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Anatomy Notes

by: James Mayden

Anatomy Notes Kine 300

James Mayden
Rice University
GPA 3.08

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This is a study guide from the notes taken from anatomy. Discusses major points.
Human Anatomy
Dr. Wendy Schell
anatomy, Natural Science, Kinesiology
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by James Mayden on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Kine 300 at Rice University taught by Dr. Wendy Schell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Kinesiology at Rice University.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
Anatomy Test 4 NOTES ON TEST: All CV, all lymphatic, blood (look @ book) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM  Heart and all blood vessels  Transportation of various substances throughout body to maintain homeostasis – Oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, nutrients  Blood is the transport medium  This system never stops, works continuously  If it does stop, cells die  Heart = pump  Blood vessels = tube network  Incredibly strong compared to its size and weight  About the size of your fist  Hollow, muscular organ  Cone shaped  Located in the mediastinum in the middle of the chest cavity  Situated between the two lungs  Apex - more pointed end o Points diagonally down to the left  Base - upper posterior portion o Upper right portion on posterior surface o Location of emergence of many large vessels  Protective coverings (sac-like)  Pericardium (fibrous pericardium)- outer protective layer formed of fibrous tissue  Helps to keep heart anchored to surrounding structures (Sternum and diaphragm) o Serous pericardium - protective layer surrounding the heart that is deep to the fibrous pericardium; Two layers:  Parietal layer - outer most layer in contact with the fibrous pericardium  Visceral layer (epicardium)- inner most layer that is actually apart of the heart wall o In between the two layers is serous fluid o Slippery lubricating fluid o Produced by the pericardial membranes o Reduces friction  Heart wall has 3 layers 1. Epicardium - outer layer that is also the same as the visceral layer of membrane covering the heart (Epithelial tissue) 2. Myocardium - thick cardiac muscle bundles that are arranged in a twisted, ring-like manner (Connective tissue)  Layer that contracts  Reinforced internally by dense fibrous connective tissue  LEFT SIDE HAS THE MOST MUSCLE 3. Endocardium - thin endothelium that lines the four heart chambers (Nervous tissue) 1  It is continuous with the blood vessels in contact with the heart  4 chambers o 2 atria & 2 ventricles  Hollow cavities  All lined with endocardium that assists with smooth blood flow  Atria - top chambers that receive blood from periphery  Ventricle - lower chambers that disperse blood back to circulate to the body  Septum - wall that divides the heart longitudinally into left and right (interventricular septum)(interatrial septum)  One organ = 2 pumps  Right side heart function – RECEIVES DEOXYGENATED BLOOD pumps blood to lungs for exchange of gases o O2 and CO2  Left side heart function –RECEIVES OXYGENATED BLOOD pumps blood to periphery to distribute needed substances to cells and to pick up the waste products Circulation Through Heart  Right atria receives oxygen poor blood o Superior venae cavae: carries oxygen poor blood from upper body to right atria o Inferior venae cavae: carries oxygen poor blood from lower body to right atria  Right atria through TRICUSPID valve in right ventricle  Right ventricle through PULMONARY valve into pulmonary trunk  Pulmonary trunk divides in right and left pulmonary arteries  This is the only point where arteries carry oxygen poor blood  Pulmonary arteries take oxygen poor blood to lungs  Gas exchange in capillaries in lungs o Oxygen picked up, Carbon dioxide released  Once blood receives gas exchange, returns to heart via pulmonary veins (FOUR OF THEM)  This is the only point where veins carry oxygenated blood  Pulmonary veins deliver blood to left atria  Left atria, through MITRAL (BICUSPID) valve to left ventricle  Left ventricle through AORTIC valve to aorta  Aorta carries oxygenated blood out of heart to be distributed to the body  Pulmonary circulation - circulation through the right side of the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart. o Purpose: gas exchange in blood and return this blood to heart  Systemic circulation - circulation through the left side of the heart and out into the periphery o Purpose: distribution of oxygen rich blood to all tissues Heart Valves  4 valves  Allow one way flow of blood  Purpose is to prevent back flow of blood as it travels through the four chambers of the heart  The atrioventricular valves (AV valves) are located between the atria and the ventricles  AV valves prevent backflow of blood into the atria when the ventricles contract  Right AV valve = tricuspid valve 2 o Has three flaps/cusps  Left AV valve = bicuspid valve o Aka the mitral valve o Has two flaps/cusps  Chordae tendinae - tiny cords that anchor the valves cusps to the walls of the ventricles  Papillary muscle - projections of cardiac muscle that terminate in the chordae tendineae  When the ventricles are relaxed during filling time, the valves hang down into the ventricles o Relaxation= LESS pressure; filling chamber; Diastole  When the ventricles contract, the pressure causes the valves to move upward and close o Contraction= INCREASE pressure; empty chamber; Systole  The semilunar valves are located between the ventricles and the large vessels exiting the ventricles  Each has three cusps / leaflets  Prevents blood from back-flowing into the heart  Pulmonary semilunar valve o Located at the base of pulmonary trunk (RIGHT)  Aortic semilunar valve o Located at the base of the aorta (LEFT)  Valves forced open when ventricles contract to push blood out.  