Chinese Humanities with Dr. Ming Dong Gu HUMA 1301
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China of Qin and Han o The end of the warring states period o Qin’s major rival states: Yah Zhao Qi Chu Han Wei Qin dynasty 1 imperial dynasty of china 221207 Qin state derived its name from its homeland of Qin, Shanxi today Strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by legalist reform of Shang Yangin the 4 century BC during the Warring states period Unification of china o In the mid and late 3 century BC the Qin accomplished a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou Dynasty, and then eventually destroying all other six of the major states to gain control over the whole of china When the conquest was complete in 221BC, the leader of Qin Knag Zuang? He took the name Qin Shihuang Di meaning first emperor of the Qin Capital Xian Yang, present day Xi’an Qin Shihuang: o Pivotal figure. After unifying china, he and advisor Li Si passed a series of major econ and political reforms o It is achievements Gigantic projects The first version of the great wall of china Now famous citysized mausoleum guarded by a lifesized terracotta army Standardization Chinese units of measurement Currency Length of cars o His faults To ensure stabilities, Qin Shihuang outlawed and burned many books’ buried some scholars alive Three assassination attempts were made on Qin Shihuang’s life. Leading him to become paranoid and obsessed w’ immortality. He died in 210BC, while on a trip to the far eastern reaches of his empire in an attempt to procure an elixir of immortality from Taoist magicians, who claimed the elixir was stuck on an island guarded by a sea monster The chief eunuch, Zhao Gao, and the prime minister Li Si, hid the news of his death upon return, Huhai took the name Qin Er Shi The fall of the Qin under the attack by peasant uprising lead by Xiang Yu and Liu Bang The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of china Founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu bang known prominently as emperor Gaozu of Han Briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of former regent Wang Mang This interregnum separates the Han in 2 periods west and east Golden age in Chinese history to this day, china’s majority ethnic group refers to itself as Han people Han and Xianghu (Huns) the Xianghu, a nomadic confederation which dominated the eastern Eurasian steppe, defeated the Han army in battle. Following the defeat, a political marriage alliance was negotiated in which the Han became the defacto inferior partner When, despite the treaty, the Xianghu continued to raid Han borders, emperor Wu of Han launched several military campaigns against them The ultimate Han victory is these wars eventually forced the Xianghu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries The campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim basin of central Asia and help establish silk road Zhang Qian: first Chinese diplomat who reached with Asia such as Fergana, Parthia, Iraq Silk road network of interlining trade routes across AfroEurasian Colonizing the south the Qin and Han period was great territorial expansion southward Expeditions to conquers Fuj’an, Guanxi, and northern part of what is Vietnam today Zhao Tuo king of south Yue, a former Qin general who ruled south part of china and north Vietnam The Dian state in present day Yunnam Bronze drums evidence of exchange between china and southeast Asia End of the Han dynasty Major reason for it fall o Eunuchs politics o Yellow turban rebellion and the five pecks of rice rebellion in 184 CE Life and culture the records at the grand historian written from 109 BC91BC, was magnum opus of Sima Qian in which he recounted Chinese history from time of yellow emperor until his own time As the first systematic Chinese historical text , the records profoundly influenced Chinese historiography and culture Han/Yi:: Chinese/barbarians Confucianism became state orthodoxy Dong Zhongshu: synthesizer who combines Confucianism and ideas from Daoism and legalism Mutual impact between heaven and men: mandate of heaven Reconstruction of Confucian classics: old texts and new texts 5 classics: o Book of Chang o Book of Documents o Book of songs o Book of Rites o Spring and autumn annals Censorial system: watches emperor’s errors similar to our 3 branches Filial san and devoted women Filial piety a primer for educating young people Biographies of heroic women Ban Zhao: admonitions for girls (Nujie) teach girls how to cultivate female virtues: humility, obedience, cleanliness, and industry Early forms of civil services system Based on Confucian learning and filial piety Compare and contrast o Qin Han empires vs. Roman empire o Inheritance vs. primogeniture (first son) Similarities o About equal in size of population o Both had strong govt. that expanded geographically, promoted assimilation and brought centuries of stability o Managed to deal with enormous problems of large territory, ruling diverse ethnic groups o Both developed bureaucrat institution o Both invested in construction of roads, defensive walls and water works Differences o China: privileging agriculture over commerce o Crop agriculture: animal husbandry a less role; cities different from those of roman empire o Commerce played a less role in economy o cultural cohesion HanyuLatin Chinese script made it easier to form a common culture among the elites than in roman empire Though Latin was a lingua franca, other written