Social Psych Notes Unit One
Social Psych Notes Unit One 031:015
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Date Created: 02/01/15
OverviewResearch Designs amp Issues 01232014 Psychology science of behavior and mind Points of Emphasis Behavior Mental Processes Scienti c Inquiry Unique emphasis on social context social psych Socia psychology de ned as quotthe scienti c study of how people s thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uenced by other peoplequot Aso de ned as quotan attempt to understand and explain how the thought feeling and behavior of individuals are in uenced by the actual imagined or implied presence of othersquot How do other people in uence us How do we in uence them Domain of Social Psychology Aron amp Aron 1989 Tackles big issues if any question is worth debating it s worth studying scienti cally Emphasizes social in uence how do others in uence us 0 Taking someone out of their social network will change them 0 Is everywhere 0 Advertisements people trying to persuade social norms Emphasizes Qerceived reality 0 Same situation can be experienced differently by two people 0 Is about research Roadmap for Methods Section Some of the initial steps of a social psych research project a Different research designs used by social psychologists Generalizability and why it s important for social psych research 0 Different types of bias in research Initial Steps ypotheses researchers predictions of what they ll nd NOT a ques on Variables 0 Core Assumptions 0 Conceptual De nitions what you re interested in Focused on concept in a more abstract form de ne variables of what they are and what they re not 0 Operational De nitions de nes the variable in terms of how you re going to measure it Very speci c research designs Has to be appropriate for the conceptual de nition Research Designs Descriptive Methods measures or records behaviors thoughts feelings in natural state 0 Different types are covered thoroughly in text 0 Naturalistic observation archives psychological tests surveys case study 0 Case study Through description of a single individual or group Best for examining rare or special cases No way of knowing if results generalize Used to stimulate additional research several case studies can lead to a pattern to be tested through other means Experimental Methods Manipulations and measurements only methods that can give you causal explanations Overview Assemble a sample representative of overall group you want to represent 0 Random assignments to groups has to be random to balance any other factor only difference between groups should be what you re manipulating Examples age sex height etc o Manipulate experience giving people different drugs giving groups placebo drugs etc Confounding variables Record behavior Causal conclusion 0 Variables Independent variable what is changed Dependent variable what is measured based upon what you change Ex symptoms after changing a drug 0 AN EXPERIMENT MUST HAVE 0 Manipulation 0 Measured outcome 0 Random assignment Correlational Methods 0 Measurement but no manipulation Yields information about association 0 N0 causal interpretations Correlation does not imply causation 0 Reverse causation does A cause B or does B cause A OO 0 Third variable causation C could cause both A and B 0 Correlation coefficient Mathematical estimate with a range from 1 to 1 Prediction how accurately you can predict one variable from O O O 0 another Magnitude how close is the value to 1 or 1 Positive vs negative Both increasingdecreasing or is one increasing while the other decreases Quasiexperiments Combination of lots of designs Manipulation 0 Something is manipulated Lacks true random assignment 0 Subject variable 0 Additional variable that you can t manipulate because it s unethical or impossible ex people who have a certain illness Plotting Independent Variables Interaction Effect biological sex height etc Level One Level Two Level One IV IV Level Two IV IV Two different independent variables with two different levels to create 4 independent variables ex number of people at a party few many and music level high low DV enjoyment of party Generalizability De ned as an inference about typical behavior based on the outcome of a single sample 0 Study of Social Psych Articles Sears 1986 o Undergraduate students Conclusions n Persuasion easily persuaded a Social identity I Cognitive mindset n Egocentnc Bias Experimenter Bias when an experimenter s expectations for how the data will turn out in uences the responses of the research participants 0 Study of Exp Bias Rosenthal 1966 httppsychwiscedubraun281lntelligenceLabellingEffectshtm 0 Method IV DV Results Mechanism 0 Reduction 0 Standardize o Blinds singleblind doubleblind Keeping people unaware of details of the experiment Single blind participants don t know what condition they re in Double blind participants AND experimenter doesn t know what condition they re in o Switches One experimenter actually doing the manipulation knowing conditions and another experimenter