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Social Psychology PSY 3331

by: Nicholas Notetaker

Social Psychology PSY 3331 PSY 3331(social psychology, Jinkyung Na)

Nicholas Notetaker
GPA 2.76

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These are my social psychology notes, I reorganized the class notes and book to make chapter specific content, as well as a study guide for chapters 11-14 along with key terms. These notes are take...
Social psychology PSY 3331
Dr. Na
social psychology, Psychology, PSY 3331, MCAT
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Ch. 1 Social psychology An invitation to social psychology 1. What is social Psychology? a. Social psychology i. study of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors in social situations 2. Comparing social psychology to other social research a. Social psychology i. Focuses on how social situations can influence the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of an individual b. Personality psychology i. Focuses on how differences between individuals influence thoughts, feelings and behaviors c. Sociology i. Focuses on behavior of communities and groups not individuals d. 3 components of Social Psychology i. Power of the situation ii. The role of construal iii. Automatic versus controlled processing 3. Power of the situation a. Situations can often determine behavior despite individual differences 4. Fundamental Attribution Error a. Fundamental Attribution Error i. Tendency to overestimate the role of personality and to underestimate the role of situations when  explaining other people’s behavior 5. Channel Factors a. Often the influences of situational factors aren’t fully recognized b. Channel factors i. Small situational factors can have large influences on behavior by guiding behavior in a particular  direction 6. The Role of Constuals a. Construal i. Interpretation and inferences made about a stimulus or situation b. Interpretation is an active process i. Interpretations are subjective, not objective ii. Interpretations may misrepresent the truth c. Construals can govern behavior i. How we interpret a situation will influence how we act in that situation 7. Schemas a. Schema i. General knowledge about the physical and social world ii. Includes expectations about how to behave in different situations b. Schemas influence behavior and judgment i. Prior expectations influence construals 8. Automatic versus controlled processing a. Social information may be processed two different ways b. Automatic processing i. Automatic, involuntary, unconscious ii. Often based on emotional responses c. Controlled i. Conscious, systematic, and deliberate ii. Controlled processing can override automatic responses 9. Unconscious processing a. Unconscious influences occur without awareness i. Muscular feedback: more positive judgments are made if pulling the arm toward the self and more  negative judgments in pushing the arm away from the self 10. Evolution and behavior a. Evolutionary theory may explain many human behaviors i. Natural selection shapes plants and animals to have traits that enhance the probability of survival and  reproduction ii. Physical and behavioral traits are shaped by natural selection b. Evolution may explain why many human behaviors are apparently universal and occur in all human cultures 11. Human universals a. Many human behaviors and social customs are culturally universal i. Marriage, incest avoidance, taboos, gossip, and so on b. Some practices are shared with other animal species i. Facial expressions, food sharing, social status, and fear of snakes are common among all primates 12. Naturalistic fallacy a. Naturalistic fallacy i. Idea that because something is natural then that is the ways it should be ii. Caution is warranted when interpreting evolutionary approaches to behavior b. Evolutionary theories are sometimes controversial i. Many oppose the idea that human behavior is heavily governed by genetics and biology ii. Biological theories of human behavior and ability were misused in the past 13. Culture and human behavior i. People have substantial control over their life outcomes and they much prefer situations in which they  have choice and control to those in which they do not. People want to achieve personal success. ii. They find that relationships with other people can sometimes make it harder to attain their goals. iii. People want to be unique, to be different from other people in significant respects. iv. People want to feel good about them. Excelling in some ways and being assured of their good qualities  by other v. people are important to personal well‐being b. Despite many human universals, there is cultural variation in how universals are expressed 14. Social Neuroscience a. Scientists have begun studying how changes in brain activity influence social behavior i. Specific areas of the brain are found to be more active during different cognitive and emotional tasks b. Brain influences on development of social behavior i. Areas of the brain linked to sensing danger are poorly developed until mid­20s ii. This may explain why teenagers engage in more risky behavior Ch. 2 the methods of social psychology 1. What can we learn from social psychology? a. Social psychology i. The scientific study of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of individuals in social situation b. Major topics i. Self, attribution, & social influences c. I knew it all along 2. Hindsight bias a. Hindsight bias i. Tendency to be overconfident about one’s ability to have predicted a given outcome after already  knowing the outcome ii. People are often inaccurate when trying to predict results of social psychology research iii. The feeling that you “already knew” the results of a social psychology experiment research are  unjustified 3. What can we learn from social psychology? a. Social psychology can reveal how behaviors are influenced by social situations b. Social psychology shows that much of our behavior is influenced by factors of which