zoology- mitosis, meiosis
zoology- mitosis, meiosis BIOL 1114, 001
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Monday April 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
ZOO EXAM STUDY GUIDEGenetics, stem cells, cancer cells, metastasis (Mitosis and Meiosis) DNA replication, mitosis, cancer mutations can be induced by the following: UV radiation many chemicals (those found in cigarettes) radioactive radiation chronic inflammation errors can occur during DNA replication errors can occur during the production of eggs and sperm Apoptosis programmed cell death Mitosis nucleus divides DNA must replicated before mitosis begins Meiosis production of gametes (.5 DNA=sperm or egg, together =1) cell cycle controls=traffic signs cancer cells ignore these signs metastasis= when cancer goes motile (mobile, moves within the body) zygote fertilized egg mitosis has many roles: growth, repair, regeneration, and reproduction (asexual) Mitosis and Apoptosis work together to be successful DNA replication each daughter cell has identical DNA During DNA replication, both strands split and serve as template strands simultaneously to produce new. It can begin (occur) at multiple points of origin. First the helicase unwinds the double helix binding proteins then stabilize each strand (holds them apart) primase then adds RNA to the DNA template DNA polymerase recognizes the primers and makes new complementary DNA Ligase fills in the gaps *** nucleotides are only added to the 3’ end strands grow opposite of each other the leading strand is the one that follows directly behind the helicase as it originally unwinds the lagging strand is the opposite strand (it is made up of Okazaki fragments) YOUTUBE Okazaki fragments and it is super helpful!!! Genome all of the cell's genetic material (has over 3 billion base pairs) Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission, binary fission an asexual process that replicates DNA and distributes it to 2 daughter cells. Eukaryotes must duplicated the nucleus before dividing. AFTER replication, DNA condenses into chromosomes before cell division. Nucleosome coils=chromatin Highly compact chromatin forms a chromosome! Sister chromatids= identical chromosomes after replication Centromere structured region of a chromosome MITOSIS Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase (must occur before the others) I remember this by the phrase “PMAT” Interphase has 3 parts G1, S, G2 (G0 is a thing, but that means the cell got kicked out of the mitosis process) Interphase growth occurs, double up on genetic material, and cytoplasmic components G1 phase (after splitting) (it grows), protein synthesis occurs as well as normal cell function. G0 phase (normal) S phase DNA replication G2 phase getting ready for mitosis, producing proteins needed for mitosis Mitosis is the division of the nucleus but cytokinesis is the actual division of the cell *** (an unwound chromosome becomes replicated chromosome, centromere holds together until it splits during anaphase) Chromosomes line up at the cell equator during metaphase Cytoskeleton network of protein tracks/tubules Microfilaments are made up of actin subunits (17 nm) contractile rings and mitotic spindle fibers are examples of microfilaments a contractile ring form the cleavage furrow a cleavage furrow is the original indentation when the cell is about to undergo cytokinesis Microtubules are made up of tubulin subunits (23 nm) flagella and cilia are examples of microtubules centrosomes are the organization center for microtubules Intermediate filaments are made up of protein subunits (10 nm) Cell adhesion proteins hold cells together anchoring junctions tight junctions gap junctions Why tumors arise: over active protooncogenes under active tumor suppressor genes (GOOGLE THE P53 gene) Apoptosis 1. Eliminates excess cells (carves away things, such as the webbed feet on a duck are not on a chicken. Apoptosis carved it away) 2. Weeds out old or defective cells Cancer cells: 1. Ignore mitotic checkpoints 2. Overactive oncogenes 3. Under Active tumor suppressor genes 4. Ignore apoptotic signals 5. Ignore contact inhibition 6. High telomerase activity (making cells immortal) 7. Lose adherence to others (metastasis) 8. Ignore other cell signals Sexual reproduction mitosis=diploid (2n) meiosis= diploid cell (2n) diploid=(homologous pair of chromosomes) diploid cells contain pairs 23 pairs =46 chromosomes blue=dad. red=mom. we have 22 autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes Alleles are alternative versions of the same type of gene. ** after DNA replication we have sister chromatids gametes (sperm or an egg cell) are haploid cells have only 1 set of chromosomes each 23 single chromosomes each when sperm and egg meet, it becomes a zygote. Meiosis: 1. Halves the chromosomes(after replication there are 92 single chromosomes) 2. Scrambles alleles DNA replication happens once but the nucleus divides twice during meiosis (mitosis=everything happens once) Meiosis creates variability because of crossing over (prophase 1) and independent assortment (metaphase 1) Independent assortment: chromosome pairs align randomly along the cell equator If pairs fail to separate it causes nondisjunction An extra chromosome causes down syndrome Cloning: Cloning creates an exact copy 1. During step 1 of cloning (Dolly) they took a somatic cell’s nucleus 2. Got the egg nucleus 3. Cloned dolly by pairing the 2 together DNA technology copies cells/organisms DNA medicine genetic diagnosis, gene therapy ** a 4 day old embryonic stem cell has all of its genes turned on pluripotent=stem cells that can be all different (embryonic) adult stem cells: Less controversial Less chance for rejection Differentiate into a limited number of cell types multipotent: multiple cell types but not all totipotent: anything, harvested before it becomes an embryo (before day 4) cord blood banking: getting your umbilical cord blood harvested (in a test tube) IFV (in vitro fertilization) (in a test tube) Synthesized DNA probes: single stranded short sequence complementary to a known region of DNA such as a cystic fibrosis allele ”glows in the dark” PDG:preimplantation genetic diagnosis 1. IVF 2. Take 1 cell @ 8 cell stage 3. Apply DNA probes 4. Discard zygotes that are positive for any given disease Cystic fibrosis is caused when a person has a defective chloride channel protein gene editing: CRISPR/CAS9 gene editor Can target any gene Can totally cut out a gene A new gene can be added ethical issues ^^ Only for the wealthy Prescreening Health insurance eligibility Gene doping Discrimination
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