Texas state and Government GOVT 2306
Texas state and Government GOVT 2306 GOVT 2306
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POLS 1101 096
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This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Nicholas Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to GOVT 2306 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Euel Elliott in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see State and Local Government in Political Science at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Municipality Bounded rationality Origins of Texas counties Challenges of public education in Texas Range of municipal governments on basis of size History of public education in Texas Functions of county government GilmerAikins County Fire Code A Nation at Risk Avery vs. Midland County Ross Perot County judge Plessy v. Ferguson West, Texas Brown v. Board of Education Costs faced by county governments Poverty index Chief law enforcement officer of the county San Antonio v. Rodriguez Social services provided by counties Edgewood ISD v. Kirby Homerule vs. generallaw cities Massive resistance Homerule charter Brown II Mayorcouncil vs. councilmanager primary 1935 social security act government 1965 Medicare and Medicaid Act Atlarge vs. singlemembers district elections Prescription Drug Act Galveston Hurricane and impact on city Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act government (AKA Affordable Care Act, AKA Obamacare) Special district No Child Left Behind School district Dream Act Functions of school board Health insurance exchanges Councils of Governments (COGS) Water rights North Texas Council of Governments Texas water policy and private property rights Source of funds for universities Law of capture relating to water rights Trends in funds for universities Texas Water Development Board Why is 2003 important for college students? Edwards Aquifer Authority v Burrell Day and General revenue fund Joel McDaniel (2012) General revenue dedicated funds County fire code Categorical aid programs Planned Parenthood Block grants Home schooling Incrementalism TANF Federalism Policy Legitimation Texas ranking on per capita federal dollars 2012 state water plan inflow to state 1996 Welfare Reform and Personal Texas sales tax Responsibility Act Progressive vs. regressive tax systems Texas budget crisis of 201112 State balanced budget requirements Aid to families with dependent children Example of progressive taxes New Deal State lottery and tobacco settlement, importance Great society of Welfare dependents Permanent School Fund Office of Comptroller Texas Comptroller Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg West Orange ISD vs. Nealey “free and efficient system of education” Real estate bubble, causes of Panic of 1837 Religious Viewpoint AntiDiscrimination Act Vermont Definition of public policy Stages of policy process Policy legitimation Rationality Texas yesterday, today, and tomorrow demographic makeup: melting pot/majority minority state Spain > France > Spain > Mexico > republic Texas > USA > confederation > USA 45% Caucasian 1845 Texas became a state 38% Hispanic 12% African American 5% other 1836 Texas was its own country cotton > technology over the years 2nd in terms of size, largest state is Alaska Texas population: cotton > cattle > oil > natural gas > technology 1850=212,000 *technology and its growth is a factor in the 1900= 3.0 million 2014= 27 million growth of urban areas technology is important with urban: sources of increases: health care internal migration immigration universities/schools workforces high birthrates airports Triggers: synergy/synergistic effect mutual benefits economic activity between companies and universities economic conditions in other nations agglomeration effect companies benefit from increase in population in Texas means greater being in the same area "political power" sovereignty population govt. is created and sustained by the people 1848 had two members in house of reps out of 227 1916 18/435 Joseph Schumpeter capitalist market economies go through "gales of creative destruction" 2012 36/435 paradigm way of looking at things reapportionment is a result of the census electoral college count is HR+2 "churn" historically, high rate of business start ups 1848 4/290 Provided centered health care system to a patient 1916 20/531 2012 38/535 not counting district of centered health care system Columbia NAFTA North America free trade agreement: Majority party benefits political power cost American jobs but it has been good cause it opened a new market in Mexico political cultures, immigrations, and economic signed in 1992 by Bush sr., approved by congress 1993 events shapes nature of government institutions Mexico is affected the same, costs regional subcultures Mexican jobs but opens market in America moralisticgood society, belief in Texas is a diversified economy government plays an important role of enforcing this moral "hydraulic fracturing" fracking individualisticlibertarianbelief in government should play a very limited great recession of 200809, 25% of workforce role in our live, kind of libertarian unemployed traditionalisticbelief in