we are often unaware c. Social psychology can reveal many ways in which our perceptions are often inaccurate or mistaken 4. How do social psychologists test ideas? a. Hypothesis i. A prediction about what will happen under particular circumstance b. Theory i. A body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world c. Observational research i. Involves observing participants in social situations ii. Attempts to systematically observe behaviors 1. Behaviors may be recorded and categorized iii. May involve additional measures like interviews and questionnaires d. Archival research  i. Involves analyzing social behaviors documented in past records 1. Newspaper, police reports, hospital records, and so on ii. Can be used to test theories about social behavior 1. For instance, police and FBI records were used to test a theory that personal reputation was  more important in the Southern US than in the northern US 2. Homicides over insults are more common in the S than the N e. Surveys i. Involve asking participants questions, usually through an interview or a questionnaire f. Important to consider the number and type of people surveyed i. Survey results may be limited if the sample is biased ii. Surveys can accurately represent a population from a relatively small sample if the sample is unbiased g. Randomly choosing people from a population will create an unbiased sample i. Every person has an equal chance of being studied 5. Correlations research a. Correlational research i. Research that examines the relationship between variables without assigning participants to different  situations or conditions ii. Cannot make inferences about causes of behavior b. Correlation does not equal causation i. Correlation determines that two things are related but not that one variable causes changes in the other c. External variables may explain correlations i. A correlation between two variables may actually be caused by a third variable d. Self­selection i. The participants, not the researchers, determine the levels of the variable being studied ii. Researchers have no control over characteristics, choices, and behaviors of the participants 6. Experimental research a. Research that involves assigning participants to different situations or condition b. Participants should be randomly assigned to different conditions c. Experiments allow for causal inferences about how different conditions influence behavior d. Independent variable i. The variable that is manipulated by researcher ii. The independent variable is hypothesized to cause changes in the dependent variables e. Dependent variable i. Variable that is measured 1. Often a change in behavior, feelings, or evaluation f. Control condition i. A condition identical to the experimental condition but absent from the independent variable g. Random assignment  i. Random assignment to condition ensures that individual differences are evenly distributed across  conditions ii. Can infer that differences between experimental and control groups are due to experimental  manipulation and not to differences between the types of people that were in each condition h. Conditions are controlled or manipulated by the researcher i. Behaviors are systematically measured  j. Comparisons of how different manipulations affect behavior allow researchers to determine causal influences of  behavior 7. Useful concepts for understanding research a. Experiments can determine causation b/c variables are controlled, but manipulating the situation may limit the  validity of results b. External validity i. Experimental results can generalize to real­life situations b/c the experimental set­up resembled a real­ life situation c. Internal validity i. Confidence that the experimental results were being caused by the manipulated variables ii. Internal and external validity may be oppositely related 1. The more closely a situation resembles real­life (external validity), the more difficult it may be  too tightly control the situation (internal validity) d. Reliability i. How consistently a test will measure the variable of interest 1. If you took the same test twice, would it give you the same score? e. Measurement validity i. Degree that a test accurately measures the variable of interest for instance, are IQ tests true measures of  what people think of as intelligence? ii. Are personality tests good predictors of people’s behavior? 1. Studies suggest personality tests rarely predict behavior in specific situations f. Statistical significance i. Measure of the probability that a given result could have occurred by chance ii. Results that have a very low probability of occurring by chance are considered statistically significant 8. basic and applied research a. concerned with trying to gain knowledge in its own right b. aim is to gain greater understanding of a phenomenon c. applied research i. concerned with using current understanding of a phenomenon in order to solve a real­world problem d. social psychology EX] i. basic research in social psychology concerns how social info influences behaviors ii. applied social psychology has been used to help design advertising campaigns and behavioral  interventions 9. ethical concerns in social psychology a. research conducted at universities must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) i. IRB committees examine all research protocol to determine if the research is ethically appropriate b. Ethical considerations i. Informed consent 1. Participants should have sufficient info about the procedures to appropriately judge whether  they want to participate c. Deception i. Deception may be used in research if properly justified ii. Participants may be misled to prevent them from guessing the purpose of the study Ch. 3 The social self 1. The self in social psychology a. One of the most important concepts i. 31,550 abstracts (1974-1993) b. Guides our cognition, emotions, motivation 2. Nature of the social self a. The principles of psychology 1890 i. Individual self are beliefs about our unique