HIST 22 and 23
HIST 22 and 23 HIST 1113
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Date Created: 04/04/16
I. Fighting World War II A. Good Neighbors 1. FDR embarked on a number of departures in foreign policy. 1. Soviet Union 2. Latin America B. The Road to War a. Japan had expanded its reach in Manchuria and China by the mid-1930s. b. Germany embarked on a campaign to control the entire continent. 1. Benito Mussolini 2. General Francisco Franco b. Although Roosevelt was alarmed, he was tied to the policy of appeasement. B. Isolationism a. American businesspeople did not wish to give up profitable overseas markets in Germany and Japan. b. Many Americans were reluctant to get involved in international affairs because of the legacy of World War I. c. Congress favored isolationism, as seen with various Neutrality Acts. C. War in Europe a. Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. 1. Blitzkrieg appeared unstoppable. b. For nearly two years, Britain stood virtually alone in fighting Germany. 1. Battle of Britain B. Toward Intervention a. In 1940, breaking with a tradition that dated back to George Washington, Roosevelt announced his candidacy for a third term as president. b. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 and froze Japanese assets. C. Pearl Harbor a. On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes, launched from aircraft carriers, bombed the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. b. FDR asked for a declaration of war against Japan. D. The War in the Pacific a. The first few months of American involvement witnessed an unbroken string of military disasters. b. The tide turned with the battles at Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942. E. The War in Europe a. D-Day established the much needed second front in western Europe. b. The crucial fighting in Europe took place on the eastern front between Germany and the Soviet Union. 1. Stalingrad marked the turning point. b. The war claimed millions of lives. 1. Holocaust II. The Home Front A. Mobilizing for War a. World War II transformed the role of the national government. b. The government built housing for war workers and forced civilian industries to retool for war production. B. Business and the War a. Americans produced an astonishing amount of wartime goods and utilized science and technology. b. The West Coast emerged as a focus of military-industrial production. 1. Nearly 2 million Americans moved to California for jobs in defense-related industries. b. The South remained very poor when the war ended. B. Labor in Wartime a. Organized labor entered a three-sided arrangement with government and business that allowed union membership to soar to unprecedented levels. b. Unions became firmly established in many sectors of the economy during World War II. C. Fighting for the Four Freedoms a. To Roosevelt, the Four Freedoms expressed deeply held American values worthy of being spread worldwide. b. Roosevelt initially meant the phrase to refer to the elimination of barriers to international trade. 1. It came to mean protecting the standard of living from falling after the war. B. The Fifth Freedom a. The war witnessed a burst of messages marketing advertisers' definition of freedom. 1. Free enterprise B. Women at War a. Women in 1944 made up over one-third of the civilian labor force. b. New opportunities opened up for married women and mothers. c. Women's work during the war was viewed by men and the government as temporary. d. The advertisers' "world of tomorrow" rested on a vision of family-centered prosperity. II. Visions of Postwar Freedom A. Toward an American Century a. Henry Luce insisted that the United States embrace a leadership role in his 1941 book The American Century. b. Henry Wallace offered a less imperialistic alternative. c. Luce and Wallace both spoke about a new conception of America's role in the world. B. "The Way of Life of Free Men" a. The National Resources Planning Board offered a blueprint for a peacetime economy based on: 1. Full employment 2. An expanded welfare state 3. A widely shared American standard of living b. FDR called for an Economic Bill of Rights in 1944. c. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act, or GI Bill of Rights, was one of the most far-reaching pieces of social legislation in American history. B. The Road to Serfdom a. Hayek's The Road to Serfdom (1944) 1. Offered a new intellectual justification for opponents of active government. 2. Helped lay the foundation for the rise of modern conservatism. II. The American Dilemma A. Patriotic Assimilation a. World War II created a vast melting pot, especially for European immigrants and their children. b. By the war's end, racism and nativism had been stripped of intellectual respectability. 1. Ruth Benedict B. The Bracero Program a. The war had a far more ambiguous meaning for nonwhites than for whites. b. The bracero program allowed tens of thousands of contract laborers to cross into the United States to take up jobs as domestic and agricultural workers. c. "Zoot suit" riots d. Mexican-Americans brought complaints of discrimination before the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC). C. Indians during the War a. American Indians served in the army. 1. The Iroquois issued a declaration of war against the Axis powers. 2. "Code talkers." B. Asian-Americans in Wartime a. Asian-Americans' war experience was filled with paradox. b. Chinese exclusion was abolished. c. The American government viewed every person of Japanese ethnicity as a potential spy. C. Japanese-American Internment a. The military persuaded FDR to issue Executive Order 9066. b. Internment revealed how easily war can undermine basic freedoms. 