languages continued to be used, including Greek, Hebrew, and Demotic Egyptian. This facilitated the survival of nonRoman ideas By Contrast: knowledge of the nonHan minorities all came from Chinese Texts The age of disunion The three kingdoms and north and south dynasties Three kingdoms: it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280 The three kingdoms; Wei, Shu, and Wu: o Wei is known as Cao Wei o Shu is known as Shu Han o Wu is known as Dong Wu or East Wu The yellow Turban Rebellion, a peasant revolt broke out 184CE in china during emperor ling in Han dynasty the rebellion which got its name from color scarves rebels wore on head Warlord in control: Cao Cao Sun Bien: Emperor of Wu Liu Bei: founder of Jin Dynasty Short unification by Jin dynasty o Jin was a dynasty in Chinese history 2 periods: west Jin and east Jin caused by capital West jin founded by Sima Yan with capital Luoyang East Jin founded by Sima Fui, capital Jiankang Life and Change: Xuanxue: students of the mysterious reinterpretation of book of changes o Laozi and Zhuangzi in terms of Confucianism o Pure talk: search for “naturalness” and spontaneity The 7 sages of the bamboo grove a group of Chinese Taoists o Key members were linked; wrote poems, criticizing court and administration and manual on Taoist mysticism o Group which to escape the intrigues, corruption and stifling atmosphere of court during 3 kingdoms o Bamboo grove house member o Likes to drink wine 9 rank system: a civil service nomination system during 3 kingdoms. Civil service nomination system. o Chen Qun, Court Official of the Kingdom of Wei Internal war; 8king’s rebellion South and north dynasties period saw large scale migration of Han people to lands south of Yangtze river Sinicization: during this period the process of Sinicization accelerated among the nonChinese arrivals in the north and among the aboriginal people in the south process also accompanied by increase in Buddhism in both north and south china. Along with Daoism gain influence from outline of Buddhist scriptures th North: 16 states period North: Wei dynasty Emperor Xiaowen: transformed his dynasty into a truly Chinese dynasty on the model of Han and Jin Sinicization by Xiaowen o Adopted Chinese bureaucratic system o Changing artistic style o Forces languages and clothes o Compelled his people to adopt style CounterSinicization South: formerly Han Chinese ruling classes were forced to cross Yangtze River and retreated to the south of China Han generals establish 4 dynasties o Song o Qi o Liang o Chen North Zhou defeated north qi, unifying north china General usurped and established sui dynasty which unified north and south china starts another extend A self conscious age of Art and religion Through an age of civil war and political chaos, it was also a time of flourishing arts and cultures Buddhism is a religion and philosophy with traditions, beliefs, and practice based on Siddhartha Gautama known as Buddha 2 major branches o Theravada“school of elders” o Mahayana “Great Vehicle” Theravada has a wide spread following in Sri Lankan and South east Asia Mahayana founded through east Asia schools o Pure lands o Zen o Nichiren Buddhism o Tibetan Buddhism o Shigna o Tiantar, o Shinnyoen 4 noble truths o Karma cycle of suffering and rebirth for each being Buddhism and Taoism: the mutual impact Daoism or Taoism refer to a philosophical religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with Tao, which is everything that exists, the origin of everything and b/c of the latter it is also nothing Buddhism is variant of Daoism Kong/void Wu/nothingness Faxian travelled to India in search of Buddhist texts in 399 Sinicization of Buddhism Pure land sect: the west paradise of the Buddha Amitabha Huixan: on why monks don’t bow down before kings Political independence of Buddhist establishment not subversive Bohhdifsattava: neither male or female Transcending classes Emperor Wu of Liang Personal name Xiao Yan The founding emperor of Liang Dynasty, his reign promoted Buddhism. Several times he became a monk and forced his court to purchase him back with money Ashoka: grate Indian patron Emperor Wu reign as golden age Chinese Buddhism Religious Taoism refers to a variety of religious concepts Laozi: venerated by Taoists Buddhism and Taoism as higher religions Nymph of Luo River Contention for legitimacy o North and south; which side is legitimate heir of Han o North relied on geographic centrality o Zhou and Han capitals placed sacred memorable o South relied on their indisputably Chinese origin ethnic centrality Political theory of rituals of succession, the abdication that linked one ruler to the next in an unbroken chain of sons of heaven: from the Han to Wei, to the Jin and to the Song, etc The rulers in the south in exile were the legitimate sons of heaven Connection between north and south Chinese elite were using same languages and same classics The age of division: a negative example: to show the failure to establish a cosmically correct and harmonious order for allunder heaven Compare with Europe: medieval times o Similarities: breaking up of the empire Invasions of barbarians Ascendance of foreign religion Promotion of monumental art o Differences Unification amidst disunion Empire building Empire builders sought to reunify all china under a centralized bureaucratically administrated political order Barbarian influx had less impact on culture and consciousness; language was still Chinese, Xianbe disappeared Charlemagne: