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zoology- mitosis, meiosis

by: Adrianna Elbon

zoology- mitosis, meiosis BIOL 1114, 001

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > BIOL 1114, 001 > zoology mitosis meiosis
Adrianna Elbon
GPA 3.48

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Intro to zoology
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Monday April 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
ZOO EXAM STUDY GUIDE­Genetics, stem cells, cancer cells,  metastasis (Mitosis and Meiosis)  DNA replication, mitosis, cancer ­mutations can be induced by the following: ­UV radiation ­many chemicals (those found in cigarettes) ­radioactive radiation ­chronic inflammation ­errors can occur during DNA replication ­errors can occur during the production of eggs and sperm  Apoptosis­ programmed cell death   Mitosis­ nucleus divides ­DNA must replicated before mitosis begins  Meiosis­ production of gametes (.5 DNA=sperm or egg,  together =1)  ­cell cycle controls=traffic signs ­cancer cells ignore these signs ­metastasis= when cancer goes motile (mobile, moves within the  body)  zygote ­fertilized egg ­ mitosis has many roles: growth, repair, regeneration, and  reproduction (asexual) ­Mitosis and Apoptosis work together to be successful  DNA replication­ each daughter cell has identical DNA ­During DNA replication, both strands split and serve as template  strands simultaneously to produce new. It can begin (occur) at  multiple points of origin.  ­First the helicase unwinds the double helix ­binding proteins then stabilize each strand (holds them apart) ­primase then adds RNA to the DNA template ­DNA polymerase recognizes the primers and makes new  complementary DNA ­Ligase fills in the gaps *** nucleotides are only added to the 3’ end  ­strands grow opposite of each other ­the leading strand is the one that follows directly behind the helicase  as it originally unwinds ­the lagging strand is the opposite strand (it is made up of Okazaki  fragments) YOUTUBE Okazaki fragments and it is super helpful!!!  Genome­ all of the cell's genetic material (has over 3 billion  base pairs)  Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission, binary fission­ an  asexual process that replicates DNA and distributes it to 2  daughter cells.   Eukaryotes must duplicated the nucleus before dividing.  AFTER replication, DNA condenses into chromosomes before  cell division.  Nucleosome coils=chromatin  Highly compact chromatin forms a chromosome!  Sister chromatids= identical chromosomes after replication  Centromere­ structured region of a chromosome MITOSIS­­  Prophase  Prometaphase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase   Interphase (must occur before the others)  I remember this by the phrase “PMAT”   Interphase has 3 parts­ G1, S, G2 (G0 is a thing, but that  means the cell got kicked out of the mitosis process)  Interphase­ growth occurs, double up on genetic material, and  cytoplasmic components   G1 phase­ (after splitting) (it grows), protein synthesis occurs as well as normal cell function.   G0 phase (normal)  S phase­ DNA replication  G2 phase­ getting ready for mitosis, producing proteins needed  for mitosis  Mitosis is the division of the nucleus but cytokinesis is the  actual division of the cell *** (an unwound chromosome becomes replicated chromosome,  centromere holds together until it splits during anaphase)   Chromosomes line up at the cell equator during metaphase  Cytoskeleton­­ network of protein tracks/tubules   Microfilaments are made up of actin subunits (17 nm) ­contractile rings and mitotic spindle fibers are examples of  microfilaments ­a contractile ring form the cleavage furrow ­a cleavage furrow is the original indentation when the cell is  about to undergo cytokinesis   Microtubules are made up of tubulin subunits (23 nm) ­flagella and cilia are examples of microtubules  ­centrosomes are the organization center for microtubules   Intermediate filaments are made up of protein subunits (10 nm) ­Cell adhesion proteins hold cells together ­anchoring junctions ­tight junctions ­gap junctions  Why tumors arise: ­over active proto­oncogenes  ­under active tumor suppressor genes  ­(GOOGLE THE P53 gene)  Apoptosis  1. Eliminates excess cells (carves away things, such as the  webbed feet on a duck are not on a chicken. Apoptosis carved  it away) 2. Weeds out old or defective cells  Cancer cells: 1. Ignore mitotic checkpoints 2. Overactive oncogenes 3. Under Active tumor suppressor genes  4. Ignore apoptotic signals 5. Ignore contact inhibition 6. High telomerase activity (making cells immortal) 7. Lose adherence to others (metastasis) 8. Ignore other cell signals  Sexual reproduction ­mitosis=diploid (2n) ­meiosis= diploid cell (2n) ­diploid=(homologous pair of chromosomes) diploid cells contain  pairs ­23 pairs =46 chromosomes blue=dad. red=mom.  ­we have 22 autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes ­Alleles are alternative versions of the same type of gene. ** after DNA replication we have sister chromatids ­gametes (sperm or an egg cell) are haploid cells ­have only 1 set of chromosomes each ­23 single chromosomes each ­when sperm and egg meet, it becomes a zygote. Meiosis: 1. Halves the chromosomes(after replication there are 92 single  chromosomes)  2. Scrambles alleles ­DNA replication happens once but the nucleus divides twice during  meiosis (mitosis=everything happens once) Meiosis creates variability because of crossing over (prophase 1) and independent assortment (metaphase 1)  Independent assortment: chromosome pairs align randomly  along the cell equator ­If pairs fail to separate it causes nondisjunction ­An extra chromosome causes down syndrome  Cloning:  Cloning creates an exact copy 1. During step 1 of cloning (Dolly) they took a somatic cell’s  nucleus  2. Got the egg nucleus 3. Cloned dolly by pairing the 2 together DNA technology­ copies cells/organisms DNA medicine­ genetic diagnosis, gene therapy ** a 4 day old embryonic stem cell has all of its genes turned on ­pluripotent=stem cells that can be all different (embryonic) ­adult stem cells:  Less controversial  Less chance for rejection  Differentiate into a limited number of cell types  ­multipotent: multiple cell types but not all ­totipotent: anything, harvested before it becomes an embryo (before  day 4)  ­cord blood banking: getting your umbilical cord blood harvested (in a  test tube) ­IFV (in vitro fertilization) (in a test tube) ­Synthesized DNA probes: ­single stranded short sequence ­complementary to a known region of DNA such as a cystic fibrosis  allele  ­”glows in the dark” ­PDG:preimplantation genetic diagnosis  1. IVF 2. Take 1 cell @ 8 cell stage 3. Apply DNA probes 4. Discard zygotes that are positive for any given disease ­Cystic fibrosis is caused when a person has a defective chloride  channel protein ­gene editing: CRISPR/CAS9 gene editor  Can target any gene  Can totally cut out a gene  A new gene can be added ­ethical issues ^^­  Only for the wealthy  Prescreening  Health insurance eligibility  Gene doping  Discrimination 


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