1. Hardly anyone spoke out against internment. b. The courts refused to intervene. 1. Korematsu v. United States (1944) b. The government marketed war bonds to the internees and drafted them into the army. B. Blacks and the War a. The wartime message of freedom portended a major transformation in the status of blacks. b. The war spurred a movement of the black population from the rural South to the cities of the North and West. 1. Detroit race riot B. Blacks and Military Service a. During the war, over 1 million blacks served in the armed forces. b. Black soldiers sometimes had to give up their seats on railroad cars to accommodate Nazi prisoners of war. C. Birth of the Civil Rights Movement a. The war years witnessed the birth of the modern civil rights movement. b. In July 1941, the black labor leader A. Philip Randolph called for a March on Washington. 1. Executive Order 8802 and FEPC B. The Double-V a. The "double-V" meant that victory over Germany and Japan must be accompanied by victory over segregation at home. C. The War and Race a. During the war, a broad political coalition centered on the left, but reaching well beyond it called for an end to racial inequality in America. b. CIO unions made significant efforts to organize black workers and to win them access to skilled positions. c. The new lack of militancy created a crisis for moderate white southerners. d. The South reacted to preserve white supremacy. D. An American Dilemma a. An American Dilemma (1944) was a sprawling account of the country's racial past, present, and future. 1. Gunnar Myrdal b. Myrdal noted the conflict between American values and American racial polices. 1. America had to outlaw discrimination. B. Black Internationalism a. In the first decades of the twentieth century, a black international consciousness was reinvigorated. b. W. E. B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson, and others developed an outlook that linked the plight of black Americans with that of people of color worldwide. c. World War II stimulated among African-Americans a greater awareness of the links between racism in the United States and colonialism abroad. II. The End of the War A. "The Most Terrible Weapon" a. One of the most momentous decisions ever confronted by an American president-whether to use the bomb on Japan-fell to Harry Truman. b. The atomic bomb was a practical realization of the theory of relativity. c. The Manhattan Project developed an atomic bomb. B. The Dawn of the Atomic Age a. On August 6, 1945, an American plane dropped an atomic bomb that detonated over Hiroshima, Japan. b. Because of the enormous cost in civilian lives, the use of the bomb remains controversial. C. The Nature of War a. The dropping of the atomic bombs was the logical culmination of the way World War II had been fought: never before had civilian populations been so targeted in a war. D. Planning the Postwar World a. Even as the war raged, a series of meetings between Allied leaders formulated plans for the postwar world. 1. Tehran 2. Yalta 3. Potsdam B. Yalta and Bretton Woods a. The Bretton Woods meeting established a new international economic system. C. The United Nations a. The Dumbarton Oaks meeting established the structure of the United Nations. 1. General Assembly 2. Security Council B. Peace, but not Harmony a. World War II produced a radical redistribution of world power. b. It remained to be seen how seriously the victorious Allies took their wartime rhetoric of freedom. 1. Mahatma Gandhi Chapter 23 I. Origins of the Cold War A. The Two Powers 1. The United States emerged from World War II as by far the world's greatest power. 2. The only power that in any way could rival the United States was the Soviet Union. B. The Roots of Containment 1. It seems all but inevitable that the two major powers to emerge from the war would come into conflict. 2. The Long Telegram advised the Truman administration that the Soviets could not be dealt with as a normal government. 1. Containment 2. Iron Curtain speech B. The Truman Doctrine a. Truman soon determined to put the policy of containment into effect. b. To rally popular backing for Greece and Turkey, Truman rolled out the heaviest weapon in his rhetorical arsenal-the defense of freedom. c. The Truman Doctrine created the language through which most Americans came to understand the postwar world. C. The Marshall Plan a. George Marshall pledged the United States to contribute billions of dollars to finance the economic recovery of Europe. b. The Marshall Plan offered a positive vision to go along with containment. c. The Marshall Plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history. D. The Reconstruction of Japan a. Under the guidance of General Douglas MacArthur, the "supreme commander" in Japan until 1948, that country adopted a new, democratic constitution. b. The United States also oversaw the economic reconstruction of Japan. E. The Berlin Blockade and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) a. In 1948, the Soviets cut off road and rail traffic from the American, British, and French zones of occupied Germany to Berlin. 1. An eleven-month Allied airlift followed. b. In 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb. c. NATO pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attack. 1. Warsaw Pact B. The Growing Communist Challenge a. Communists won the civil war in China in 1949. b. In the wake of these events, the National Security Council approved a call for a permanent military buildup to enable the United States to pursue a global crusade against communism. 