Germanic origin, restrained by his ethnic origin in acting out the role of a roman empire Swi tang rulers; descended from ancient Chinese stock The sense of disjunction of moral and emotional separation from the classical past was not as great in china as in the west While medieval Europe was described as a dark age, education and scholarship never eclipsed in china Men of letter were as sophisticated as Han alien rule: the Liao , Jin, and yuan dynasties Genghis khan died while his armies were the lia dynasty also known as the Khitan conquering the W Xia dynasty. His son empire Khan invaded in his stead An empire in E Asia that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and The territory of the Jin was to be divided parts of Northern China proper. It was between the mongols and the song founded by the Yelu clan of the Khitan people in the same year as Tang Dynasty ancestors of the Qing dynasty collapsed 907 several centuries later, the Jurchen chief nurhaci combined the three Jurchen Although it was originally known as the tribes and founded the later Jin dynasty. empire of the Khitan the emperor Yelu Nurhaci's eightieth son the heir, Hang Taiji Ruan officially adopted the name Liao later change the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu. the next year he The Liao empire was destroyed by the changed Jin to Qing in 1636 Jurchen of the Jin Dynasty in 1125. However, remnants of its people led by Yelu The mongol empire Dashi established Xi (Western) Liao dynasty largest contiguous empire and is 1125-1220. also known as kara Khitan thought to be the largest empire in terms of land out of all the empires, 16% of entire The western xia dynasty or the Tangut land on earth empire, harassed by Mongols Genghis khan, the founder and great The Jin dynasty emperor of the mongol empire also known as the Jurchen dynasty was founded by the Wantyanb clan of the he ceased to power by uniting many of the jurchens, the ancestors of the manchus nomadic tribes of NE Asia who established the Qing dynasty some 500 yrs later. the name is sometimes He started the mongol invasions and written as Jinn to differentiate it from an conquest of most of Eurasia, including raids earlier Jin dynasty of china whose name is and invasions of the kara-khitan khanate, identical with the other name. caucasus, Khwarezmia empire, W Xia and Jin dynasties The jurchens' early rival was the Liao, which had held sway over northern china these campaigns were often accompanied by wholesale massacres of the civilian the jin broke alliance with the song and populations-especially in Khwarezmia. by the end of his life, the mongol empire invaded north china on jan9th 1127, Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of N song, occupied a substantial portion of Central capturing both emperor qinzong, and his Asia and china father, huizong, who had abdicated in panic questions for discussion: Fall of Jin 1) how would you view Genghis khan starting from the early 13th century the jin dynasty began to feel the pressure as a historical figure? of mongols from the north. Genghis khan 2) W romantic portrayal f him first led the mongols into W Xia territory in 1205 and ravaged it for four years later. justified about 50000 mongol on horses invaded the 3) Do you think the nomadic in empire and began absorbing Khitan and Jurchen rebels conquests as victories of barbarism over civilizations troops under chancellor jia sidaowas defeated by the yuan force. by 1276, most 4) how would you compare the fall of of the s song territory had been captured the song with the fall of Roman Empire by yuan forces. In 1279, the yuan army led by the Chinese general Zhang Hongfan had Yuan Dynasty crushed the last song resistance in battle of a dynasty founded by the mongol Yamen, which marks the end of the S song leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of and the onset of all of china under the present-day china, all of modern Mongolia yuan. and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from1271 to 1368 Yuan dynasty is traditionally given credit for reuniting china after several hundred t is considered both as a division of the years since the late tang dynasty. mongol empire and as an imperial dynasty of china. In Chinese history, the yuan Tibet joined the mongol dynasty, the yuan, dynasty followed the Song Dynasty and thereby becoming part of china for the first preceded the ming dynasty. although the time. dynasty was established by Kublai khan he had Genghis khan placed as the original after the founding of the dynasty, Kublai founder of the dynasty or Taizu was put under pressure by many of his advisers to further expand the sphere of besides emperor of china, Kublai khan had influence of the yuan through the also claimed the title of great khan i.e. traditional sinocentric tributary system. supremacy over the other mongol however, the attempts to establish such khanates; however this claim was only truly tributary relationships were rebuffed and recognized by the Il-Khanids, who were expeditions to japan, dai viet , and Java nevertheless essentially self-governing. would later meet with less success Although later emperors of the yuan dynasty were recognized by the three Marco Polo virtually independent W khanates as their a venetian merchant traveler from nominal suzerains, they each continued the venetian republic whose travels are their own separate developments. recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce europeans to Central he had