Intro. to Sociology Chapter 10 Notes
Intro. to Sociology Chapter 10 Notes syg 1000
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Gender Inequality + Women make up half of the total work force, but are barely CEO’s or in charge of anything. ● Ilene Lang: Aggressiveness is needed in the work world of Wall street, which is favored in men but despised by women. Stereotypes prevent work. Maternity leave usually leads to getting fired (75%) ● Betty Dukes: Most famous gender lawsuit, Walmart cashier was paid less than her male counterparts in the same job and was constantly unpromoted. But the court couldn’t find enough proof to support the case. Still pending the case! ● Gender is a social status Basic Concepts ● Sex: Physical differences in the body (biological/anatomical) ● Gender: Psychological, social, and cultural social expectations appropriate for the member of the sex. These are socially formed traits of femininity and masculinity. + The most important differences are not biological! ● Gender role socialization:Process through which we learn about male and female roles based on family and the media and schooling. A rambunctious superhero inspires boys, mothers nurturing inspires girls. + Gender differences are not biological they are cultural. ● Social Construction of Gender: T he learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others. Rejects all biological bases for gender differences. Gender emerges in relation to perceived sex differences in society and helps shape those differences. Understanding Sex Differences: The Role of Biology ● Nature Perspective:Men usually pick more physical strength jobs and women pick more nurturing careful jobs. Most sociologists don’t like this perspective. Women are just as aggressive, they just use interpersonal aggression (gossip) more than men. Biology does play an important role, BUT not a sole role in determining behavior since social interaction is a vital role. ● More testosterone= more aggression. However, it is that aggressive behavior increases the hormone, not vice versa. ● Burman: School ages girls worked harder than boys did, mostly because of how their brains processed language differently. Biological differences are almost always exacerbated by social contexts and norms. Gender Socialization: How Gender Differences are Learned ● According to functionalist theory, socializing helps maintain smooth continuation of existing social order by overseeing smooth gender socializaion in new generations. Socialization theories ignore individuals ability to reject the social expectations of gender roles. Sex matters! Once a child is born, people will treat it differently according to its gender based on society’s assumptions. The Social Construction of Gender: How We Learn to “Do” Gender ● Both sex and gender can be socially learned. Biological components can change by social forces. + Social construction of gender completely reject biology for gender. ● We DO gender everyday in how we walk and talk and dress and everything.incent dressed like a man for 18 months to see how “he” would be treated, and he was treated more businesslike than flirtaciously. Social Construction of Gender in Other Cultures ● !Kung: Both men and women in the Kalahari desert engage in child care, they are nonviolent, Still do men hunt and female gathering, but the food is mostly from women. ● Bacha Posh in Afghanistan: P eople with only daughters experience shame and pity, so some are transformed into sons. It is helpful due to men’s advantage ● Multiple Genders: Navajo people appreciate people who can pull off both genders (male who acts feminine), due to it maintaining the idea of harmony. Culture, not biology, underlies gender differences. Roles are unknown where they came from and how they chance. Sociological Theories of Gender Inequalities + Functionalists view differences as essential key to social stability + Radical feminists view inequality as male oppression, Functionalist Approaches ● Society is interlinked and when in balance, operates smoothly= social solidarity. Men and women’s specialization in different tasks contribute to integration. More conservative view of the world (more prominent in 50s60s) ● Murdock: Practical and convenient that women work domestically and men work outside the home. It is logical and efficient that way (cross cultural study) and sexual division of labor is in all cultures. ● Talcott Parsons: Industrial families, children socialization focus, womxpressive roles (care and security) and men werinstrumenta (breadwinners.) This was also biological. Condones subordination of women at home, only promoted for convenience of men. ● Bowlby: Rose the ttachment Theory in which the mother is imperative for socialization. Mental health depends on close relationships with fematernal deprivation thesisargues working mothers are neglectful. ● Feminists say that women are not prevented due to biology, but it’s all based on cultural perception. + Children’s educational performance is even better when both parents work. + Gender difference across space and time are never fixed/static Feminist Theories ● These address gender inequalities and set forth agendas to overcome them. There is no ONE feminism. Liberal Feminism ● Sees gender inequality as rooted in social/cultural attitudes. Do NOT see women subordination as a larger system or structure, but identify sexism and discrimination in work and media. Want equality through democratic means. They want slow development and understandable methods, but radicals want overthrowal. ● Critics say they are unsuccessful and don’t acknowledge systematic oppression. Focus