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There is no real definition for intelligence Simon and Binet developed the first intelligence test Intelligence Test: diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability fluid intelligence: capacity to learn new ways of solving problems crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time Chris Langan = VERY high IQ as a child but unremarkable occupational success Spearman’s Theory g general intelligence: hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people s specific abilities: particular ability level in a narrow domain Gardner's theory Multiple intelligences = multiple frames of mind / different ways of thinking about the world each frame of mind is a different and fully independent intelligence in its own right basically individuals vary in skill ability in different things Sternberg's Theory Triarchic model: o Analytical intelligence: ability to reason logically "book smarts" o Practical intelligence: a.k.a tacit intelligence = solving real world problems, especially those involving other people "street smarts" has also been called social intelligence = capacity to understand others o Creative intelligence: creativity Intelligence is more localized to certain areas of the cortex than others intelligence is related to efficiency or speed of information processing Intelligence Testing Metacognition: refers to knowledge of our own knowledge How we calculate IQ o StanfordBinet IQ test originally developed for children wide variety of tasks e.g. testing vocabulary and memory for pictures, naming familiar objects, repeating sentences o Intelligence Quotient IQ = Invented by Stern = (mental age / chronological age) * 100 Mental Age: age corresponding to the average individuals performance on an intelligence test chronological age: age in actual years Flaw: around age 16 performance on IQ doesn’t increase by much = as people get older everyone’s IQ gets lower SO deviation IQ is used = expression of a persons IQ relative to his or her same aged peers o Eugenics: movement in 20th century to improve a populations genetic stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce, preventing those with bad genes from reproducing o WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting of 15 subsets to assess different types of mental abilities o Peoples cultures can affect peoples familiarity with test materials = Culture fair IQ tests: abstract reasoning measure that doesn’t depend on language and is often believed to be less influenced by cultural factors than other IQ tests Within a population, IQ scores are distributed in a bell curve Founded by Gauss Mental retardation: condition characterized prior to adulthood, IQ below 70 and inability to engage in adequate daily functioning more severe = less likely to run in families Mensa = top 2% in IQ range Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ Lower heritability of IQ at children at or below the poverty line high levels on environmental deprivation can largely swamp out effects of genes Malnutrition can also affect IQ negatively Individuals with higher IQ enjoy class more than low IQ = continue to pursue higher studies Flynn effect: finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately three points per decade Increased experience at taking tests Increased complexity of modern world = forced to process far more information far more quickly than before Better nutrition Changes at home and school = more time to kids or more intellectual resources Men are more variable in their overall IQ scores than women are Withingroup heritability: extent to which the variability of a trait within a group is genetically influence betweengroup heritability: extent to which differences in a trait between groups s genetically influenced Divergent thinking: capacity to generate many different solutions to a problem Convergent thinking: capacity to generate the single best solution to a problem Sensation and Perception Illusion: Perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesn’t match its physical reality Sensation: detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain Perception: the brains interpretation of raw sensory data Sensation allows us to pick up the signals in or environment and perception then allows us to assemble these signals into something meaningful The world is not precisely as we see it Sensation Detection of “raw sensory info from the environment Relies on the five senses but also the sixth sense = balance [ body orientation, kinaesthesia[body motion], proprioception [ limb position] , interoception [ internal organs ] Transduction: the process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical activity within neurons o Vision = photons of light o Hearing = vibrations in the air o Taste and smell = chemicals in air water and food o Touch = pressure, temperature, vibration Sense Receptor: specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system o Vision = light sensitive cells in retina [ rods and cones ] o Hearing = vibrations in sensitive cells in ear o Taste/Smell – Chemical receptors in nose and tongue o Touch = pressures and temperature sensors in skin and muscles o Balance = semicircular canals and otoliths Sensory Adaptation: activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected Psychophysics: the study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics Absolute Threshold: Lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50 percent of the time Just noticeable difference [ JND ]: the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect o JND is relevant to our ability to distinguish a stronger from a weaker stimulus o e.g. soft noise from a slightly louder noise o Weber’s Law: There is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus intensity The stronger the stimulus the bigger the change needed for a change in stimulus intensity to be noticeable e.g. dark room barely needs light to show but light room needs a lot of light Signal Detection Theory was developed to describe how we detect stimuli under uncertain conditions or different conditions Specific Nerve Energies: states that even though there are many distinct stimulus energies , light or sound or touch, the sensation we experience is determined by the nature of the sense receptor not the stimulus Synesthesia: a condition in which people experience crossmodal sensations o e.g. coloured hearing or even tasting or smelling colours Attention Selective attention: allows us to select one channel and turn off the others, or at least turn down their volume Filter theory of attention: views attention as a bottleneck through which information passes = this mental filter enables us to pay attention to important stimuli and ignore others Inattentional blindness: failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention s focused elsewhere Change blindness: failure to detect obvious changes in ones environment The Binding Problem Rapid coordinated activity across multiple cortical areas assists in binding When we see the world we rely on shape motion colour and depth which is detected individually but our minds combine them into a unified perception of a scene Sense of Vision Different parts of the eye allow in varying amounts of light Sclera: The white of the eye Pupil: Opening in centre lets in light Iris: Coloured area containing muscle that control pupil Cornea: Curved dome bends incoming light Lens: transparent disk that focuses light rays for near or distant vision Fovea: light rays are sharply focused Optic Nerve: impulses from retina to brain Retina: light is converted to nerve impulses Eye Muscle: rotate eye [ six in total ] Light enters eye in retina, retina light receptors absorbs light using receptors + electrical signals are made o Rods: light receptors for light and dark o Cones: light receptors for colours o Blind Spot: part of the visual field we ant see because of an absence of rods and cones Feature detector cell: cell that detects lines and edges Trichromatic Theory: we base our colour vision on three primary colours: blue green and red o Our vision is sensitive to these three colour cones o Most common colour bind individuals are dichromats , monochromats are very rare Opponent process theory o We perceive colours in terms of pairs: red or green, blue or yellow, black or white Visual Agnosia: deficit in perceiving objects can tell shape and colour but cant recognize or name it Auditory Sense Sound converted to neural signals mechanically o Sound waves vibrate tympanic membrane in ear = ear drum o Ossicles [ small bones= hammer anvil stirrup ] connect membrane to cochlea o Cochlea filled with fluid + have hair cell receptors o Hair cells move as waves through cochlea o Movement of hair cells generate neural signals o Organ of corti: tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing o Basilar membrane: membrane supporting the organ of corti and hair cells in the cochlea Chemical Sense Taste and smell rely heavily upon each other o Taste = gustatory sense o Clusters of receptor cells = taste buds o Sweet, salty, bitter, sour and umami o Bumps on tounge called papillae o No such thing as tongue taste map o Smell = olfactory sense Each olfactory neuron contains a single receptor that recognizes the odor based on shape sense receptors in nasal passageway The Tactile Senses Touch and temperature and pain = Somatosensory o Pressure, temperature, injury o Each injury has a threshold in thereafter we perceive as painful o Gate control method: idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms in spinal cord Nociception: specialized receptors for detecting pain o Cutaneous = in skin o Somatic = joints and muscles o Visceral = internal organs Body Position = Proprioception Balance = Vestibular sense Shape and design of receptors allows detection of different types of sensations Sensory Thresholds Absolute: absolute limit = what’s the quietest sound that you can hear Difference: How much louder before it actually sounds louder Perception: Perception is selective because attention is selective Making sense of your senses Five senses + Balance, Body position, Motion, Hunger, Thirst, Pain Attention is a key aspect of perception = needed for sensations to become perceptions Topdown processing: conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies o Can create perceptions that don’t match actual sensory information o “fillingin” + “seeing what you expect to see” o Bottom up processing: processing in which a whole is constructed from parts Parallel processing: the ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously Perceptual set: set formed when expectations influence perceptions Perceptual constancy: the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions = without this