personal traits, abilities, preferences, tastes, talents, and so forth ii. Relational self are beliefs about our IDs in specific relationships iii. Collective self are beliefs about our identities as members of social groups to which we belong 3. Origins of self-knowledge a. Family influence and sibling dynamics i. Diversification 1. Siblings may take on different roles in the family to minimize conflicts ii. Birth order may influence personality traits 1. Older siblings are often more responsible and supportive of the status quo, younger siblings are often more rebellious and open to new experiences 4. Family and other socialization agents a. Reflected self-appraisals b. Beliefs about what others think of our social selves 5. Situationism and the self a. Aspects of the self may change depending on the situation b. Working self-concept i. Subset of self-knowledge that is brought to mind in a particular context c. Distinctiveness i. May highlight aspects of the self that make us feel most unique in a given context 1. For instance, age may seem more important to self-definition if you are surrounded by much older people d. Social context i. Sense of self may shift dramatically depending on with whom we are interacting 1. For instance, may feel different about the self when interacting with authority figures than when interacting with subordinates ii. Both malleable and stable 6. Culture and social self a. Independent views of self more prominent in north American and western European cultures b. Interdependent views of self more prominent in many east Asian, south Asian, Mediterranean, Latin American, and African cultures 7. Gender and the social self a. Across cultures, men generally have more independent and women have more interdependent views of self i. Women likely to refer to relationships when describing self ii. Women more attuned to external social cues where as men more attuned to their internal responses b. Differences may be due to socialization i. Cultural stereotypes, parental feedback, educational treatment c. Evolution may contribute to gender differences i. Independent views of self may advantage males in acts like physical competition and hunting ii. Interdependent views of self may advantage females in acts related to maintaining social bonds and care giving 8. Social comparison a. Social comparison theory i. The hypothesis that we evaluate ourselves through comparisons to others ii. Downward social comparisons may boost self-esteem by making us feel better about the self iii. Upward social comparisons may motivate self-improvement iv. Automaticity of social comparison 1. Mussweiler & Ruter, 2003 2. Participants evaluated themselves or a celebrity on a series of personality attributes 3. Lexical decision task a. Participant’s best friend b. RT: self-evaluators < celebrity-evaluators 9. Narratives about the social self a. Self as a narrative i. Construct a story about the self to make sense of who we are and how we’ve changed over time ii. Individualists may recall life events from their won perspective iii. Collectivists may recall life events from others’ perspective 10.Organization of self-knowledge a. Knowledge about the self helps organize how we behave in different situations and with different people b. Self-schema i. Knowledge about the self ii. Conclusions about our behaviors and preferences and about how we are viewed by others c. Self-reference effect i. The tendency for info that is related to the self to be more thoroughly processed and integrated with existing self-knowledge, thereby making it more memorable ii. Better memory for info related to the self d. Self-complexity i. The tendency to define the self in terms of multiple domains that are relatively distinct from one another in content e. Spill-over effects i. Putting all your “self eggs” in one basket can be risky in the face of threatening, self- relevant events 11.Self-esteem a. Self-esteem i. The positive or negative overall evaluation that each person has of himself or herself ii. Trait Vs. state self-esteem b. Contingencies of self-worth i. An account of self-esteem that maintains that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures in domains on which a person has based his or her self-worth ii. The costly pursuit of self-esteem 1. Lowered feelings of autonomy 2. Less receptiveness to feedback 3. Threatened relationships 4. Heightened anxiety and stress iii. How to avoid the cost 1. Focus on how we strive for self-esteem but not on whether self-esteem is high or low 2. Something larger than the self including the others 12.Social acceptance and self-esteem a. Sociometer hypothesis i. A hypothesis that maintains that self-esteem is an internal, subjective index or marker of the extent to which a person is included or looked on favorably by others 13.Culture and self-esteem a. Members of individualistic cultures tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than members of collectivistic cultures i. Feeling good about the self as an individual is more valued in western cultures ii. For instance, many Asian languages have no equivalent word for the idea of self esteem b. Contact with other cultures can influence views of the self i. For instance, Asians with greater contact with western cultures report higher levels of self-esteem than those with less contact c. Members of collectivistic cultures place more value on self-improvement i. Less emphasis on feeling good about the self and more emphasis on feeling good about one’s contribution to collective goals 14.Dangers of high self-esteem a. People with high self-esteem may be more sensitive to threats, insults, and challenges i. If high self-esteem is unwarranted, these may make the person feel insecure ii. Those people may react more aggressively when self=esteem is threatened b. Inflated self-esteem can be counterproductive i. Many psychopaths, murderers, rapists, violent gang members have very high self- esteem ii. High self-esteem may allow individuals to be satisfied with the self despite