traditional value, especially family values great recession 10.8% unemployment in Texas ; trigger was collapse of the housing market John Locke, Montesquieu, Adam smith, Adam 20012007 "housing bubble" Ferguson> European enlightenment/ Scottish enlightenment played important role in shaping our culture low interest rates excellent terms: no down payment questionable credit history ignorance Texas is a traditionalindividual hybrid Texas political party terrain: 1980's "oil patch recession" 1. Dominated by republican party Mideast states were hit hard by oil price when OPEC pulled tons of oil and it Gulf coastal plains interial law lands collapsed great plains 2. Dominated by Democratic party S&L crisis 1980s basin and range saving and loans crisis, gave tons of Republican loans to people when the loans were secured by oil prices which destroyed establishmentbusiness wing the loans when oil prices collapsed tea partyradical political change with belief of limited government and Schumpeterian dynamics gale winds of change balanced budget, conservative and political culturevalues, attitudes and libertarian political agenda orientations that citizens have towards politics Democrat and political system American political culture: democratic and conservativeestablishment wing populous "liberal" individualistic and republican constitution voting and community involvement regional political subculture legal framework which govt. operates sets legal bounties and limits for govt. to describe what has been done at operate constitutional convention represents the fundamental advocate and refute rules/principles governing the federalist 10 & 51 relationship between citizen and govt. fundamental rules governing Federalist 10 organizations of the political system addresses a problem called factions first constitution: articles of confederation spirit of faction any group of citizens (17811787) that seek policies that are detrimental to the general public interest adopted by 2nd continental congress Minority factionprinciple of majority 1777 rule will limit or stop them Majority faction principle of Second constitution: us constitution (1787 republicanism will limit or stop them present) republicanism representative government confederal form of government <> unitary form of government extended republic large diverse geographic space Decentralized France Federalist 47 Federal divisions/sharing of powers between national prelude to federalist 51 criticizes British constitution, especially and state parliamentary govt. American and Texas constitutions pusim of executive and legislation Both the AOC and US constitution are Federalist 51 interpretative documents separation of powers and checks and AOC had only 13 state constitutions balances if men where angels, the arrangement US constitution has 50 state constitutions wouldn't be necessary ambition must be made to check AOC: ambition in a republican form of government can't tax voluntary compound which will have the most power Legislation unicameral congress voting was 2/3 of 13 states congress/legislative: preeminent amending unanimous bicameralism different means of election of each specific limited powers house Federalist papers compound republic > federal republic/system written by James Madison Preamble political power is an artificial form of Article 6 power supremacy clause articles 17 >basics us constitution is supreme over state law and federal law Article 1 state vs. federal Mabury vs. Madison 1803 judicial congress and legislative structure review, preeminence over federal and state and supreme court to deem what is means of election constitutional and stated judiciary act powers of congress necessary and proper clause in section 8 was unconstitutional McCulloch v Maryland necessary and Did Madison fail? proper clause, state cannot tax national bank wanted to place limits on govt. power congress/ preeminence Article 1 Sect 9 govt. of limited powers bill of attainder legislation punish Iranian nuclear agreement individual ex post pacto laws growth of executive power growth of federal national govt. Article 2 coercive federalism the recent ability of executive national govt. to impose on all the states even if chief executive has power over the states object to the rules and regulation executive which are imposed by the federal govt. unitary EPA: environmental protection agency Article 3 passed a rule that places requirement on judiciary all states to reduce all green house gas requires supreme courts emissions unfunded mandates affirmative requirement Article 4 imposed by the national govt. on states, that is relations between states not paid for by federal govt. states will respect other state laws fragment federalism guaranties a republican form of govt. privileges and immunities growth of executive at the expense of Article 5 legislative growth of national power amend process growth of judicial power requires 2/3 of congress and 3/4 of states political parties in Texas 2/3 and adopted by people limits on govt. power Texas constitution is written to limit govt. power 25. transfer of president authority to VP if president is unfit easy to amend 26. 