records the data doesn t know conditions Subject Bias when the responses of the research participants are in uenced by their own expectations about how they should act during a study 0 Demand Characteristics Inadvertently provided cues that in uence how research participants behave Minimizing demand characteristics 0 Deception lying to the participants leaving out details tell them the study is measuring something else 0 Nonreactive measures something subtle they don t realize that you re collecting data SOCIAL COGNITION Cognition quotact and process of knowing including both awareness and judgmentquot Webster s dictionary Social Cognition quotmanner in which we interpret analyze remember and use information about the social worldquot Baron amp Byrne 1997 awareness of social norms our though processes that in uence our behavior 0 our expectations in uence how we remember situations Components of Social Thought Schemas Schema quotmental frameworks containing information relevant to speci c situations or events which once established help us interpret those eventsquot 1 Importance a In uence our behavior 2 Development a Develop from our own rsthand experience and through communication with other people 3 Characteristics a Some are new amp underdeveloped and some are welldeveloped 4 Lack of conscious awareness a We re not thinking about these in our everyday life Types of Schemas Person schemas 0 Suggest that certain traits go together so if a person has a trait they might be seen as a certain type of person 0 Role schemas o How people with certain roles should act or what they re normally like emperor l should sit on a throne shouldn t be scrubbing the oor 0 Event schemas also called scripts o How certain events are supposed to play out going to dentist l we expect to lay down and open our mouth De nitions 0 Attention o What are we paying attention to what do we notice 0 Encoding o Storing the information o Retrieval 0 Getting the information out of memory remembering Impacts of Schemas Effects of schemas on attention 0 We re more likely to notice things that violate our schemas Effects of schemas on encoding o Cueing characteristics 0 We tend to seek out and store things that con rm our expectations but we ll remember strange things too 0 Between group variability how groups are different We usually maximize this 0 Within group variability how members of a group are different We usually minimize this 0 Effects of schemas on retrieval 0 Superior recall for both consistent and inconsistent info 0 Relative memorability a function of motivation amp capacity 0 Inconsistent info may have little impact on ourjudgment 0 When inconsistent information has the advantage 0 Weak schemas if it s a new schema the inconsistent information can in uence the schema more 0 Experts someone that has a very well developed schema inconsistent info might make them think about what went wrong 0 Time amp motivation need the time and motivation to evaluate Prototypes Prototype quotmental models of the typical qualities of members of some group or categoryquot 0 Trying to categorize a person based on a prototype we have 0 Example 0 Prototype for a heart attack victim male so we re not quick to conclude that a woman may be having a heart attack Heuristics Shortcuts in Social Cognition Cognitive Miser Principle 0 Cognitive resources are limited 0 Therefore we exert as little effort as possible in thinking about social environment Representativeness Heuristic judging by similarity The more similar that someone is like a normal member of a group the more likely they belong to that group 0 Accuracy 0 Most of the time it s accurate 0 Sometimes leads to an incorrect observation 0 Empirical example Tversky amp Kahneman 1973 Tendency to look over base rates Availability Heuristic judging by case of recall 0 How easy it to bring something to mind 0 The easier it is to recall something the more prevalentimportant it seems to be 0 Accuracy 0 Most of the time it s accurate 0 Priming 0 When something is made more available in your mind when you re exposed to something Srull amp Wyer 1979 Introduction Accessible cognitions are used Situations are ambiguous can be interpreted a variety of ways Activated concepts in uence encoding of subsequent information quotTrait schemasquot Method 0 Purpose 0 Study 1 Hostility primes 0 Study 2 Kindness primes Participants 0 Study 1 amp 2 96 undergraduates Procedures 0 Task 1 Work comprehension task 0 Task 2 Interpret Donald s ambiguous behavior Independent Variables 0 Number of items 30 vs 60 0 Proportion of relevant items 20 vs 80 0 Delay 1 hr vs 24 hrs 0 2 x 2 x 2 between subjects design 1 HOUR DELAY 24 HOUR DELAY items items 30 60 30 60 relevant items items relevant items items 20 20 80 80 Dependent Variables o Descriptively related traits ones that were actually related to hostility o Evaluatively related traits goodbad qualities Ex sel sh boring etc Resu s 0 Preliminary results 0 Hostility index more hostility primes thought Donald was more hostile