poor life outcomes 15.Motives driving self-evaluation a. Self- enhancement b. Self-verification 16.Self-enhancement a. Better-than-avg effect i. Most westerners tend to have a positive view of the self ii. Tend to rate the self as better than avg on most traits iii. Weight abilities we excel at as more valuable b. Maintaining positive self i. Downward social comparison ii. Idiosyncratic definition iii. Compensatory self-enhancement iv. Discounting v. External attribution for failure whereas internal attribution for success vi. Bask in reflected glory c. Self-evaluation maintenance (SEM) Model i. A model that maintains that people are motivated to view themselves in a favorable light and that they do so through two processes: reflection and social comparison d. Self-enhancement is more common in individualistic cultures i. Members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to report enhanced feelings of control, less likely to rate themselves as better than avg, and less likely to be unrealistically optimistic e. Self-improvement vs. self-enhancement i. False-feedback about performance ii. Canadians worked harder after success iii. Japanese worked harder after failure f. Positive illusions and mental health i. Most assume that proper mental health is marked by realistic views of the world ii. Research suggests that most well-adjusted people may have slightly unrealistic views about themselves g. Benefits of positive illusions i. Elevate positive mood and reduce negative mood ii. Foster social bonds by making people more outgoing iii. Promote pursuit of and persistence at goals 17.Self-verification a. Self-verification theory i. Motivated to have views of the self that are accurate, consistent, coherent ii. Desire accurate views of abilities to ensure more success and less failure in social interactions b. Self-enhancement vs. Self-verification i. Self-enhancement: emotional responses ii. Self-verification: cognitive assessment 18.Self-regulation a. Processes that people use to initiate, alter, and control their behavior in the pursuit of goals, including the ability to resist short-term awards that thwarts attainment to long-term goals b. Possible selves i. Hypothetical selves that a person aspires to be in the future c. Self-discrepancy theory i. Behavior is motivated by standards reflection ideal and ought selves ii. Individuals want to resolve discrepancies of who they are with who they want to be or ought to be d. Types of self i. Actual self: the person we believe ourselves to be ii. Ideal self: the person we wish we could be iii. Ought self: the person we feel we should be e. Consequences about discrepancy i. Actual self and ideal self: dejection-related emotion (depression or shame) ii. Actual self and ought self: agitated affect (guilt or panic) f. Promotion focus i. Focus on positive outcomes and moving toward becoming our ideal self g. Prevention focus i. Focus on negative outcomes ad attempt to avoid not living up to our ought self 19.Ego depletion a. Regulating behavior requires mental energy, but mental resources are limited b. Ego depletion i. State where previous acts of self-control drain ability to control future behavior 1. For instance, participants who controlled behavior by eating healthy radishes instead of delicious cookies gave up faster when they had to solve a puzzle later c. Factors that may counteract ego-depletion i. Plausible motives for good performance ii. Cash incentive iii. Positive emotions iv. Glucose 20.Automatic self-control strategies a. Automatic self-control strategies i. Influence behavior as well as thoughts, leading people to approach goals and to avoid temptations 21.Self-presentation a. Presenting the person that we would like others to believe we are b. Impression management i. Attempts to control how other people will view us ii. When interacting with others, we present a public face that we want others to believe c. Public face i. Awareness of what others think of us d. Private face i. Awareness of our internal feelings, thoughts, and preferences e. Self-monitoring i. The tendency to monitor and scrutinize one’s behaviors when in a public situation ii. High self-monitors try to fit their behavior to the situation, but low self-monitors are more likely to behave according to their internal preferences f. Self-presentational concerns i. Largely adaptive ii. However… 1. Physical appearance(skin cancer) 2. Adolescents’ risky behaviors 22.Self-handicapping a. Tendency to engage in self-defeating behavior to prevent others from assuming a poor performance was due to a lack of ability b. Self-handicapping may be a strategy for protecting the public self i. Self-handicapping provides an excuse for poor performance and emphasizes good performance 1. For instance, partying all night before an important exam 23.Protecting other’s face a. May strategically communicate in ways to preserve the public faces of ourselves and others b. On-record communication i. Direct, honest language meant to be taken literally c. Off-record communication i. Indirect and ambiguous language that hints at ideas and meaning w/out explicitly stating them d. Behaviors like flirting and teasing are examples of off-record communication i. We want the other person to infer meanings from what we say without saying it directly Ch.4 Social cognition: thinking about people and situations 1. Why Study Social Cognition? a. Research on social judgments examines how people make decisions, interpret past events, understand current events, and make predictions for future events b. Social judgments are often inaccurate­prone to many types of errors and biases 2. Info available for social cognition a. Firsthand info i. Info based on personal experience or observation b. Secondhand info i. Info that comes from other sources, like gossip, news accounts, books, magazines, the internet, and  so on 3. Minimal info a. Sometimes we have very little info but make judgments anyway­as when people make personality judgments based on physical appearance