on independent deprivations (sexism, discrimination, glass ceiling, unequal pay), they then focus on larger features. Radical Feminism ● Men are responsible for/benefit from exploitation of women. Patriarchy is central concern. Family is a source of oppression since they depend on women’s unpaid domestic labor at home and deny their power in society. Firestone: Women depend materially on men for livelihood/protection. Women can only be emancipated through abolition of family and power relations that characterize it. Violence toward women is prominent here. Objectification of women counts here too. Patriarchy is systematic, so only overthrowing it can cure oppression NOT legislation. ● The concept of the patriarchy is inadequate as a source of oppression, it doesn’t leave room for historical/cultural variation. It ignores race and class on the nature of subordination. ● Biological reductionism: A ttributing all complexities of gender inequality to simple distinction between men and women. Black Feminism ● Most feminist schools focus on middle class industrialist white women in families. ● Black women were not central in women’s liberation since their race informed identities more than their gender did. ● Hooks: Black women usually head their families, so their oppression is located elsewhere. + Strength of Black Feminism lies in the interplay of race, class and gender. The reinforce and intensify one another. Postmodern Feminism ● Challenges idea that all women share a single identity and experience. Reject grand theories that explain women in society (no universal “woman”) No patriarchy ideas, they encourage many different standpoints as equally valid. Celebrates diversity and varying perspectives. Most difficult relationship since there is no possible overarching explanation for oppression. Research on Gender Today: Documenting/Understanding Gendered Inequalities ● Patriarchy: Men holding the power, all known societies are patriarchial, but the power varies across societies. ● Gender inequality: D ifference in power, status, prestige that women have in society. Gendered Inequalities in Education: Unequal Classroom Treatment ● Skirts in schools prevented casual sitting, less play, and less running. School texts are also more about men being adventurous while women are supportive. Boys get more teacher attention than girls do since men are more demanding. Usually gave girls the answer on the spot whereas they told the boys to do problem solving. Boys were rowdy and got more punishment, plus they have more learning disabilities ● Different treatment perpetuates stereotypical behavior. Black girls were treated as troublemakers Gendered Inequalities in the Workplace ● 60% of women are employed outside of the home and they make up half of the total workforce. Poor, immigrant and minority women have always had high rates of employment. Women participation slowly grows even to this day since the recession struck maledominated industries and allowed women to outnumber men in the work force. + Married mothers of young children have increasingly participated now. ● Increased demand for clerical and service workers allowed more women to work. Today’s majority of women of all educational levels work outside of the home during child rearing. Occupational Segregation ● WOmen filled lowe occupations as pay/prestige declined over time, so now most clerks and secretaries are women. ● Gender typing: Women holding lower paying jobs and men holding higher jobs. Jobs have a hierarchy where men are on top and women are on the bottom. Heightened by gender socialization, women grow up believing their husbands should hold better jobs than them. In fields such as law, medicine, and engineering, women have begun to grow in them since the 70s. Now they are ⅓ and outnumber men in schools that focus on them. But still men earn majority of doctorates in those fields. The Glass Ceiling ● This is a promotion barrier that prevents women’s upward mobility. They can take men’s jobs, but not get higher pay. Progress blocked not by virtue, but lack of sponsorship of senior colleagues to articulate their value to the organization. They progress to medium management, but not beyond. ● Dated stereotypes persist to this day! Men who work in female dominated professions work up easilly through the ladder. ● Williams: “Glass escalator” to reflect men’s rapid ascent up the hierarchy in female professions. The Gender pay gap has lessened over time, also increasing over races and ethnic groups BUT men still earn more than women. Women also experience sexual harassment and discrimination in workplaces. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace ● The unwanted/repeated sexual advancements and behavior by coworkers that result in discomfort and interference with performance. ● Quid Pro Quo: This Sexual harassment is when a supervisor demands sexual acts in exchange for promotions or advantages. ● Hostile work environment: Sexual language and advances from workers that adds to discomfort of area. Awareness has increased, but it’s rarely labeled as sexual harassment by women. They rarely report due to joking on the job, fear of not being believed, and not recognizing it as a major offense. ● The Civil Rights outlaws sexual harassment between members of the same sex. But when it’s so abusive that it prevents workers from doing their jobs, it violates the Civil Rights whether from the same sex or not. Global Gendered Inequalities in Economic Well Being ● Women make up 52% workforce in the world except Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia. The wage gap is slowly decreasing in industrial