When ventricles relax, for filling time, these valves close to prevent back flow  Each set of valves works at different times  AV valves are open during heart relaxation and close during ventricular contraction  Semilunar valves are closed during heart relaxation and open during ventricular contraction  AV & SEMILUNAR VALVES ARE OPPOSITE  The closing of the valves = the heart sounds  Lub - dub  Lub = closing of AV valves  Dub = closing of semi-lunar valves Heart Activity  Heart actually pumps our blood volume of ~6 liters through the blood vessels ~1000 times per day  6000 liters pumped per day  Heart muscle action is involuntary  Regulated by autonomic nervous system and intrinsic conduction or nodal system  Nodal system is built into heart tissue  Special tissue that is a combination of nervous and muscle tissue  Causes depolarization in 1 direction  Sets basic rhythm o Approximately 75 beats per minute Electrical Circuit of Heart  Intrinsic electrical conduction system (SAAVbundle of HISPurkinje fibers)  Starts in the SA node o Sinoatrial node (pacemaker) o Pacemaker= sits under clavicle on left side; has wires that go into right atrium  AV node o Atrioventricular node  Bundle of His o Atrioventricular (AV) bundle 3  Purkinje fibers Heart Rhythms  Tachycardia - rapid heart rate  Bradycardia - slow heart rate  Systole - contraction (ventricular)  Diastole - relaxation (ventricular)  Blood pressure = systolic pressure diastolic pressure  Heart cycle- completion of events within one heart beat  The contraction of the atria followed by the ventricles, then relaxation  < 1 second  Normal rhythm (70-75 bpm)  3 components of heart cycle 1. Mid-to-late diastole a. Pressure is low b. Blood is flowing into atria, through the atria, and into ventricles from both the right and left sides c. Semilunar valves closed, AV valves open d. Atria contract forcing blood into ventricles 2. Ventricular systole a. After ventricular contraction begins, ventricular pressure increases closing the AV valves b. As pressure continues to increase inside closed ventricles, the semilunar valves are forced open c. Blood rushes out of ventricles d. At the same time, the atria are relaxed and are beginning to refill 3. Early diastole a. End of systole, ventricles relax, semilunar valves close, and ventricles completely closed and empty for split second b. Pressure in ventricles is lower c. This opens the AV valves d. Ventricles begin to refill again Circulation of Heart  Blood flowing through the heart does not oxygenate the heart tissue  Heart has its own circulation system  Coronary arteries o Right and left  Branch off the aorta and encircle the heart at the junction of atria and ventricles  Left coronary branches into the circumflex artery and the left anterior descending (LAD) Clinical Apps  Angina - chest pain caused when the myocardium is deprived of oxygen  Infarct - prolonged deprivation of oxygen where cells may die  Myocardial infarction (MI) o Also known as a heart attack o Death of heart tissue o Detected via EKG changes & cardiac enzyme changes Blood Vessels  The closed transport highway for blood  Also known as the vascular system  Blood leaves heart in arteries---> arterioles --->capillaries---> venules (larger vessels)----> veins (major)--->re-enter the heart via great veins for recirculation 4  Blood vessels walls have 3 layers (Capillaries are an exception)  Tunica intima - inner most layer o Thin endothelium later o Provides a slick surface o Decreases friction of blood flow  Tunica media - middle layer o More bulky o Mostly smooth muscle and elastic fibers o Smooth muscle is controlled by sympathetic nervous system to give diameter changes of vessel  Dilation  Constriction  Tunica externa - most external layer o Mostly fibrous connective tissue o Supports vessels walls Arteries vs. Veins  Arteries ***HIGHER PRESSURE o Usually thicker o Thicker tunica media o Must be able to expand and recoil as blood enters and passes through respectively o Strong and stretch tolerant walls to accommodate pressure changes o Usually deeper within the body  Veins o Lower pressure o Thinner walls o Larger lumen (diameter of opening) o Equipped with valves to prevent back flow o More superficial o Skeletal muscle activity assists with venous return uphill to heart o During inhalation - pressure of thorax drops and also assists with venous return Capillaries  Only one cell thick  Consist of tunic intima only  Thinness allows for exchanges of gases and nutrients between blood and cells  Interweaving of capillaries form beds  Flow of blood through capillary bed is called microcirculation Aorta  Largest artery  Arises from left ventricle  Ascending aorta  Aortic arch  Descending aorta  Abdominal aorta 5  . Brachiocephalic - splits into 2 o R. Subclavian (arm) o R. Common carotid (head neck) o 2. L common carotid (head neck) o 3. L subclavian (arm) Superior and Inferior Vena Cava  Largest veins  