b. The accuracy of snap judgments i. Accuracy: mixed results ii. Perception (consensus opinion) 4. Misleading first hand info a. Personal experiences may be unrepresentative i. For instance, making judgments about what country is like from having visited only a few people  and places b. Pluralistic ignorance i. Individual motivations not to deviate from group norms can create misperception about those norms ii. Misperception of a group norm when people act at odds with their true preferences because they fear  social consequences c. Ex] of pluralistic ignorance i. Difficult topics in class 1. No one asks questions because everyone else is pretending they understand ii. Popularity of drinking in colleges and university 1. Students believe drinking is more popular than it is 5. Misleading secondhand info a. Ideological distortions b. Overemphasis on bad news i. Only 20%of all crime is violent c. Effects of the bad­news bias i. TV and fear of victimization d. Differential attention to positive and negative info 6. How info is presented  a. Order effects i. Primacy effect 1. When info presented first in a list has disproportionate influences on subsequent judgments ii. Recency effect 1. When info presented last in a list has disproportionate influence on subsequent judgments iii. Reasons for order effects 1. Cognitive limitations a. Easier to pay attention to first and last items 2. Items presented first influence construal of later items a. How happy are you with your life in general? VS. How many dates have you been  on in the past month? iv. Framing effects 1. The influence on judgment resulting from the way info is presented v. Types of framing effects 1. Order effect 2. Spin framing a. Framing info to be seen as favorable or unfavorable i. “pro­choice VS Pro­life” 3. Positive and negative framing  a. 10 out of 100 dying VS 90 out of 100 surviving b. Earning $10 or losing $10 c. Negative info draws more attention than positive info d. Info framed in negative ways will elicit stronger responses i. In decision making, a loss is more aversive than a missed opportunity e. Endowment effect: a person’s willingness to accept compensation for a good is  greater than their willingness to pay for it once their property right to it has been  established 4. Locking a door a. Securing the house b. Putting a key in the lock 5. Construal level theory a. Psychologically distant actions and events are thought about in abstract terms;  actions and events that are close at hand are thought about in concrete terms 6. Physical or psychological distance a. 3 miles away vs. 3,000 miles away b. You/close others VS distant acquaintances 7. How we seek info a. Confirmation bias i. The tendency to test an idea by searching for evidence that would support it ii. Can lead to false beliefs because people may fail to attend to disconfirming info b. Confirmation bias in personal judgments i. When asked to determine whether someone was extraverted, interviewers selected questions focused  on social interactions ii. When asked to determine whether someone was introverted, interviewers selected questions focused  on social withdrawal c. Motivated confirmation bias i. Confirmatory info is sought because people want to maintain in a certain belief 1. Effectiveness of death penalty 2. Pro­ and Anti­ death penalty  3. Stat­by­state and within­state comparisons 4. Results a. For instance, supporters and opponents of the death penalty were found to interpret  the same evidence in opposite ways 8. Using schemas to understand new info a. Bottom­up i. Data­driven info processing: judgments are made by taking in info piece by piece b. Top­down i. Info processing guided by prior knowledge: info is filtered and interpreted by expectations c. Knowledge structures i. Coherent clusters of info organized and stored together mentally d. Schema i. A knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored info e. Schemas guide attention i. Attention is selective ii. May pay attention only to things we expect to see 1. Gorilla costume study f. Schemas guide memory i. Attention in past tense  ii. Librarian vs. waitress iii. Encoding vs. retrieval iv. Schemas may influence how info is encoded into memory and how it’s retrieved from memory v. May remember info consistent with schemas better than inconsistent info g. Schemas guide inferences and construal i. Info may be interpreted in ways consistent with schemas ii. Especially when info is ambiguous h. Schemas guide behavior i. Exposed to “gray and wrinkles” 1. Walk slowly ii. Hears German music 1. Chooses German wine over French iii. Professor vs. soccer hooligan  1. Performance on a test of general knowledge iv. Activating stereotype VS a specific (Extreme) example 1. Professor VS fashion model i. Which Schemas are activated and applied?  i. Recent activation 1. For instance, playing the ultimatum game in a room with cues of the business world led to  more competitive behavior 2. Priming ii. Subliminal  iii. Frequent activation and chronic accessibility  iv. Similarity or feature matching 1. Us military intervention in a war presented as similar to WWII VS Vietnam   v. Expectation  1. Self­fulfilling prophecy 9. Reason, intuition, and heuristics a. Dual modes of info processing i. Intuitive, automatic, implicit 1. Rapid responses based on associations that come automatically to mind 2. Intuitive info processing can be done in parallel a. Many things can be intuitively processed at the same time ii. Controlled effortful, explicit 10. Heuristics a. Heuristics i. Intuitive mental operations that allow us to make decisions quickly and efficiently b. Two different types i. Representative heuristic  ii. Availability heuristic 11. Availability heuristic a. Heuristic used to judge the frequency or probability of events b. Judgments based on how easily something comes to mind i. Accessibility may be influenced by personal attitudes, cultural learning, or recent exposure c. EX] which has more tornadoes Kansas VS Nebraska i. Many would intuitively say Kansas b/c