o Unfavorable index assumed that if Donald had one bad quality he has more bad qualities How does the social perceiver use information to arrive at causal explanations for events Why do people make causal attributions We try to gure out how things occur and what causes different things so we can make them happen ourselves De nitions Causal to imply that one thing is causing another Attribution to regard as resulting from Disposition personality traits type of person someone is externalinternal Inference to derive a conclusion from one s judgment or reasoning Heider39s Theory 0 Common Sense PsychologyNaive Psychology 0 People try to gure things out but they re na39I39ve about it 0 Ordinary person is always trying to make sense of things 0 Common events How do people think about common everyday events What does that tell you about the personsituation 0 Importance Behavioral implications n Whether they re accurate or not these common sense beliefs guide our behavior Resource n Valuable resource for scienti c psychologists Central Ideas 0 Psychological Importance What is important psychologically How the perceiver interprets and experiences the target 0 Locus of causality Dispositional characteristics a More emphasized Someone did this because of the type of person that they are Situational factors n External perceivers tend to ignore situational factors 0 Intentionality Intentional events tell you more about unintentional ones 0 Legacy laying out features for other people to explore more Laid out key aspects of attribution theory Kelley39s Contributions What information is used to arrive at a causal attribution Two formulations o Covariation Situations where people have access to several similar instances of that event 0 Con guration Causal Schema When people only have that single event CoVariation multiple events scenario 0 Observed cooccurrence of two events We tend to attribute event to cause with which it most closely covaries o 3 Dimensions Distinctiveness a Is the effect distinct to this entity Consistency a Does the effect always occur when this entity is present Consensus a Do others experience the same effect in regard to this entity 0 We prefer consistency information rather than distinctiveness information and consensus information is rarely used 0 Con guration single event scenario 0 Discounting Principle When there are several potential causes for an outcome you ll discount any one of those causes 0 Augmentation Principle Succeeding despite the factors going against you Ex Michael Jordan played great despite having the u o Causal Schema A conception someone has about how certain types of causes interact to create an effect Conclusion Normative theories 0 Ideal situation how we should make causation Points of convergence between two theories 0 Both highlight cognitive process that occurs between stimulus amp response 0 Both have the social perceiver playing an active role Attributional Errors 0 Error Mistake 0 Error Bias 0 Systematic deviation from what s rational Fundamental Attribution Error Marked tendency to attribute another s behavior to hisher dispositional qualities rather than situational factors 0 You assume that someone does something because of who they are not because of the situation 0 Textbook l correspondence bias 0 Empirical Illustration Jones amp Harris 1967 Castro Study 0 Procedure read pro or antiCastro essay 0 Independent variable choice vs nochoice that writers had on essay topic 0 Dependent variable rated attitudes of essay writer pro or antiCastro 0 Results Even though one group had no choice on what they had to write about the respondents still rated the proCastro s attitudes lower than the antiCastro o Origins 0 Behavior engulfs the eld When you watch an event you re watching a person do something engaging in a behavior 0 Automatic outcome Occurs without intenteffort Not always l Children talk about what s happening describe what they re observing Nonwestern cultures this is less dominant in non western cultures Individual differences people are different observe things differently Is it really an error 0 Efficient o Situationspeci c vs Crosssituational attributions ActorObserver Effect 0 The tendency to explain others behavior in dispositional terms but one s own identical behavior as the consequences of situational or other unstable factors 0 Related to but not the same as the FAE o Origins 0 Ability to visualize Others behavior engulfs the eld ours doesn t 0 Types of available information Actors and observers have different types of info available to them Actors know feelings amp intentions and observers only know what they see Reversals When does the AO effect reverse itself 0 Valued outcomes Depends if it s positive or negative behavior 0 Real dispositions Strong traits l if someone has a soft heart for animals amp she saves an injured kitten o Empathy set instructions 0 Visual orientation Storms 1973 Who am I I am an eighteen year old female from Wisconsin who loves her family I m majoring in prebusiness