune response amp in ammation of arterial wall Biggest risk factor for heart attack or stroke Heart disease Angina Pectoris heart receives suboptimal blood flow chest pain and discomfort symptom of heart abnormalities warning sign Heart attack myocardial infarction blood supply to heart is reduced or stopped Stroke portion of brain is deprived of oxygen amp crucial nutrients Possible effects speech impairment partial paralysis on one side of body can be fatal Transient ischemic attack TIA Warning sign for stroke quotmini strokequot blood ow to brain temporarily disrupted sudden numbness weakness confusion slurred speech dizziness loss of balance Controlling high blood pressure Hypertension high blood pressure Damages blood vessels Causes plaque to break away from arterial wall Risk Factors smoking obesity heavy alcohol consumption high sodium intake in quotsodium sensitivequot people DASH diet dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet Emphasizes fruits vegetables lowfat dairy food containing potassium calcium amp magnesium Encourages sodium excretion in urine lots of evidence that this works in salt sensitive people Blood lipid terms Hyperlipidemia high level of lipids in blood Hypertriglyceridemia high levels of triglycerides in blood Hypercholesterolemia high levels of cholesterol in blood All of these risk factors for cardiovascular disease Blood cholesterol amp Lipoproteins HDL quotgood cholesterolquot LDL quotbad cholesterolquot Cholesterol ratio divides total cholesterol by HDL Cholesterol Postabsorptive state Acute starvation prolonged starvation energy balance equation adipocytes hyperplastic vs hypertrophic growth appetite vs hunger safety factors related to energy expenditure thermic effect of food basal metabolism De ning overweight amp obesity Overweight excess weight for a given weight Obesity abundance of body fat Body mass index weight kghtm squared Assessing body composition Body compartments adipose tissue muscle water amp bone Amount determined by sex genetics physical activity hormones diet Recommended body fat levels males 1220 females 2030 Body fat distribution Android adiposity intraabdominal fat quotapple shapedquot higher risk for CVD type 2 hypertension Gynoid adiposity subcutaneous fat in thighs and hips quotpear shapedquot Obesity 65 of Americans overweight or obese Last 2 decades overweight children doubled overweight adolescents tripled Obesity cause lncrease energy intake average intake increased 300 kcal for adults eating away from home increased portion sizes Decrease in energy expenditure reduce in jobs requiring physical work increase in technology 60 of adults don39t get leisuretime physical activity Genetics Children with obese parents at higher risk Identical twin studies genetics largely determine body wt body wts of adopted children are not similar to adoptive parents Data suggests the body maintains a quotset pointquot for weight Set point theory factors circulating in blood communicate to the brain the amount of adipose tissue to be in body When adipose tissues decreases below quotset pointquot food intake increases energy expenditure decreases Roles of leptin amp insulin in quotset pointquot Leptin hormone made by adipose tissue body fat increases leptin increases body fat decreases leptin decreases may be a defect for individuals who are obese lnsulin hormone made in pancreas communicates adiposity to brain defect for individuals who are obese Eating to promote overall health and wellbeing Lifelong lifestyle changes Focus less on weight loss and more on eating healthy and overall tness Longterm weight maintains after weight loss Achieved by eating balanced diet and maintaining moderately high physical ach ylevel


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.