of how easy it is to think of an EX] from The Wizard Of Oz,  but the two states have about the same number of tornadoes d. Are there more words that begin with “r” or have “r” as the third letter? i. Many would intuitively say more words begin with r b/c it is easier to think of EX] but in reality  more words have r  as a third letter e. Biased estimates of contributions to joint projects i. Easier to think of EX] of what we did to contribute 1. Husbands and wives may have very different opinions about which has more responsibilities f. Ease of retrieval VS the amount of info g. Fluency i. The feeling of ease associated with processing info h. Some stimuli are easier to process than others i. For instance, unfamiliar or irregular words are harder to process than simple and familiar words i. Effects of fluency in info processing are similar to effect of mood i. Info processed more fluently is judged more favorably ii. Info processed less fluently may be more carefully scrutinized 12. Representativeness Heuristic a. Judgments based on how similar something is to a prototypical example i. Making judgments of social categories ii. Judging cause­and –effect relationships b. Judgments based on representativeness may ignore other important sources of info i. Base­rate neglect occurs when judging a likely choice of profession from individual personality traits 13. Planning fallacy a. Errors with the representativeness heuristic result from “inside” thinking i. Failing to take broader or outside perspective on the judgment b. Planning fallacy i. Tendency to be unrealistically optimistic about the time needed to complete a task c. Planning fallacy results from failing to take outside perspective i. Focus is on steps needed to complete the project at hand and may fail to consider how long similar  projects have taken in the past d. EX]  i. Students may underestimate how long it takes to complete a paper despite knowing that past papers  had taken longer than planned 14. Resemblance between cause and effect a. Big effects are thought to have big causes b. Health and medicine i. Using animal lungs to treat asthma c. Astrological signs 15. Joint operation of availability and representativeness a. A judgment that two things belong together can make an instance in which they do occur together  particularly available b. Illusory correlation i. The belief that two variables are correlated when in fact they are not ii. EX]blood type and personality 16. Intuitive judgment a. Produces many errors b. But many of the errors can be reduced c. Experiences or training are important Ch. 5 Social attribution: explaining behavior 1. Explaining events a. Attribution theory  i. General term for theories about how people explain the causes of events they observe b. Often make immediate inferences about other people based on their physical appearance i. Research shows people with more baby­faced features are judged as more naïve and trustworthy 2. Inferring the causes of behavior a. Causal attribution i. Explanation for the cause of your or another person’s behavior b. Importance of causal attributions  i. The type of attribution made will influence how you respond to the situation 1. For instance, if your friend cancel plans to get together with you, thinking your friend must  not be feeling well feels better than thinking your friend no longer likes you c. Internal attribution i. Behavior is explained by aspects of the person d. External attribution i. Behavior is explained by aspects of the situation e. Explanatory style i. A person’s habitual way of explaining events f. Explanatory dimensions i. Internal versus external 1. Degree that cause is linked to the self or to the external situation g. Stable versus instable i. Degree that the cause is seen as fixed or as something that is temporary h. Global versus specific i. Degree that the cause is seen as affecting other domains in life or is restricted to affecting one  specific domain i. Pessimistic attribution style i. Internal, stable, global attributions habitually made for negative events 1. “it’s my fault,” “I’m never going to be able to,” “I am no good at anything” ii. Pessimistic attribution style predict lower grades and poorer physical health later in life j. Attribution about controllability i. Controllability  hope or future efforts k. Gender and attribution style i. Gender differences in attributing their failures 1. Lack of efforts VS lack of ability ii. Feedback in the classroom 3. The processes of causal attribution a. Covariation principle i. Behavioral attributions are made by weighing info about the potential causes of the behavior b. Consensus i. What would most people do in the given situation c. Distinctiveness i. Whether an individual’s behavior is unique to a given situation or whether that person would behave  the same way in a different situation d. Consistency  i. Whether an individual acts the same way in similar situations 4. Covariation principle application a. External attributions likely if consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency are high i. For instance, a person yelling loudly during a football game 1. Since most people would (high consensus) 2. If the person doesn’t yell in other situations (high distinctiveness) 3. The person yells throughout the game or during other football games (high consistency) ii. Assume the person’s behavior is a product of the situation b. Internal attribution likely when consensus and distinctiveness are low but consistency is high i. For instance, a person laughing at a funeral 1. Since most people wouldn’t (low consensus) 2. If the person laughed in the other solemn situations (low distinctiveness) 3. The person continued to laugh throughout the funeral or at other funerals (high consistency) ii. Assume there is something unusual about the person 5. Attribution and imaging alternatives a. Prior knowledge about the world allows us to infer the likely cause of a behavior b. Discounting principle i. Principle that less weight should be given to a