18 years of age to vote 27. congress can't vote themselves a pay Amendments 110 Bill of rights raise 1. excessive guarantee speech, press, emphasis on individual rights religion, assemble 2. bear arms emphasis on limited govt. 3. N/A 4. unreasonable search and seizure federalism 5. self incrimination due process 6. right to council constitution of 1876 7. N/A 8. excessive fines/cruel and unusual grange farmers group; critical in adopting 1876 constitution punishment 9. catchall amendment 10. states rights/federalism of rights Texas Constitution amendment Article 1 Texas bill of rights article 2 general power of govt. Bill of rights restricted national govt. article 3 legislature power executive authority article 4 executive governor, attorney general, LT. general, land office, etc war powers tilts factor to legislative treaty power article 5 judiciary bureaucratic and regulatory quantity article 6 suffrage post bill of rights amendments article 7 education, such as free public education robin hood plan wealthy districts had to 11. citizens of one state cannot sue a citizen of another state give poor education money 12. vote separately for president and VP article 8 taxation, no state income tax 13. abolished slavery Article 15 impeachment 14. privileges and immunities; due process Article 17 amendment process, 2/3, and equal protection; incorporation newspaper, voter majority selective Article 1 17th amendment 15. voting rights 16. Income tax 17. direct election of senators Article 2 12, 20, 22, 25th amendment 18. prohibition 19. suffrage article 3 11th amendment 20. date of president takes office lame duck progressive era amendment 21. repeals prohibition 22. limits presidential terms 23. district of Columbia can vote 16 income tax 24. no poll tax 17direct election of senators 18 prohibition 1937 Roosevelt reelected, switch in time that 19 women suffrage 21 prohibition repealed saved 9 constitution of 1827 important court cases unicameral Gibbons v Ogden defines how elected governor interstate commerce works appointed judiciary Gonzalez v Raich commerce clause bill of right Wickand v Filburn commerce clause Catholicism Collector v Day can the fed govt. tax state govt. Constitution of 1836 & 1845 NFIB v Sebelius Obama care bicameral Roe v Wade abortion law Obergefell v Hodges gay marriage West coast hotel v panish fed govt. set Constitution of 1866 floor for minimum wage abolished slavery Gitlow v NY freedom of speech Hammer v Pagenhart right of fed govt. constitution of 1869 to regulate child labor law Phylen v Doe Texas laws that limits governor is over thrown child immigrate school restrictions constitution 1876 Kirby v EdgewoodEducation funding was wrong Shelby county v holder voting Sharpstown scandal 1970, constitutional convention preclearance unconstitutional Fischer v VOT voter identification and RatliffJunell proposals 1999 immigration Arizona v Arizona tribal council voting strengthen executive unitary preclearance unconstitutional reorganization of executive branch creates cabinet govt. Sweatt v Painter school segregation Brown v BOE 1954 segregation was change term in office of legislative unconstitutional governor would appoint judges Plessey v Ferguson segregated facilities Texas in federal political system were constitutional Federal preemptioninvalidation of a state law John C. Calhoun Andrew Jackson's VP that conflicts with federal law Doctrine of nullification theory of concurrent majorities dual federalismwedding cake powers are divided between federal and state in clearly John Marshall 3rd chief justice and federalist defined terms Marbury v Madison judicial review federal preemption federal overstate 1965 voting rights act allowed for fed govt. to seceded had to be examine obtain preclearance before any state who 18+> eligible> registered> likely Political parties organization of people who share the same view on how the govt. is ran Who interested in the election]<screen 1796: no political parties What accounts on whether or not individuals 1800:democratic federalist vote: Turn out Election of Jackson and the modern day education democrats interest 1828: Whigs efficacy 1856: Democrats and republican income 1860: Lincoln race/ethnicity 1896: Democrats and republicans Strength of party ID 1920: Progressive era party competition 1929: Republican control early voting 1932: great Depression ease of registration 1960: FDR structural impediments Survey research and polling What accounts for turnout public opinion poll party competition representative sample Factors explaining for whom one votes equal chance of being selectedrandom Duverger's law single member districts tend to normal curveGaussian distribution favor a twoparty systems political support= 46% approval out of 100 morality winner takes all, proportional adults representative + or 3% of the time is the true results Issues political support [retrospective] performance issues future promises [prospective] political parties Three arenas of political parties election 1. organizations general 2. electorateparty ID primary 3. government In person survey Special elections organized to fill vacancies to Telephone survey fill death, enlightenment, constitute an 1936 literacy gazette amendment, bond elections FDR had 30% when he got 61% Primary