we would be very confused o e,g. our brain allows us o correct from minor changes in world around us Gestalt principles: rules governing how we perceive objects as a whole within their overall context o Proximity o Similarity o Continuity o Closure o Symmetry o Figure Ground Subliminal perception: perception below the limen or threshold of conscious awareness Overt attention: Conscious and intentional attending to a scene or stimulus = directed Covert attention: attention is ‘grabbed’ = not directly paying attention to Sine wave speech: distorted versions of speech that can be understood if given prior expectation McGurk effect: perception of language phonemes altered by visual cues e.g. bad lip reading Seeing without seeing Visual Agnosia o Vision is intact o Inability to recognize specific categories of objects o Damage to association areas of brain o Cannot recognize particular categories Prosopagnosia o Cannot recognize faces but can recognize other objects Memory: retention of information over time Paradox of memory: the same memory mechanisms that serve us well in most circumstances can sometimes cause us problems in others Memory illusion: false but subjectively compelling memory When we try to recall an event we actively reconstruct our memories using the cues and information available to us We don’t passively reproduce our memories Span: how much information each system can hold Duration: how longa period of time that system can hold the information Sensory Memory The first system is closely tied to the raw materials of our experiences Iconic Memory: Visual sensory memory Echoic Memory: auditory sensory memory Short Term Memory The second system that works actively with information it is given and then transforming it to more meaningful material before passing it on Works closer with ‘working memory’ Duration of memory is mostly likely no longer than 20 seconds Decay: fading of information from memory over time Interference: loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information o Retroactive interference: occurs when learning something new hampers earlier learning = new interferes with old o Proactive interference: occurs when earlier learning gets in the way of new learning Capacity: The span of short term memory according to George miller is seven plus or minus two o Chunking: Organizing information into meaningful grouping = allows us to extend the span if short term memory Rehearsal: chunking increases span of memory but rehearsal increases duration o Repeating information to extend the duration of retention Elaborative rehearsal: Linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short term memory Depth of processing / levels of processing: the more deeply we process information the better we tend to remember it Long Term Memory Retain important information and store information Facts, experiences and skills that we have accumulated over our lifetime Permastore: type of long term memory that appears to be permanent Primary effect: the tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well Recency effect: tendency to remember words a the end of the list especially well Serial position curve: graph depicting both primary and recency effects on peoples ability to recall items on a list Explicit memory: memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness o Semantic memory: our knowledge or facts about the world o Episodic memory: recollection of events in our lives Implicit memory: memories we don’t deliberately remember or reflect on consciously o Procedural memory: memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits o Priming: our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we’ve encountered similar stimuli Process’ of memory Encoding o Process of getting information into our memory banks o To remember something we must first make sure that the format in one our memories can use o To encode something we must first attend to it Storage o Process of keeping information in memory o Schema: organized knowledge structure or mental model that wee stored in memory But they can also create things that ay not have happened = oversimplify Retrieval o Reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores o Retrieval cue: hunt that makes it easier for us to recall information o Recall: generating previously remembered information o Recognition: selecting previously remembered information from an array of options o Relearning: reacquiring knowledge that wed previously learned but largely forgotten over time Biology of Memory Retrograde amnesia: lose some memories of our past Anterograde amnesia: lost capacity to form new memories Korsakoffs syndrome o Result of chronic alcoholism o Causes both anterograde and retrograde amnesia Memories are not a construction o Cannot perfectly record an event Emotional events are remembered more easily and vividly Hippocamus: brain area involved in storing and creating memory Amygdala: Brain area involved in processing emotional information Flashbulb memory: vivid and very emotional and detailed but not always accurate o Less accurate over time but certainty about the memory stays the same Source monitoring confusion: lack of clarity about the origin of a memory Cryptomnesia: failure to recognize that our ideas were originated with someone else Suggestive memory technique: procedure that encourages patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place