several chines teachers, with the Asia and china. he learned about trading desire to rule all of china, khan formally whilst his father and uncle, niccolo and claimed the Mandate of Heaven by maffeo, travelled through Asia and proclaiming the new yuan dynasty in 1271 apparently met Kublai khan. in 1269, they in the traditional Chinese style. this would returned to venice to meet Marco for the become the first non-Han dynasty to rule first time. the three of them embarked on all of China an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 yrs to find venice at war with Genoa; Marco in 1272, Dadu officially became the capital was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to of the yuan dynasty. present day Beijing a cellmate and he transcribed the book for him. Marco Polo was later released and Unifying China became a wealthy merchant and lived life In the early 1270s, Kublai began his to the fullest massive drive against southern Song Dynasty in s china. by 1273, Kublai had Their pioneering journey inspired blockaded the Yangzi river with his navy Christopher columbus and others. and besieged Xiangyang, the last obstacle in his way to capture the rich Yangzi river life under alien rule basin. In 1275, a song force of 13000 the Chinese were not forced to adopt the customs of their conquerors the last Jin emperor was regarded as a model confucian ruler in history mongol tyranny racial inequality: Marco Polo found Khublai adopted Chinese political ideology ethnic animosity intense among the to establish yuan dynasty Chinese the rise of proto nationalistic an ethnic hierarchy with four castes consciousness: the conception of loyalty mongols not just to a ruler, but to a nation semu- mongol allies northern Chinese wen Tianxiang: a literati-turned general Southern Chinese W interest in Chinggis Khan and Khublai northern Chinese scholars were more ready khan as conquerors to serve the mongol rulers because they believed that mongols would be signified Chinese historian views Jurchens and like other normatdic people Mongols as minority peoples of china rather than as alien conquerors civil service examination was not restored until 1315 buddhism: tibetan buddhism the consequence of no civil service EW cultural exchange: china tied into a examination: Eurasian empire maturity of Chinese drams Chinese inventions like gunpowder and printing spread westward confucian universalism and signification foreign music and styles in art, clothing and to transform Yi, yi not really a racial term furnishings integrated into Chinese life confucian belie: china was superior to all its this resilient spirit is duly reflected in neighbors, not b/c the Chinese as a race Chinese art: favorite topic bamboo in the were physically or biologically better, but wind b/c their culture is more civilized, and barbarians could in tiem be transformed Examine drama and performing art, p.p. into Chinese if they adopted Chinese ways 186-189 of life: clothes, manners, family system, Ming dynastyL the limits of autocracy ethics etc the ming dynasty the conqueror being civilized by the a dynasty following the collapse of conquered the mongol yuan dynasty and followed by the manchu led Qing dynasty Chinese advisors to alien ruler convinced them to adopt some Chinese ways of life the last dynasty ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. although the ming capital Beijing alien rulers couldn't both preserve and fell to a rebellion by li Zicheng who perform Chinese rites and rituals established the shun dynasty which was replaced by the manchu Qing dynasty Jurchens and mongols adopted Chinese regimes loyal to the ming throne universalistic political ideology to their advantage significant achievements ming saw the constructions of a vast navy during his reign. Zhu's government in and a standing army of one million troops Nanjing became famous fro governance and city attracted vast number of people the tributary fleet under the muslim fleeing to lawless region eunuch admiral Zheng He in the 15th century far surpassed all others in size. in mid 14th century, with famine, plagues, enormous construction projects, including and peasant revolts sweeping across china, the restoration of the grand canal and the zhu became a leader of an army that Great Wall and the establishment of the conquered china, ending the yuan dynasty forbidden city in Beijing during the first and forcing the mongols to retreat to the quarter of the 15th century Mongolian steppes. with his seizure of the yuan capital he claimed the Mandate of estimates for the late-ming population vary Heaven and established the ming dynasty from 160 to 200 million in 1368 emperor Hongwu given name zhu rebingling chinese social structure Yuanzhang, was the founder and first emperor of the ming dynasty of china zhu proclaimed himself emperor of china in 1368. his capital city remained in nanjing the first commoner to become emperor and Hongwu was adoped as his regnal title since Han time under hongwu's rule, mongol bureaucrat born into a poor peasant family, whose who dominated the Govt in yuan dynasty' parents died of starvation became a time were replaced by han chinese officals begging monk: led the life of a wandering beggar and personally experienced and Hongwu revamped the traditional saw hardships of common people confucian examiniation system, from which potential state... zhu joined one of the many insurgent forces that had risen in rebellion against Theconfucian scholar-bureaucrats, the yuan