societies. Women make up 60% of the working poor in the world, worse in developing nations. They are concentrated in the declining agricultural sector in less industrial countries. ● 6 of the 10 richest women in the world are Chinese. Women’s share of professional jobs is highest in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union. Why? Because women in professional work have long standing policies supporting working mothers. Gendered Inequalities in the Family: Division of Household Labor ● Women faced compromised labor force prospects relative to men because women should run the house more. Work and family are competing social roles. Despite men starting to contribute to housework, women still mainly do the majority of the work. + Intersection of gender, marital status, and parental status shapes housework. Women save work from men, men add work for women. ● Even if a man has the same amount of children in their house, they do less housework than a woman would do. ● Men and women specialize in different chores. Women do more daily chores, more time consuming and daily. Major difference? Amount of control individual has over getting the work done. Men’s schedules are discretionary. Household work is exchanged for economical support, so women want to be dependent since they get paid less anyway. ● HOWEVER, this contributes to women’s inferior economic position. ● Correl: Mothers are less likely to be hired since stereotypes believe they will focus less on work and more on the home management. Plus they get lower payment. ● Homans: Interviewers always asked women if they had children (now illegal in U.S), but never ask the males. Gender Inequality in Practice ● Women are growing in politics, but are far from equality. (3 women currently occupy the Supreme Court) Women politicians are overwhelmingly affiliated with democrat party. However, Repiblican and Tea Party movements have many women leaders. + More local office= more likely it’s a woman since it is a part/time work in small towns. Farther from home, it becomes “man’s work.” ● Women make up about 19.3% of national legistlators in the world. Rwanda has the highest share of women in the lower house of Parliament. ● Women are likely to hold seats in societies that hold women’s rights as strong values. Unanswered Questions: Why do Gendered Inequalities Still Exist? The Gender Pay Gap: Why Do Women Earn Less Than Men? + Women earn 80 cents per dollar a man makes. Men are losing jobs due to the recession, but women are still making less. ● Sex Segregation: Concentration of men and women in different occupations. This is a problem because the gender composition of a job is associated with the pay received for that job. + Both men and women are disadvantages if an occupation is mostly female. ● Equal Pay Act: Requires employers to provide equal pay to workers in the SAME job, but men and women rarely do the same work. Comparable worth policies may help minimize the gender pay gap since they are payequity policies. + Economists focus on occupational choices, sociologists focus on the constraints women face. ● Human Capital Theory: Becker developed this argument that individuals make investments in their own human capital (work experience, education, training) to increase productivity and earnings. More knowledge= more production. Theory believes women’s primary focus is home and family, so they have flexible jobs with moderate incomes. When they focus on children, their skills deteriorate. ● Workplace gatekeepers prevent women from getting certain jobs, so this theory is hated by feminists. They don’t “choose” lower jobs. Plus it neglects power differentials (men still get paid more than women in the same job) According to human capital theory the gender gap can vanish if men helped work the house and children and women got just as much education. Comparable Worth: A Potential Policy Solution? ● Comparable Worth Policies: Policies that attempt to remedy the gender pay gap by adjusting pay so that those in femaledominated jobs are not paid less for equivalent work. Ranks skill and effort and conditions and then equivalently ranks male and female jobs to receive equal pay. HOWEVER, policies like this raise technical, political, and economic issues. (most importantly job evaluation) + It’s hard to make gender neutral assessments ● Comparable worth is inflationary and will cause wage losses and unemployment for some due to benefits enacted on others. Why are Women so often targets for VIolence? ● Date rape on campuses to systematic war rape, this resides to this day. Why? Violence against Women: Concepts and Patterns + ¼ to ½ of women in the world have been abused in some way by intimate partners. ● Rape: Forcing of nonconsensual vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Mostly male to female, but it’s not impossible for men to do it to men and women do it to men as well. + Most rapes go unreported! Men and women have different perceptions between what constitutes forced sex. ● Most rapes are committed by relatives, partners, and acquaintances. Other victimization was higher than that of rape in the study reported on a campus (stalking, sexual coercion, physical force, sexual assault) Why does violence persist? Competing Perspectives ● Brownmiller: Men are socialized to regard women as sex objects, men create a rape culture to make women fearful.it’s a sense of sexual entitlement. Acquaintance rape proves that men usually feel entitled to sex just for knowing the female. Rape is most common when men believe that norms condemning rape don’t apply.
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