Schemas and Scripts influence memory = can create false memories [ how it normally is but didn’t happen that way ] Misidentification: they choose the person that most closely resembles the culprit but not the actual “they all look the same to me” Racial errors 04/05/2016 Neurons "The brains communicator" nerve cells specialized for communication with each other brain contains about 85 billion neurons neurons have long extensions that help them respond to stimulation from other neurons and communicate with them Parts of the Neuron o The cell body a.k.a the soma central region of the neuron manufactures new cell components damage to this part of the neuron is fatal provides continual renewal of cell components o Dendrites receives signals branchlike extensions of the neurons Pass on "conversations" from neighboring neurons to the cell body o Axons and axon terminals are the transmitter = sends signals specialized for sending messages to other neurons longtail like extensions are very thin near the cell body tiny spheres: synaptic vesicles [spherical sac containing neurotransmitters] travel the length of axon into the axon terminal > then releases neurotransmitters [ chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron ] o Synapse once released from the synaptic vesicle neurotransmitters enter the synapse tiny fluid filled space between neurons through which neurotransmitter travel synaptic cleft: gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal gap surrounded by small patches of membrane on each side one to the sending axon of the first neuron and the other on the receiving dendrite of the second neuron Glial Cells cell in nervous system that plays a role in the formation of myelin and the blood brain barrier, responds to injury , removes debris and enhances learning and memory clear debirs acting as the brains cellular garbage disposals Astrocytes: communicates closely with neurons, increases the reliability of their transmission, control blood flow in the brain and plays a vital role in the development of the embryo o abundant in the bloodbrain barrier = protective shield that insulates the brain from infection by bacteria and other intruders Oligodendrocyte: promotes new connections among nerve cells and releases chemicals to aid in healing + produces an insulating wrapper around axons called myelin sheath [ contains numerous gaps all the way along the axon = nodes = help neurons conduct electricity more efficiently ] Neurons respond to neurotransmitter by generating electrical activity scientist record this activity using electrodes the membrane is at the resting potential Action potential: electrical impulse that travels down the axon triggering the release of neurotransmitter’s language of the neurons = uses this to communicate electrical charge reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse Absolute refractory period: time interval during which another action potential is impossible; limits the fastest rate at which a neuron can fire "takes time to reload" receptor site :location that uniquely recognizes neurotransmitters Electrical events transmit information WITHIN neurons but chemical events triggered by neurotransmitter communicate AMONG neurons after neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, they bind with receptor sites along the dendrites of neighboring neurons. reuptake: continually occurring process of synaptic vesicle reabsorbing the neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters Glutamate o excites neurons = increasing the odds that they'll talk with the other neurons o release of glutamate is associated with enhanced learning and memory o too elevated can lead to schizophrenia and other disorders Gammaaminobutyric acid o inhibits neurons = dampening neural activity o most anti anxiety drugs bind to GABA receptors = suppresses overactive brain areas linked to worry o plays critical roles in learning, memory and sleep Acetylcholine o plays role in arousal, selective attention, sleep and memory o in Alzheimer’s disease, neurons containing acetylcholine are gradually destroyed = severe memory loss o neurons that connect directly to muscle cells also release acetylcholine = triggers movement o e.g. how insecticides work is make breakdown of acetylcholine difficult = insects engage in violent movements that kill them Norepinephrine o brain arousal and other functions like mood, hunger and sleep Dopamine o critical role in the rewarding experiences that occur when we seek out or anticipate goals o brains rich in dopamine become active when we hear a funny joke o e.g. eating food releases dopamine Serotonin o mood and temperature regulation, aggression and sleep cycles Anandamide o THC Marijuana o plays role in eating, motivation, memory and sleep Endorphins o plays role in pain reduction = release endorphins to reduce pain Psychoactive: drugs that interact with neurotransmitter systems o Scientist have developed specific medications to target the production and/or the inhibition of certain neurotransmitters o opiates e.g. codeine and morphine = increase receptor site activity in specific our emotional response to painful stimuli = mimics endorphins o Xanax diminishes anxiety by stimulating GABA receptor sites o Prozac inhibit reuptake of certain neurotransmitter e.g. serotonin = by letting neurotransmitters stay in synapse longer = heighten effect think