dynasty. zhu rose rapidly through previoulsy marginalized during the yuan the ranks and became a commander dynasty, were reinstatede to their predominant roles in the government his rebel force later joined the red turbans, a millenarian sect related to the white lotus emperor hongwu attempted to create a society and one of the followed cultural and society of self-sufficient rural communitires religious traditions of buddhism in a rigid, immobile system that would have Zoroastrianism and other religion no need to engagte with the commercial life and trade of urban centers Zhu yuanzhang's army conquered Nanjing which became his base of operations and land reform for peasantry the official capital of the ming dynasty Chinese notes 3 The ending of the south and north dynasties Sui code and tang code Question: why didn’t china have permanent split like the Tang code remained central to the Chinese legal system in Roman Empire? all succeeding dynasties a. Answer; DEEPLY ENTRENCHED IDEA OF How to control corruption GREAT UNIFICATION Avoidance and limitation of officials terms The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short lived Imperial Self confidence and openness Chinese Dynasty. Civil service examination started by Sui and perfected in It ended nearly 4 Centuries of division between rival Tang regimes The grand canal dug between 605609 It was followed by the tang Dynasty Empress Wu: Empress Wu Zetain seized the throne, Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, nee yang Jian becoming the first and only Chinese empress regnant ruling His reign saw the reunification of south and north china and in her own right the construction of the grand canal The peak of Tang The sui dynasty began when emperor Wen’s daughter Emperor Xuanzong and emperor Yang Guifei th became the empress Dowager of North Zhou, with her During the 44 year reign of emperor Xuanzong, the tang stepson as the new emperor dynasty was brought to its height, a golden age period of Emperor Wen abolished the AntiHan policies of Zhou and low economy inflation and lavish lifestyle of imperial court reclaimed his Han surname of Yang An Shi Rebellion The 3 departments and 6 ministries system was originally An lushan, half sogdian, halfTurk tang commanders He was governor in Hebei, which allowed him to rebel with instituted, coinage was standardized and reunified, great wall expanded, Buddhism spread throughout china an army Emperor yang of sui Killed by his one of his eunuchs in 757 Shi Siming killed by his own son He restored Confucian education He also started many projects The fall of Tang a. Grand canal of china Internal threat: General vs. Eunuchs b. Became embroiled in several costly war External threats Assassinated by his own ministers Barbarians The tang dynasty Huang Chao Rebellion Founded by Li family, who seized power during the decline a. Huang Chao was the leader of the Huang Chao and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted rebellion that seriously weakened the once mighty briefly by 2 Zhou dynasty tang dynasty. The dynasty, dissolved within a few The Li family belonged to North West military aristocracy decades after the rebellion and the empire broke up prevalent during reign of the Sui emperors. The mothers of into competing states of the five dynasties and ten both emperor yang of sui and the founding emperor kingdoms period Li Yuan was the duke of tang and former governor of Overview of culture Taiyuan when… The tang dynasty with its capital at Chang’an the most With news of yang’s murder by his general Yuwen Huaji on populous city in the world at the time, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilizationequal to , or June 18, 1618 Lie Yuan declared himself emperor of tang surpassing that of the earlier Han Dynastya golden age of Emperor Taizong and the Xuanwu gate coup cosmopolitan culture. In a violent elimination of royal family due to far of Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its assassination, Li Shimin ambushed and killed 2 of his early rulers, was greater than that of the Han period, and it brothers, Li Yuanji and crown prince Li Jiancheng in the rivaled that of the later Yuan Dynasty and Qing Dynasty nd incident at Xuanwu gate on July 2 , 626 With its large population base, the dynasty was able to raise His father abdicated in his favor and Li Shimin ascended the professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of throne. He is called Taizong thousands of troops to contend with nomadic powers in In 628, Emperor Taizong held a Buddhist moral service for dominating inner Asia and the lucrative trade routes along the casualties of war, and in 629 had Buddhist monasteries the silk road erected at the site of major battles so that monks could pray Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, for the fallen on both sides of the fight during the campaign while the Tang also conquered or subdued several regions against eastern Tujue, a Gokturk Khanate that was which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. destroyed by the famed tang military officer Li Jing with Besides political hegemony, the Tang also exerted a this victory the Turks accepted Taizong as their Khagan or powerful cultural influence over neighboring states such as great Khan in addition to his rule as the son of Heaven those in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam Tang/Korea/Japan Chinese culture flourished in Tang era Sui and tang empire building The greatest age for