particular cause of behavior if there are other  alternative causes present c. Augmentation principle i. Principle that more weight should be given to a particular cause of behavior if the other causes  present would have produced an opposite result d. Make more inferences about people when they act in ways that are unexpected for the situation e. Expected VS unexpected i. Make more inferences about people when they act in ways that are unexpected for the situation f. Causal attributions can be formed by comparing real outcomes to imagined alternatives g. Counterfactual thinking i. Thoughts of what might have been, could have been, or should have been “if only” something had  been done differently h. Emotional amplification i. Emotional reactions to counterfactual thoughts increase depending on how easy it is to imagine the  alternative ii. May feel more personally responsible for failure depending on how easy it is to imagine the  alternative 6. Errors and biases in attribution a. Self­serving bias i. Tendency to attribute failures to external causes and success to internal causes 1. For instance, athletes may attribute losses to bad referees but victories to talent and hard  work ii. Self­serving biases can boost and maintain positive self­esteem 1. Students, professors… b. Fundamental attribution error i. Tendency to believe that a behavior is due to a person’s trait or disposition despite the situational  causes present 1. For instance, inferences may be made about someone’s true personality even when we are  aware that their behavior resulted from an assigned role 7. Causes of the fundamental attribution error a. Motivation to believe in a just world i. Just word hypothesis  1. Motivated to believe that people get what they deserve in life 2. Good things happen to good people, bad things to bad people ii. Fundamental attribution errors may be reassuring b/c we feel less vulnerable to external factors  influencing our life outcomes b. Automatic and controlled cognitive processing i. Dispositional attributions require more cognitive thought after weighing info about the context c. Salient situations i. Diagnose the individual’s dispositional anxiety VS diagnose the extent which a given situation is  anxiety­provoking d. The consequences of FAE i. Interviews ii. We tend to see a person (only) in a specific situation 8. Actor­observer differences a. Actor i. What kind of situation we are dealing with b. Observer i. What kind of person we are dealing with c. Attributions may differ between the person engaging in a behavior and a person observing the behavior i. The actor is disposed to explain behavior as due to the situation ii. The observer is disposed to explain behavior as due to dispositional qualities of the actor  1. For instance,  when explaining the choice major for themselves and their friends, students  focused on aspects of the major for their own choice, but on personality characteristics for  their friends’ choice d. Causes of actor­observer differences i. Perceptual salience 1. As actors, the situation is salient; as observers, the person is salient ii. May ignore the influence of dispositions when explaining our own behaviors iii. Lack of info about the intentions and past behaviors of the actor 9. Priming culture a. Evidence form Hong Kong i. Hong Kong is heavily influenced by both China and Western countries like the US and the UK b. For people who are connected to both independent and interdependent cultures, attribution styles may change depending on the cultural context i. Residents of Hong Kong can switch between independent and interdependent attributions style 1. Made more dispositional attributions after being primed with images related to Western  culture 2. Made more situational attributions after being primed with images related to Chinese culture 10. Social class and attribution a. Social class refers to the amount of wealth, edu, and occupational prestige a person and his or her family  enjoy b. Disposition: fixed or flexible 11. Culture and personality a. The “Big Five” dimensions of personality are the same cross­culturally i. For both individualists and collectivists, personalities can be described along traits of openness to  exp., conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism b. Individualists are more likely to view personality traits as stable, fixed, and unchangeable c. Collectivists are more likely to view personality traits as able to change through effort and changing  circumstances Ch 6 emotion 1. Characterizing emotion a. Emotion i. What are emotions? ii. When are we emotional? iii. What about moods, affects, feelings? iv. Brief, specific psychological and physiological responses that help humans meet goals, many of  which are social 2. Components of emotions a. Physiological responses b. Appraisal processes i. The ways people evaluate event s and objects in their environment based on their relation to our  current goals ii. Different appraisal trigger different emotions 1. Pleasantness, anticipated effort, certainty, responsibility and control… c. Core­relational themes i. Themes that define the essential purpose of each emotion ii. Core­relational themes are similar across cultures d. Primary appraisal stage i. Initial, quick, automatic, unconscious appraisal made of an even or circumstance ii. Primary appraisal lead to an initial pleasant or unpleasant feelings e. Secondary appraisals lead to specific emotions like fear, anger, pride, guilt, and so on 3. Universality and cultural specificity of emotion a. Evolutionary approaches i. Emotions are biologically based behavioral adaptations meant to promote survival and reproduction ii. Physiological responses to emotions(facial expressions, heart rate, breathing, vocalizations, and so  on) should be cross­culturally universal 4. Darwin and emotion a. Principle of serviceable habits i. Darwin’s thesis that human emotions derive from motivations and displays that were evolutionarily  advantageous for our mammalian and primate ancestors b. Darwin’s