keep food in our mouth longer = makes it taste better o some act to decrease activity e.g. medication to treat schizophrenia blocks dopamine Plasticity: ability of the nervous system to change Development o Brain is most flexible during early development before nervous system has yet to be set in stone o brains don’t mature fully until late adolescence of early adulthood 1. Growth of dendrites and axons 2. Synaptogenesis: formation of new synapses; 3. Pruning: consisting of the death of certain neurons and the retraction of axons to remove connections that aren’t useful 4. Myelination: insulations of axons with the myelin sheath Learning Our brain changes as we learn by forming new synapses = increased connections and communications among neurons Injury there is only limited generation in the human brain and spinal chord but certain regions can take over the functions previously performed by other regions e.g. blind peoples capacity to read braille Neurogenesis: creation of new neurons in the adult brain Central Nervous System [ CNS ] Part of nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord that controls the mind and behavior Meninges: three thin layers of membrane protecting the brain and spinal cord Organization: Cerrebrum: Cerebral Cortex: o Largest part of forebrain o analyzes sensory information o Reasoning and language o Consists of two cerebral hemispheres connected by Corpus callosum [large band of fibre] Surrounding each hemisphere there are lobes: o Frontal Lobe: performs executive functions motor cortex prefrontal cortex broca's area o Parietal Lobe o Temporal Lobe o Occipital Lobe Basal Ganglia Limbic System Thalamus: sensory information to cortex Hypothalamus: endocrine and autonomic nervous system Amygdala: regulates arousal and fear Hippocampus: processes' memory Cerebellum Controls balance and coordinated movement Brain Stem Medulla: regulates breathing and heartbeats Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System [ PNS ] nerves in the body that extend outside the central nervous system Divided into two categories: Somatic [ Voluntary ] Autonomic "automatic" [nonvoluntary ] Sympathetic o "flight or fight" Parasympathetic o rest or digestion Endocrine System Hormones chemicals released into the bloodstream that influences particular organs and glands Pituitary Gland under control of hypothalamus directs other glands of the body Adrenal Gland releases adrenaline during states of emotional arousal Mapping the Brain EEG Electroencephalograph measures electrical activity generated by the brain patterns and sequences in EEG allow scientists to infer whether a person is awake or asleep/ dreaming or not/ what regions of brain are active during specific tasks Doesn't require penetration > records at the surface of the skull BUT not good for determining wherein the brain the activity is occurring CT and MRI Computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging allows us to visualize the brains structure 3D reconstruction of multiple xrays taken through a apart of the body PET positron emission tomography measures changes in the brains activity in response to stimuli requires injection of radioactive glucoselike molecules into patients fMRI Functional MRI uses magnetic fieldsto visualize brain activity using changes in blood oxygen level = INDIRECT indicator of neural activity Prefrontal lobotomy: surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus Heuristic: Mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world Research Designs Naturalistic observation: watching behavior in realworld settings without trying to manipulate the situation o Advantage: high in external validity [ low in internal validity ] o Disadvantage: doesn’t allow for us to infer causation External validity: extent to which we can generalize findings to realworld settings Internal validity: extent to which we can draw causeandeffect inferences from a study Case study: research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period o Advantage: can provide existence proofs o Advantage: Allows us to study rare or unusual phenomena o Disadvantage: doesn’t allow us to infer causation o Existence proof: demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur Random Selection: Produce that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate What makes a study an experiment? Random assignment of participants to conditions o Assigns control group + experimental group o Random assignment: randomly sorting participants into two groups o Control group: in an experiment the group of participants that don’t receive the manipulation o Experimental group: in an experiment, the group of participants that receive the manipulation Manipulation of an independent variable o Independent variable: variable that an experimenter manipulates o Dependent variable: variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect o Operational definition: a working definition of what a researcher is measuring When the independent and dependent variables are defined Placebo effect: improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement a. To avoid this the patient must remain blind o Blind: unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group Nocebo effect: the “evil twin” of the placebo effect Harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm Rosenthal effect / Experimenter expectancy effect: phenomenon in which