Chinese poetry Legal rule Li Bai and Du Fu poets Bai Xingjan “the story of Li Wa” North song the song capital was in north city of Bian Jing Yuan Zhen: the story of Ying Yiang (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled inner china South song outer city??? Chang’an: largest metropolis in world Xuanzang went to India to seek Buddhist sutras Emperor Taizu of Song Foreign religions: Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Unified by conquering ended 5 dynasties 10 kingdoms period. In Kaifeng, he established a strong central Zoroastrianism, and Nestorian Christianity Foreign influence on Chinese arts government over the empire. He ensured administrative Tea popularized stability by promoting the civil service examination system Buddhism and Chinese life of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit and promoted Buddhist monasteries projects that ensured efficiency in communication Popularization of Buddhist tales: the story of Mulian throughout the empire. One such project was the creation by Guanyin: Chinese Bodhisattva cartographers of detailed maps of each province and city Chan school of Buddhism which were then collected in a large atlas. He also promoted Bodhidharma groundbreaking… Sixth patriarch Huineng How did Taizu come to power Gradual enlightenment and sudden enlightenment His generals wrapped the emperor’s robe around his body 841: perfection of Buddhism and declared him the new emperor Dunhuang is a city in North West Gansu province, west How did he consolidate his power china. It was a major stop on the ancient silk road He relieved his generals of their power by asking them to Dunhuang ha s492 caves, with 45,000 square meters of retire Frescos, 2,415 painted statues and 5 wooden structured The roots of song’s weakness caves. The Mogao grottoes contained priceless paintings, The army was under civilian control and its officers were sculptures, some 50,000 Buddhist sculptures, historical regularly rotated documents, textiles and scriptures Factionalism and bureaucracy Dunhuang discovery th Taizu vowed never to kill any of his subjects who disagreed Evidence of block painting in the 8 century External threats: first Kitan and the Jin and later the Diamond sutra dated 868 oldest printed book Reflection of state and culture Mongols From its inception under Taizu, the song alternated between Dou You: antibarred looking: the prefecture and country warfare and diplomacy system of government perfected in Han and Tang is superior Wang Anshi’s reform to Zhou Wang Anshi became chancellor of the imperial court. With Han Yu: Saw china’s problems in cultural terms and argued the backing of emperor Shenzong. Wang Anshi severely that there was a single line of transmission Mencius which had since been disrupted. It proposed to criticized the educational system and state bureaucracy. Seeking to resolve what he saw as state corruption and reviving the way of sages negligence, Wang implemented a series of reforms called He reaffirmed the Confucian classics as the basis of the new policies. These involved land tax reform, the education establishment of several government monopolies, the Protested against Buddhist relic Views of historical development support of local militias, and… Cyclical view of Chinese history vs. linear progression of Sima Guang: chancellor. A song fraction supplanted another in the majority position of the court ministers, it would history punctuated by ¾ stage periodization Han vs. Rome demote rival officials and exile them to govern remote Age of division vs. the middle ages frontier regions of the empire Yue Feiwidely seen as patriot and hero; standard story in Sui and tang vs. Constantinople and Charlemagne Late Tang: a turning point in Chinese history china. A military general of S. Song Dynasty. He is best The song Dynasty (9601279) known for leading the defense of southern song against invaders from the Jurchenruled Jin Dynasty in northern It succeeded the 5 dynasties and ten kingdoms period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty china, before being put to death by the southern song Several firsts: government a. The first government in world history to issue The fall of song banknotes or paper money a. Although the song dynasty was able to hold back b. First Chinese government to establish a permanent the Jin, a new considerable foe came to power over standing navy the steppe, deserts, and plains north of the Jin c. The first known gun powder dynasty. The Mongols, led by Genghis Khan d. First discernment of true north compass initially invaded the Jin Dynasty in 12050 and e. First stock companies Two distinct North and South Song 1209, engaging in large raids across its borders, and in 1211 an enormous Mongol army was assembled to invade the Jin. The Jin dynasty was forced to submit and pay tribute to the Mongols as f. Culture of the song dynasty including visual arts, Vassals: when the Jin suddenly moved their capital music, literature, and philosophy city from Beijing to i. Poet and statesman Su Shi and his Kublai Khan completed the conquest of the song associate Mi Fu Kublai officially declared the creation of the Yuan Dynasty g. Printing and publications in 1271 Su Shi a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist, In 1275, a song force of 130,000 troops under chancellor Jin and statesman Sidao was defeated by Kublai’s newly appointed Zhang Zeduan, a highly venerated court painter was who painted the enormous panoramic painting. Along the river