and I m excited about my future I m taish have brown hair blue eyes and white skin The Nature of the Self Importance everything that we consciously decide to do is related to what kind of person we think we are Aspects 0 Self Concept set of thoughts amp beliefs that de ne who people think they are 0 Global SelfEsteem the overall positivenegative value that a person places on themselves 0 Speci c Competencies how competent are we in speci c domains of our lives selfef cacy Models of the Self o WilliamJames I vs Me l actor in the present moment consciousness of sensations Me object of awareness what is known Three aspects of quotmequot a Material self anything that has physical qualities body clothing possessions important people to you a Social self the awareness of the self as you think others see you how does roommate see you Parents Teacher a Spiritual self all beliefs and attitudes o Markus Knowledge systemnetwork of information Information guides our perception our processing and how we integrate that information into memoryexperience o Greenwald amp Pratkanis Used a computer metaphor The I represents the computer s program and the quotmequot represents the data stored in the computer s memory 0 Stable vs Unstable Aspects of SelfConcept o Unstable when different things are brought to knowledge at different time 0 Stable something that s salient Ulowa student Origins of the SelfConcept Reactions of others toward self 0 Re ected Appraisal Looking glass self Positive correlations multiple people see you this way lnaccuracies people hide negative evaluations 0 Direct Feedback when people directly tell us what they think about us 0 Social Comparison Festinger 1954 Objective standards a Comparing ourselves to other people Similar other special status They set up a scenario where people were forced to make a social comparison Placed an ad in a newspaper for a parttime job Given questionnaires someone else comes in the room and lls them out as well confederate U Got two measures of selfesteem it changed after confederate came in Two independent variables a Confederate s appearance Mr CleanMr Dirty n Application same jobdifferent job Dependent variable selfesteem measure a Application change didn t effect selfesteem 0 Temporal Comparisons How we compare ourselves to our past selves lsn t always accurate we may distort info or not remember 0 Selfperception Bem What kind of person you think you are Looking back at your own behaviors Preferred SelfConcepts Motivations Consistency l we have a preference for this 0 Negative selfconcepts want consistency even with these 0 Adaptive and functional easier to predict things Exceptions o Noncentral aspects aspects that aren t critical to who you are 0 Important events asking quotwho am Iquot what am I doing herequot Self Enhancement Downward social comparison someone lesser than you 0 Find someone worse off to feel better about yourself 0 Motive feel good about yourself 0 Wood Taylor amp Lichtman 1985 Comparisons in a hospital coping w their illness Selfevaluation maintenance Tesser amp Campbell 1983 o BlRGing Basking ln Re ective Glory take advantage of the positive characteristics of people around you sports teams l we won vs they lost 0 Response to overlap When someone is good at the same things that you are How people respond to this overlap a Work harder outperform their friend a Distance themselves from the friendship I Interfere with the friend s performance a Divert their focus to another stronger area 0 Empirical evidence 0 False consensus amp false uniqueness o Consensus belief that most people think amp act like you do creates a sense of social support Comes out w negative traits smoking 0 Uniqueness belief that a positive trait is unique to that one person Consistency vs Enhancement 0 Cognitive reactions based on consistency motive Emotional reactions based on selfenhancing motive ABC model Affect Behavior Cognition o 3 aspects in uence each other but can also act independenUy Self Presentation De nition process through which someone manipulates selfimage and behavior in order to project a certain impression of self to others Motives 0 Immediate gain you want to please people immediately 0 Projection of ideal self 0 Strategies to maintain power amp control other people 0 Intimidation Try to arouse fear in other people threats anger o Exempli cation Trying to be a social model others look up to you 0 Supplication Appear to be helpless so others help you 0 Selfpromotion Trying to appear competent to earn respect from others Actually performing something then broadcasting it o lngratiation Schmoozing Say what s necessary to be liked by others Can back re Godfrey Jones amp Lord 1986 0 Wanted to know how behavior changes depending on whether they want to ingratiate or selfpromote 0 IV instructions to participants Some were told to get another person to like them I These people used ingratiation Others told to get people to respect them a Used selfpromotion
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