researcher’ hypotheses leave them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study Doubleblind: when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the experimental or control group Demand characteristics: cues that participants pick up from a study that allows them to generate guesses regarding the researchers hypotheses To combat this researchers sometimes conceal the nature of their study to make sure that participants cannot alter their responses to something that you may wish to hear Institutional Review Board: reviews all research carefully with an eye toward protecting participants against abuses Informed consent: informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate Developmental Psychology: study of how behavior changes over the lifespan Post hoc fallacy: false assumption that because on event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event experiences influence development BUT development also influences experience crosssectional design: research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time Cohort effect: effect observed in a sample of participants that results from individuals in the sample growing up at the same time Longitudinal design: research design that examines developments in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time gene expression: activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout the development Prenatal [ prior to birth] human body acquires basic form and structure zygote is formed germinal stage: o zygote divides and forms blastocyst: ball of identical cells that have not yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part o around second week cells begin to differentiate, taking on different roles as the organs of the body begin to develop embryonic stage: o second to eight week o lims, facial feauures and major organs begin to take shape o many things can go wrong in fetal development Ninth week most major organs are established and heart begins to beat = fetal stage Brain development brain develops 18 days after fertilization brain continues to develop well into adolescence and early adulthood proliferation: neurons begin developing at an astronomical rate After fourth month migration of cells begin to occur = neurons start to soft themselves out and move into the specific structure of the brain e.g. hippocampus and cerebellum Environmental Influences Teratogens: environmental factors that can affect prenatal development negatively alcohol can result in fetal alcohol syndrome which can lead to disabilities e.g. learning, physical growth, facial malformations, behavioral disorders cigarettes smoking = most prevalent teratogens Babies are born with a large set of automatic motor behaviors = reflexes these are triggered by specific types of stimulation age at which motor behaviors occur vary but milestones occur in the same order generally e.g. crawling to walking to running Bodies don't reach full maturity until adolescence many hormonal changes occur pituitary gland stimulates physical growth and sex hormones are released into blood stream = growth and physical changes puberty: achievement of sexual maturation resulting in the potential to reproduce primary sex characteristics: a physical feature such as the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes secondary sex characteristics: a sex differentiating characteristic that doesn’t relate directly to reproduction, such as breast enlargement in women and deepening voices in men menarche: start of mensuration Cognitive development: how we acquire the ability to learn, think. communicate and remember over time Piaget o first person to represent a comprehensive account of cognitive development o showed that children’s understanding of the world differs fundamentally from adults o stage theorist = children’s development is marked by radical reorganization of thinking at specific transition points followed by periods during which their understanding of the world stabilizes o Assimilation and Accommodation Assimilation: process of absorbing new experiences into our current understanding Accommodation: process of altering beliefs about the world to make them more compatible with experience o Stages of development: Sensorimotor: stage characterized by focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally Birth 2 years No thought beyond immediate physical experiences Children lack Object permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view Preoperational: stage characterized by ability to construct mental representations of experiences but not yet perform operations on them 2 years 7 years can use symbols as language and drawings as representations e.g. banana as phone they are troubled with egocentrism: inability to see the world from others points of view + inability to perform mental operations Concrete operations: stage characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only 7 years 11 years o children are poor at performing mental operations in abstract / hypothetical situations, they need physical experience as an anchor to which they can tether their mental operations to Formal operations: stage characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and how most sophisticated type of thinking can understand logic concepts e.g. ifthen statements Vygotskys o interested in how social and cultural factors influence learning o scaffolding: Vygotskian