commanderinchief, general Bayan By 1276, most of song territory had been captured by Yuan during the Qingming Festival forces Emperor Huizong was the 8 emperor of the song dynasty with a personal life spent amidst luxury and sophistication In the battle of Yamen on the Pearl River delta in 1279, the Yuan army, led by the general Zhang Hongfan, Finally and art but ended in tragedy crushed the song resistance. The last remaining ruler, the 8 Cheng Yi a Chinese philosopher. He worked with his older year old emperor Huaizong of song committed suicide brother Cheng Hao along with prime minister Lu Xiufu and 800 members of the Woen poets: Li Qingzhao regarded by many as the premier female poet in the Chinese language royal clan On Kublai’s order’s the rest of the former imperial family of Foot binding song were unharmed, the deposed emperor Gong was Widowhood Three obedience and fur virtues demoted, being given the title Duke of Ying but was eventually exiled to Tibet where he took up a monastic life Comparison with Europe A prosperous and weak dynasty a. China: the leading society in the world th b. Europe: The dark ages The population of china doubled in size during the 10 and c. Marco Polo: His view: no state or city in Europe or 11 centuries. The Northern song census recorded a population of roughly 50 million, much like the Han and Asia could compare to china in agricultural productivity, industrial technology, commercial Tang Dynasties. This data is found in the standard histories. However, it is estimated that the northern song had a organization, urbanization or standard of living d. But commerce and city life did not play as population of some 100 million people. This dramatic significant role in china as in Europe slightly later increase of population fomented an economic revolution in e. List of job hierarchy premodern china i. Scholar official Prosperous economy, industry, and trade in the song ii. Farmers a. Joint stock companies and trade along the grand iii. Handicraftsmen canal and Yangzi river iv. Merchants v. Outcasts b. The iron industry flourished c. Large scale deforestation and the use of coal Not military in character, not hereditary, not a priestly instead of Charcoal in blast furnaces aste?? d. Paper money known as Jiaozi Access to honors and ranks on based on ostensible fair and e. Silk road on the sea objective ways Manchus and imperialism the Qing dynasty 16441900 The Qing Dynasty 1644 to 1912 the last dynasty of china the Qing were not Han Chinese but members of the Jurchen clan from the NE of the Great Wall beginning with their Khan Nurhachi, the aisin Gioror began unifying the Jurchen clans Nurhachi, an important Jurchen Chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in what is today NE china His conquest of China's NE liaoning province laid the ground worked for the conquest of the rest of china. he is also created a written script for the Manchu language by 1635, Nurhachi 's son claimed they constituted a single and united manchu people and began forcing the Ming out of their territory in liaoning Huang Taiji became the first emperor of the Qing dynasty Hong Taiji was responsible for consolidating the empire that his father, Nurhaci, had found. he laid ground work for conquering the Ming dynasty, although he died before this was accomplished he was responsible for changing the name of his people from Jurchen to manchu in 1635 as well as that of the dynasty from later Jin Qing in 1636 The Ming toppled by peasant rebellion In 1644, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed the Shun dynasty the last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen emperor, committed suicide when the city fell, but the remaining Ming generals did not all recognize Li as legitimate wu sangui a Ming Chinese general who was instrumental in the succession of rule to the Qing dynasty in 1644. in 1644, wu opened the gates of the Great Wall of china at Shanghai pass to let manchu soldiers, enemies of the empire which he served, into china proper. considered by traditional scholars as a traitor to both the Ming and the Qing dynasties , wu declared himself emperor of china as ruler of the Great Zhou dynasty in 1678, but his revolt was quelled by the Qing Kangxi emperor. Manchu conquest of all china portraying themselves as the restorers of imperial order under the young shunhi emperor , the Qing then expanded into china proper by conquest and alliance emperor shunzhi the third emperor of Manchu led Qing and officially the first Qing emperor to rule over china. He ascended to the throne at the age of five in 1643 upon the death of his father Hong Taiji, died still a young man, in circumstances that have lent themselves to rumors and speculation complete conquest around 1683 under the Kangxi emperor Kanxi the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the pass Beijing and the second Qing emperor to rule over china proper, from 1661 to 1722 one of china's great emperors he suppressed the revolt of the three feudatories forced the kingdom of tungingin on Taiwan to submit to Qing rule, blocked ztarist Russia on the Amur river and expanded the empire in the nw. he also accomplished such literary feats s the compilation of the Kangxi dictionary by the end of his reign, the Qing empire controlled all of china proper, Taiwan, Manchuria, part of the Russian Far East, both inner and outer Mongolia, Tibet proper, and joeseon Korea as a from apartheid state to full integration: the queue hairstyle was enforced