hypotheses i. Emotions are universal 1. All humans have the same facial muscles and express emotions similarly across cultures 5. Universality of facial expression a. Facial expressions are recognized cross­culturally i. Cultures never exposed to the west or western media (for EX], the fore of Papua new guinea) can  accurately ID expressions of happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear shown by  westerners ii. US college students accurately ID facial expressions shown by the Fore b. Human facial expressions resemble displays of other primates i. Human angry resembles other primates’ threat displays ii. When playing, chimpanzees have an “open mouth pant­hoot” that resembles human laughter iii. Human embarrassment resembles appeasement displays of other social mammals c. Facial expressions may be innate i. Blind and sighted athletes show similar facial expressions of pride after winning a competition d. Cultural approaches i. Emotions are influenced by views of self, social values, and social roles, which vary from culture to  culture ii. Emotions should be expressed in different ways in different cultures 6. Cultural specificity of emotion a. Cultures do show variation in expression of emotions b. Emotion accents i. Culturally specific ways that emotions are expressed 1. In India, embarrassment can be signaled by biting one’s tongue c. Focal emotions i. Cultures may emphasize and frequently express some emotions more than others 1. Collectivists may express more shame and embarrassment, whereas individualists may  express more pride d. Some cultures may hyper cognize specific emotions i. May have multiple words or descriptions for a particular emotion e. Culture and ideal emotions i. Low arousal positive states VS high arousal positive states f. Display rules i. Cultural rules that govern when how particular emotions should be expressed 7. Universality and cultural specificity of emotion a. Both evolutionary and cultural approaches are correct i. Emotional responses may be innate and universal, but cultures may have different emotional accents  and display rules 8. Emotions and intimate relationships  a. Touch and closeness i. Touch can promote closeness in social relationships b. Touch is pleasurable and rewarding i. Skin is the largest organ ii. Touching can release oxytocin c. Touch can be soothing and stress relieving i. Touch reduces stress hormone ii. Stress reduction is greater when touched by a loved one than by a stranger d. Touch encourages reciprocity i. In primates, touching increases likelihood of sharing food with grooming partners ii. In human, touch increases cooperation and compliance with requests e. Touch can signal social emotions like gratitude and compassion f. Emotional mimicry i. Many studies have found that people often unconsciously imitate others ii. Especially likely to mimic the emotions of others 1. Laugh when others laugh, blush when others blush g. Mimicry and friendship i. When doing amusing tasks, friends will mimic each others’ laughter, but strangers will not ii. Over the course of a year, the emotional responses of college roommates became more similar iii. Roommates who were closer friends mimicked each other more than those who were less close  friends h. Oxytocin and trust i. Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter involved in care giving and monogamous mating in  non­human animals 1. Oxytocin is also released during human childbirth, breastfeeding, and orgasm i. Oxytocin may be involved in feelings of love i. When women were asked to recall warm feelings about another person, gestural displays of love  were associated with higher levels of oxytocin in the blood stream 9. Emotions within and between groups a. Emotions and status within groups i. Displays of emotions like anger can increase social power within a group 1. Linked to higher perceptions of social status and more power in negotiations ii. Displays of emotions like embarrassment or shame can lead to decreased social power 10. Emotions and social cognition a. Emotions can influence how we process info and make judgments b. Emotions can influence judgments by being taken as additional info about the judgment i. Feelings­as­info 11. Emotions inform judgments a. Feelings­as­info i. For complex, difficult judgments, people may rely on current feelings or emotions to provide rapid,  easily available info b. Mood and life satisfaction study i. Study asking people to give ratings of their life satisfaction found that higher ratings were given on  sunny days than on rainy days  ii. However, when people were asked about the weather first, there was no effect of weather on  judgments c. Other EX] i. Bad moods negative judgments ii. Anger blaming  d. Moods have more influence on complex judgments than simple judgments i. How will global warming influence the American economy 20 years from now? ii. Is my car’s tire flat? 12. Emotions and moral judgment a. Emotions are essential to moral reasoning b. Many moral judgments are quick, effortless, and based on immediate emotional responses c. Other moral judgments based on more slow, deliberative reasoning i. Perspective taking ii. Weighing the pros and cons 13. Emotions influence reasoning a. Emotions can influence judgments by changing how info is processed i. Processing style perspective b. Processing style perspective i. Positive and negative emotions lead to different types of info processing ii. Positive moods lead to more top­down thinking 1. More reliance on schemas and heuristics iii. Negative moods lead to more bottom­up thinking 1. More systematic and analytical thinking  2. Especially for emotions linked to sadness c. For instance, sad moods may lead to less stereotyping than other moods i. Sad moods lead to more bottom­up thinking, so there is less reliance on stereotypes and heuristics d. Positive emotions lead to creativity and complexity i. Broaden­and –build hypothesis 14. Happiness a. The determinants of pleasure


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