1. NSC-68 B. The Korean War a. In June 1950, the North Korean army invaded the south, hoping to reunify the country under communist control. b. American troops did the bulk of the fighting on this first battlefield of the Cold War. 1. General Douglas MacArthur B. Cold War Critics a. Casting the Cold War in terms of a worldwide battle between freedom and slavery had unfortunate consequences. b. Walter Lippmann objected to turning foreign policy into an "ideological crusade." C. Imperialism and Decolonization a. Many movements for colonial independence borrowed the language of the American Declaration of Independence in demanding the right to self- government. II. The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom A. Among other things, the Cold War was an ideological struggle, a battle, in a popular phrase of the 1950s, for the "hearts and minds" of people throughout the world. B. One of the more unusual Cold War battlefields involved American history and culture. C. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) emerged as unlikely patrons of the arts. D. Freedom and Totalitarianism a. Along with freedom, the Cold War's other great mobilizing concept was totalitarianism. b. Just as the conflict over slavery redefined American freedom in the nineteenth century, and the confrontation with the Nazis shaped understandings of freedom during World War II, the Cold War reshaped them once again. E. The Rise of Human Rights a. The idea that rights exist applicable to all members of the human family originated during the eighteenth century in the Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions. b. In 1948, the UN General Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. F. Ambiguities of Human Rights a. Debates over the Universal Declaration of Human Rights revealed the tensions inherent in the idea of human rights. b. After the Cold War ended, the idea of human rights would play an increasingly prominent role in world affairs. II. The Truman Presidency A. The Fair Deal a. Truman's first domestic task was to preside over the transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy. b. He moved to revive the stalled momentum of the New Deal. B. The Postwar Strike Wave a. The AFL and CIO launched Operation Dixie, a campaign to bring unionization to the South. b. Nearly 5 million workers went on strike. C. The Republican Resurgence a. Republicans swept to control both houses of Congress in 1946. b. Congress turned aside Truman's Fair Deal program. 1. Taft-Hartley Act B. Postwar Civil Rights a. Immediately after the war, the status of black Americans enjoyed a prominence in national affairs unmatched since Reconstruction. b. The Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 added Jackie Robinson to their team. C. To Secure These Rights a. A Commission on Civil Rights appointed by the president issued To Secure These Rights. 1. It called on the federal government to abolish segregation and discrimination. b. In 1948, Truman presented an ambitious civil rights program to Congress. 1. Truman desegregated the armed forces. b. The Democratic platform of 1948 was the most progressive in the party's history. B. The Dixiecrat and Wallace Revolts a. Dixiecrats formed the States' Rights party. 1. Strom Thurmond b. A group of left-wing critics of Truman's foreign policy formed the Progressive Party. 1. Henry Wallace b. Truman's main opponent was the Republican Thomas A. Dewey. c. Truman's success represented one of the greatest upsets in American political history. II. The Anticommunist Crusade A. The Cold War encouraged a culture of secrecy and dishonesty. B. At precisely the moment when the United States celebrated freedom as the foundation of American life, the right to dissent came under attack. a. Loyalty and Disloyalty 1. Those who could be linked to communism were considered enemies of freedom. 2. HUAC hearings against Hollywood began in 1947. b. The Spy Trials 1. HUAC investigated Alger Hiss. 2. The Rosenburgs were convicted of spying and executed in 1953. b. McCarthy and McCarthyism 1. Senator Joseph McCarthy announced in 1950 that he had a list of 205 communists working for the State Department. 2. McCarthy's downfall came with the nationally televised Army- McCarthy hearings in 1954. b. An Atmosphere of Fear 1. Anticommunism was as much a local as a national phenomenon. 2. Local anticommunist groups forced public libraries to remove "un-American" books from their shelves. b. The Uses of Anticommunism 1. Anticommunism had many faces and purposes. 2. Anticommunism also served as a weapon wielded by individuals and groups in battles unrelated to defending the United States against subversion. b. Anticommunist Politics 1. The McCarran Internal Security Bill of 1950 2. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 3. Organized labor rid itself of its left-wing officials and emerged as a major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold War. b. Cold War Civil Rights 1. The civil rights movement also underwent a transformation. 1. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) purged communists from local branches. 2. The Cold War caused a shift in thinking and tactics among civil rights groups. 3. Dean Acheson's speech on aiding "free peoples"was addressed to the Delta Council; it was was filled with unintended irony, as the Delta's citizens were denied the very liberties of which he spoke. 4. After 1948, little came of the Truman administration's civil rights flurry, but time would reveal that the waning of the civil rights impulse was only temporary.
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