elections who will run against each Landon had 60% when he got 39% other in the general election, early march in Gallup poll Texas, other vary Truman 46% but 53% closed primaryonly voters registered for the Dewy 54% but 47% party which holding the primary may register Technology has changed open primary Texas voters are not required to Try to use telephone and internet declare party affiliation Response rate of 1950's and 1960's 50% General election Response rate today 10% democrats Preelection polls= 1,0001,500 / exit polls= republican 50,000100,000/ postelection polls 1,0001,500 minor party independent Party ID candidate assessment issues [retrospective]performances future promises[prospective] Incumbents money name recognition resources franking track record unlimited media coverage Political parties organization > national > state > local raises money, recruits candidates, issues electorate government party machines > patronage Electorate party ID attachment toward a political party StrongWeakIndependentpure independent independentweakstrong Partisan polarization an individual's stance on a given issue, policy, or person is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a particular political party Role of govt. in economy taxes social welfare redistributed affirmative action abortion immigration Fisher v. UT Austin Affirmative action RepPluralitywinner take all; single member Bakke V. California U direct quotas are WASdistricts Hispanics Mid class Urban ownersonal Oldone person: one vote rule rough equality Reapportionment lose or gain of state between districts representation Rural/sburreappointment Poor/working class/well educated Business people reallocating seats depending on redistricting> unequal populations, race representation Wesberry v. Sanders 1964 Reynolds v. Sims 1964 Redistricting state legislation responsibility to redraw state boundary Evenwel v. Abbott Gerrymandering manipulate the every 10 yrs, boundaries are redrawn boundaries of (an electoral constituency) partisan gerrymandering so as to favor one party or class partisan gerrymandering In the process of Evenwel v. Abbott 1 person, 1 vote Reymold v. Sims 1 person, 1 vote setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political Death penalty cases advantage for a particular party or group by Friedrichs v. CTA Union due, avoid free manipulating district boundaries to create riding partisan advantaged districts Abood v. Detroit SB Union case Planned Parenthood v. Abbott abortion 1965 voting rights act It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many freedom southern states after the Civil War, including Divided Govt. one party controls the literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting. presidency while the other party controls Shelby co. v. Holder voting act Congress Party primary all white primary abolish 1944 Open seat contests Smith v. Allwright Voting act Unified party govt. better position to carry out political agenda same party controls presidency 19th amendment woman voting 24th amendment poll tax and congress Policy change is incremental 26th amendment 18 yrs old vote 1. many people don't vote In Texas primary election is a runoff election 2. voter ignorance voting system used to elect a single winner 3. ambiguous where the voter casts a single vote for their 4. intensity chosen candidate 5. perverse outcome makes sure ultimate nominees reflects interest groups/ pluralistany group organized in the popular choice present day Minarchy describe a sect of liberta rianism public policy collective good which advocates for a minimal government, incentive to free riding dedicated solely to the protection of individual overcome through selective incentives rights opacity of politics things are not what they nonaggression principle don't hurt people and seem don't take their stuff Madison Alexis de Tocqueville Robert Dahl broad based ideological pluralism theory of collective action single issue free riding TAMSA public interest groups Mancur Olson logic of collective action small groups, better position to reach goals than public citizen common cause larger groups civil rights selective incentives used by groups to get more NAACP people intergovt. lobby continuity/institutional money> bundling Problem ID & recognition > issue agenda > Types of interests and interest groups: policy adoption > implementation > policy Economic interests groups evaluation 1. Business 2. Capitalism/corporations policy adoption Legislative lobby strategies 3. umbrella org. Access 4. Chamber of commerce 5. NFIB Info 6. NAM Testimony 7. industry/trade associations Bill writing 8. agricultural interest group 9. professional PAC 10. union Grass roots mobilization Issue oriented Revolving door Three Maws bounded rational satispice county maximizes city/municipality rank order of all preferences special limit our options Local officials should be easily accountable to public Punctuated equilibrium isolated episodes of rapid Easier to keep informed or higher offices speciation between long periods of little or no change Education policy Texas has more than 4,835 local govt. desegregation County education quality one county judge school financing elected by county