learning mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually removes structure as children become more competent o Zone of proximal development: phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction = learning new skill but aren’t yet successful at it o believed different children can acquire different skills and master tasks at different rates = no domaingeneral stages Change in adolescence o most brain maturation occurs prenatally and in the first few years on=f life o frontal lobes don’t mature fully until late adolescence or early adulthood o adolescents aren't capable to estimate risks o Older adults perform better on most vocabulary tests than younger because of crystallized intelligence Social Development in Infancy and Childhood o as early as four days after birth infants show a \marked preference for the mothers face o Stranger anxiety: a fear of strangers developing at 8 or 9 months of age o Temperament: basic emotional style that appears early in development and is large genetic in origin easy infants: about 40 % of babies are adaptable and relaxed difficult infants: about 10% are fussy and easily frustrated slowtowarmup infants: about 15% are disturbed by new stimuli at first but gradually adjust to them remaining 35% don’t fir neatly into any of these three categories o Imprinting geese follow the first object they see after hatching they imprint on whatever large moving object they see first imprinting only occurs during a critical period = window of time during which an event must occur o contact comfort: positive emotions afforded by touch Attachment Styles o Many Ainsworth developed the strange situation = laboratory procedure designed to evaluate attachment style by observing 1 year olds reactions to being separated from and then reunited with their primary caregivers o 1. Secure attachment about 60% US infants infant explores room but checks to make sure mum is watching and returns to mum when stranger enters upset when mum departs and greets her return with joy mum = secure base o 2. Insecureavoidant attachment about 1520% US infants Infant explore room independently without checking with mum indifferent to entry of stranger no distress at mums departure displays little reaction upon her return o 3. Insecureanxious attachment about 15 20 % US infants does not explore toys without mums assistance distress when stranger enters reacts to mums departure with panic + mixed reaction to her return o Disorganized attachment 510 % US infants added in later react to mum, stranger and toys with mixed reaction o Infants can form multiple attachments e.g. father, siblings and other caregivers o Strange situation is NOT reliable as infants can change their attachment styles Diana Baumrinds o Permissive: permissive parents tend to be lenient with their children, allowing them freedom inside and outside the household = use discipline sparingly if at all and often shower their children with affection o Authoritarian: authoritarian parents tend to be strict with other children, giving their children little opportunity for free play or exploration and punishing them when they don't respond appropriately to their demands, They show little affection toward their children o Authoritative: authoritative parents combine the best features of both permissive and authoritarian worlds = supportive of their children but set clear and firm limits Role of the father: fathers differ from mums o tend to share less mutual attention and less affection than mothers o spend less time with babies as mums do \fathers spend more time with physical play o children tend to choose fathers as playmates over mothers Emerging adulthood: period of life between ages of 18 25 when many aspects of emotional development, identity and personality become solidified Kohlberg and Morality o preconventional morality: marked by a focus on punishment and reward o conventional morality: marked with a focus on societal values post conventional morality: marked by a focus on internal moral principals Social Psychology: is the study of how peole influence others behaviors, beliefs and attitudes Helps us understand why we act the way we do Humans are highly social species 150 is the magic number for most human social groups when deprived of social contact for elongated periods of time we become lonely Need to belong theory: we humans have a biologically based need for interpersonal connections Perceptual Salience: attributions often based on what is most obvious to us Threat of social isolation can lead us to behave in self destructive ways and impair mental functioning Conformity, obedience and many other forms of social influence become maladaptive only when they’re blind or unquestioning Social comparison theory: theory that we seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of other Mass hysteria: contagious outbreak of irrational behavior that spreads much like a flu epidemic Attributions: assigning causes to behavior Fundamental attribution error: tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other peoples behavior Personality traits, attitudes and intelligence Influenced by culture Conformity Gender doesn’t seem to matter much when it comes to conformity Culture does Deindivuduation Groupthink: emphasis on group unamity at the expense of critical thinking o ‘devils advocate’ tends to reduce group think Group polarization: tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members Cult: group of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause Inoculation effect: approach to convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking them Obedience Adhere to instructions from those of higher authority Pluralistic ignorance: error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do The more people present at an emergency the less each person feels responsible for the negative consequences of not helping = diffusion of responsibility Social loafing: phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups Aggression Attitude: belief that includes an emotional component Cognitive Dissonance theory: unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs o Effort justification: dissonance from extra effort or cost o Insufficient justification: dissonance from behavior inconsistent with attitude without sufficient reason Self perception theory: theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors Impression management theory: theory that we don’t really change our attitudes but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with our attitudes Compliance Both positive and negative moods can increase rates of compliance Men likely to help in heroic ways Women likely to help in long term commitments Habituation: process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Ivan Pavlov discoverer of classical conditioning classical [pavlonian] conditioning o form of learning in which animals come to respond to previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response Unconditioned stimulus [ UCS ] o stimulus that elicits automatic response Unconditioned response [ UCR ] o automatic response to a nonenutral stimulus that does not need to be learned Conditioned response [CR ] o response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning Conditioned stimulus [ CS ] o initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association wiht an unconditioned stimulus o Real life example of classical conditioning Conditioned Stimulus: photo of rotten eggs Unconditioned Stimulus: taste or smell Operant Conditioning learning controlled by the consequences of the organisms behavior a.k.a instrumental conditioning Differences to Classical conditioning o Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning o Target behavior is: elicited automatically vs. Emitted voluntarily o Reward is: provided unconditionally vs. Contingent on behavior o Behavior depends primarily on: Autonomic nervous system vs. Skeletal muscles Law of effect: principle asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future Skinner Box: small animal chamber constructed by Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviours to be recorded unsupervised Terminology o Positive Reinforcement Increases Target behavior Presenting a stimulus e.g. giving a gold star for homework completed = child studies more o Negative Reinforcement Increases Target behavior Removing a stimulus e.g. static on phone stops if you stand in a certain spot = you stay there o Positive Punishment Decreases Target behavior Presenting a stimulus e.g. scolding a pet for a certain action = pet stops doing bad action o Negative Punishment Decreases Target behavior Removing a stimulus e.g. taking away a toy from a child to stop bad behavior o Punishment can have disadvantages tells somebody/thing what NOT to do but not what TO do Can create anxiety = may interfere with future learning Can make bad behavior more secretive May provide model for aggressive behavior o Discriminative stimulus: stimulus that signals the presence of reinforcement e.g. you snap fingers at your dog and it comes to you expecting to be pet o Acquisition: learning phase during which a response is established o Extinction: gradual reduction and eventual elimination of a response after a stimulus is presented repeatedly o Spontaneous Recovery: sudden reemergence of an extinguished response after a delay o Stimulus Generalization: displaying a response to stimuli similar to bus not identical to the original stimulus o Stimulus Discrimination: displaying a less pronounces response to stimuli that differ from the original stimulus o Schedule of reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing a behavior o Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs, resulting in faster learning, but faster extinction o Partial reinforcement: only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, results in slower extinction Schedules of Reinforcement: o Fixed Ratio: provide reinforcement after a regular number of responses e.g. gets pellet after 15 correct lever presses on skinner box o Variable Ratio: provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average but the precise number of responses required during any given period varies randomly e.g. average ratio 10 gets feed after 6 pecks, 12 pecks, 1 peck , 21 pecks = the average ratio of these is 10 o Fixed Interval: reinforcement given if response is produced at least once in a specific amount of time o Variable Interval: reinforcement given after an average time interval, interval varies randomly e.g. average 8 minute interval first time then 1 minute interval then 20 minute interval then 7 minute = average interval time is 8 minutes o Shaping: conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target
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