upon penalty of death. however, over the course of its reign, the Qing became highly integrated with Chinese culture, learning Chinese and participating in rituals The imperial examinations continued and han civil servants administered the empire alongside the manchu the height of Qing the qing reached its height under the Qianlong emperor in the 18th century, expanding beyond china's prior and later bundaries and including parts of modern Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, and Taiwan and overlord status Qianlong emperor 6th emperor of the Manchuled Qing dynasty , and the 4tyh Qing emperor to rule over china proper 1769, he abdicated in favor of his son, the Jiaqing emperor a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious kangxi emperor. Despite his retirement, however, he retained his power until death. although his early years saw the continuation of an era of prosperity in china, his final years saw troubles at home and abroad converge on the Qing empire imperial corruption exemplified by the minister Heshen culture and society: Chinese culture took a conservative turn during Qing evidence of conservatism: banning literary works: novels, plays eulogize women's purity more memorial arches to honor faithful widows: compare: 4 in song, 95 in Ming, 203 by midQing literary inquisitions Some creative innovations on the exceptional intellectuals huang zongxin: a Ming loyalist who attributes china's fundamental problems to the emperor having too much power Gu Yanwu: political and historical analysis: quasi democratic idea: the rise or fall fo the country depends on every individual Cao Xueqin: china's greatest traditional novel: A Dream of Red Mansions (Hongloumeng) Trade and relations with European nations shifting views of china in the eyes of Europeans intellectuals: Leibniz and Voltaire and others: china is a state ruled by sagekings Montesquieu, Rousseau and Hegel: Chinese civilization is inferior to that of Europe trade between china and England: 1793: Lord George McCartney’s diplomatic mission to china with the purpose to open trade Controversy over the rites for meeting emperor Qianlong, who did not approve of British envoy in Peking, and saw no real use of trade for china The mission was a total failure The opium wars also known as the AngloChinese wars, the first opium war from 18391842 the second opium war from 1856 to1860 disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between china under the Qing dynasty and British empire before the war, Chinese GDP is 1/3 of the world's total first opium war it causes imbalance in favor of the Chinese; silver flowed to china: Chinese GDP is 1/3 of the world's total the British east India company used opium to offset the imbalance grave consequences of the opium trade for china Lin Zexu: imperial commissioner charged with the task to put a stop to opium trade British commercial interests pushed for war with china in the parliament and the bill was passed by a small majority British fleet sailed from India to start the opium war china successfully repelled the British fleet in canton, but the British fleet sailed to north and defeated Chinese government the treaty of Nanjing concluded at gunpoint consequences: indemnity of up to 21 million ounces of silver, opening of five ports, removed large areas of treaty ports from Chinese sovereignty extraterritoriality More unequal treaties concessions: foreign enclave a "scramble for concessions" that threatened to divide china into a number of colonies tied together by foreignowned railroads missionaries obtained right to preach throughout china opium addiction: a rampant social problem 10% of the population internal problems: white lotus rebellions the Taiping rebellions: its leader Hong Xiuquan a self proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Occupied half of china, but was suppressed by Zeng Guofan and other forces Nian rebellions, Muslim and Miao rebellion, all suppressed by zeng's protégé Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongrang Qing power was severely weakened by the rebellions as well as foreign encroachment the selfstrengthening movement a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers li hongzhang convinced that guns and ships were merely necessary the movement was largely confined to inefficient defense manufacturing proved abortive why did china fail to become a modern, industrial state like Japan? Japan's Meiji reform Japan succeeded where china failed and posed a threat to china first SinoJapanese war 18941895 and its consequences: china was forced to cede Liaodong and Taiwan, an indemnity of 200 million ounces of silver, and Japan’s right to open factories in china in terms of the most favored national clause the acceleration of carving China by imperialist powers. china was about to disintegrate and dismembered the acceleration of carving china by imperialist powers china was about to disintegrate and dismembered the hundred day's reform a failed 104 day national cultural, political and education reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 undertaken by the young Guangxu emperor and his reform minded supporters. The movement proved to be shortlived, ending in a coup d'état by powerful conservative opponents led by emperor dowager Cixi the boxer rebellion and its consequences a protonationalist movement by the "righteous Harmony society" (known as boxers in English), in china between 189
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