Reynolds v. Sims state registration four yr terms, no limits four county commissioners Wesberrry v. sanders redistricting equal to four yr terms, no limits population elected by geographic districts set budget Avery v. midland countyprecincts: oneperson one vote County govt. function 1. Texas has a balanced budget requirement road and bridges state constitution: requirement law enforcement comptroller controls budget 2. no state tax County and local govt. sales tax 6.25% Public finance/budget Balanced budget Policymaking 1,700 TX per person debt education 7,000 NY social welfare/ health policy water policy Interest rates down TANF Lax lending standards criminal justice Revolution in mortgager Stages model of policy process 1. problem identification/definition West Orange cove ISD v. Neeley illegal to have a 2. formulation state property tax pay for schools 3. contest of options/ future options Progressive vs. regressive taxes 4. implementation 5. evaluation progressive tax rate increases as the taxable 6. policy feedback amount increases good for poor Policy legitimation belief that it is consistent with regressive takes a larger percentage from low income people than from high income norms of society people good for rich Agency General revenue fund <$80 billion comprehensive rationality no dedicated primary operating fund for Student performance state OECD countries dedicated fun economic stabilization fund permanent school fund that is run by the 1983 nation at risk board of education 1986 TEAMS 1990 TAAS All funds budget >$200 billion 2003 TAKS 2011 STAAR Federal funds teach to test Other funds social welfare health policy social security act Money comes from sales tax, oil, fuel, lottery, tobacco settlement ADC and AFDC GilmerAkins laws Welfare reform and personal responsibility act 1996 school districts under control easy to receive welfare $52.8 billion in state monies established TANF 5 million students enrolled in public school 1965 Medicare Medicaid joint federal / state program system CHIPS Education 2003 prescription drug benefit program 2010 affordable care act; passed social welfare/healthy policy water resources 2012 NFIB v. Sebelius; individuals be forced to buy insurance as taxing Desegregation Water policy de jure segregation life blood of Texas Plessey v. Ferguson Jim crow laws brown v. board of education ended Jim very important to economic growth water consumption increase by 82% by crow laws 2060 brown II, all deliberate speed problem is drought, topography, and law of massive resistance property rights white flightmove of white citydwellers to law of capture the suburbs to escape the influx of court reinforced property rights, makes it minorities difficult to manage aquifers underground Shum v. CharlotteMecklenburg bussing minorities to schools more efficient use of water and importance of expanding and developing available Milliken v. Bradley Detroit schooling surface water san Antonio v. Rodriquez no educational equity 26 new reservoirs by 2060 Kirby v. Edgewood isd violated Texas constitution Bicameral two branch system Place limits of terms a legislator can serve House of reps Usually 6 yrs 2 year terms In Texas 25 years House of reps 150 750,000 + per person Senate 31> doesn’t include Lt. governor who votes Decide election if no winner forties Power of purse=raise taxes Speaker of the house Senate o Party leader (R) 17 amendment Majority leader Assistant leader Impeachment trial Ratify treaties o Party leadership (D) Confirmation power Minority leader [Nancy] Assistant leader Proportional vs. equal representation Great compromise Standing Checks and balances Chairs of committees Caucuses Texas has a bicameral house House 2yr terms and 21 yrs of age President of senate is the VP Senate 4yr terms and 26 yrs of age Standing committees/chair Party caucuses 811,000 constituents in house 168,000 constitutions in house Texas HR Citizens vs. professional legislature Texas legislature o Speaker Joe Straus 140 days every other year o Committees and committee chairs o No majority/minority leader Legislative powers Senate 1. Bills o PresidentLt. Governor Dan Patrick 2. Resolutions o President protemper Nonlegislative powers o Committees and cheer 1. Letters of recommendation Styles of representation 2. Electoral power Delegate a person sent or authorized to represent 3. Investigative power others 4. Directive and supervisory powers Trustee an individual person or member of a board 5. Judicial powers impeach members of executive and judicial branches of state government given control or powers of administration of property in trust with a legal obligation to administer it solely Article I of US constitution Bicameral institution for the purposes specified Politico politician House of reps 21% of women in Texas representation Senate house Elections 20% Latino representation Context dependent 6 year terms Does rep known preference 2 year terms Direct popular vote the process by which qualified voters How secure does legislator believe they are? Time horizon choose candidates or vote on issues Salience of a particular issue Represented by population shows state power The problem of representation Wesberry vs. sanders requires each state to draw its U.S. Institutional economics/rational choice Congressional districts so that they are approximately equal in population Principal agent problem occurs when one person or entity is th able to make decisions on behalf of another person or entity 17 amendment popular election of senators Resolutions: Powers of congress Concurrent a resolution adopted by both houses of a Madison legislative assembly that does not require the Federalist 51 Bicameralism signature of the chief executive and that does not have the force of law Citizen vs. professional Term limits movements Joint requires approval by the Senate and the House Interest groups/ medium and is presented to the President for his approval or Constituency service disapproval Constituent assistance with govt. agency Amendments to the Texas Legislation Simple passed by only either the Senate or the Giving speeches House Oversight/iron triangle Internal housing keeping Legislative committee Honoring citizen Bureaucracy statutes: Interest groups local laws written by congress or state legislature Investigations special Judicial function (impeach/hearings) general enactment of a legislative authority that Governor/Lt. Governor governs a state, city or country. Interest groups all tax bills originate in house of reps Public opinion introduction Media repeal Judiciary overlapping jurisdiction jurisdiction that can be What kind of reforms have been considered that has changed exercised simultaneously by more than one court the constitution in big or small ways? over the same subject matter and within the same 3 states that vote for governor prior to an election territory Kentucky committee consideration Louisiana > Jungle primary R1 in September and R2 kill bill in November amendment bill Mississippi substitute bill 2 states house of reps: New jersey floor: speaker > govt > sign > law Virginia senate 14 governors elected in presidential year floor: lt. govt > govt > veto Texas is one of the 31 states to elect a governor in the midterm Conference committee consists of house and senate Cloture of election years petition close outdebate 60 votes 5 governors elected in odd # years Principalagent theory> public choice theory Professionalization vs. citizen legislature Inparmotion asymmetry A situation in which one party in a Plebiscitary democracy A direct vote in which the transaction has more or superior information compared to entire electorate is invited to accept or refuse a another proposal Resolution vs. law Filibuster rule procedure where debate over a Repeal proposed piece of legislation is extended, allowing Consideration by standing committee one or more members to delay or entirely prevent a trying to resolve a bill vote on the proposal Calendar committee committees of the Texas House Suspension of rules procedures within the United of Representatives are assigned half by seniority and States Congress that allows for the general half by the Speaker of the House parliamentary procedure of how and when to suspend Suspension of rules specific set of procedures within the rules the United States Congress that allows for the general Executive parliamentary procedure of how and when to suspend Term limits/unitary executive the rules Judicial reform Internal Appointed judges Spatter/ Lt. Governor Legislature appointed Committee chair/ party application Retention election appointment t+ electionCali Yes/no binary 2 years budget cycle External Governors: 32 (R) 18 (D) Governor 1978: Bill Clements (R) Public opinion 1986: elected Lt. governor: republican control since 1998 1. agency/commission be allowed to remain 1998: rick Perry 2. reorganization/reform Disruptive technology: Air BnB and Uber 3. abolition of agency/commissions 49th: Modest/incremental legislature: filibuster rule, suspension rule appointments Executive: institution capacity budget organizational ability/reorganizational ability Judicial: sunset commission Moderate removal types of law: federal and state term limits changing terms of office expand veto and term limits constitutional law judicial appointment and merit selection activist vs. self restraint precedent aware of fact that they are just one branch Radical/sweeping direct democracy and citizen partisan of govt. unity criminal law, administrative law and civil law Capital crime single supreme court path dependency more difficult to change course Miranda rights right to counsel sunk cost effect invest a lot until it works but when it Gideon v. waillwright (1962) (criminal law) Estelle v. Ruiz prison system was unconstitutional succeeds it is a bust and out of date governor 4yrs state farm co v. Campbell legal liability (civil law) Criminal: more advance media than legislature veto legislation misdemeanors: line item veto 6 person juries unanimous vote post adjournment veto beyond a reasonable doubt appointment powers pardoning Felonies: Texas v. Elliott control of national guard grand jury indictment governor is not term limited Lt governor 4 yrs is there sufficient evidence 12 person jury legislative review board unanimous attorney general 4yrs beyond a reasonable doubt advisory opinion Civil: chief legal officer of state
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