Converge to re-enter the heart at right atrium  Draining blood from upper and lower body regions  Superior vena cava  Inferior vena cava Fetal Circulation  Exchange of all nutrients, gases, & waste via placenta  Lungs & other organ systems not functioning in fetus  All nutrients & oxygen move from the mother’s blood to fetus’ blood in one direction  All wastes move in the opposite direction  Umbilical cord has 3 vessels o Umbilical vein and 2 umbilical arteries  Umbilical artery o Carries carbon dioxide & wastes away from fetus to the placenta  Umbilical vein o Carries blood rich in oxygen & nutrients to the fetus  Blood flows superiorly toward the fetus’ heart  Bypass the liver through the ductus venosus and enters inferior vena cava and then to the right atria  The lungs are not functional & are almost completely bypassed 1. Some blood goes directly from the right atrium to the left atrium via the foramen ovale. o Foramen ovale - opening in the septum of the atria 2. When blood leaves the right ventricle, it goes to the pulmonary trunk and meets the ductus arteriosus, a short vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk and the aorta. o Blood enters the systemic circulation through the ductus arteriosus.  The aorta carries blood to the fetal tissues and then back to the placenta via the umbilical arteries.  After birth, the foramen ovale closes and the ductus arteriosus collapses and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.  When the umbilical cord is cut, blood stops flowing through it.  The circulation of the infant converts to that of an adult.  The lungs are functional for gas exchange. Arteriosclerosis  Narrowing of the arteries due to build up of fatty plaques  Restricts blood flow  Aorta and coronary arteries are most affected Blood Clots  Thrombus- a stationary blood clot  Embolus- a blood clot that has broken off from the vessel wall and travel 6 o PE= pulmonary embolism- blood clot that goes into lungs. If bigger than thumb, it can block off entire pulmonary artery (die) Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)  Plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries that impede blood flow to the cardiac tissue.  Catheterization procedures can calculate the % of occlusion Myocardial Infarction (MI)  Heart attack  Blockage of the coronary arteries to the extent that cell death occurs in the cardiac muscle tissue Cardiac Catheterization  Procedure that may function as a diagnostic procedure or a form of treatment.  Go in femoral arteryaortacardiac coronary artery  May calculate percentage of blockage of an artery and /or attempt to open up the artery and place a stent.  Stent= wire spring that keeps the artery open by spreading it Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  CABG, first done by Dr. Debakey (TMS) in 1950’s!  Blockage of the coronary artery that is not able to be treated by catheterization techniques o Location of blockage or extent of blockage  Remove a vessel from the periphery (LEG) and use it to re-establish better circulation of the heart by re-routing the blood flow around the blockage o Great saphenous vein Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) **LEFT SIDE HEART PROBLEM THAT GIVES YOU A LUNG PROBLEM  Left ventricular heart failure  Ineffective pumping mechanism or strength of contraction of left ventricle  Decreased cardiac output (CO)  Increase pressure in left atrium  Increase pressure in pulmonary veins  Increase in pressure in the vasculature of the lungs  Fluid seeps out into the interstitial tissue of the lungs causing edema in the lung tissue.  Impedes gas exchange Cor Pulmonale **LUNG PROBLEM THAT GIVES YOU A RIGHT SIDE HEART PROBLEM  Right ventricular heart failure  High pulmonary pressure (COPD or pulmonary hypertension)  Right ventricle working against high pressure in the lungs  Increased pressure in right atrium  Increased pressure in vena cavas  Peripheral edema Atrial Fibrillation  Disturbance in the electrical system of the heart.  The atria “quiver” more than contract  Increases the possibility of blood stagnation and clotting.  Clot can then go from heart up to the brain to cause a stroke (CVA)  Placed on blood thinners to prevent formation of blood clots RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  Works along with the cardiovascular system 7  The 2 systems together are responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to all the cells of the periphery  Blood = transport medium  If either system fails, body cells start to die due to: o Lack of O2 o Build up of CO2.  Oversees the gas exchange between the blood & external environment  Nose & Sinuses; Pharynx; Larynx; Trachea; Bronchi; Bronchioles; Lungs; Alveoli  Alveoli = terminal air sacs  Gas exchange with blood occurs only in the alveoli  All other respiratory structures are the pathway for air to reach the alveoli.  Along passageway, air is warmed, cleansed, & moistened  Decreases irritants entering the system  Nose - only external portion of respiratory system  Nostrils = openings  Nasal cavity = inside of the nose  Nasal septum = divides the nasal cavity into two sides  Nasal Conchae - mucus covered projections inside nasal cavity o Increase surface area o Increase air turbulence o 3 sets – superior, middle, inferior  Nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity below by the palate o Hard palate - anterior  Bone supported o Soft palate - posterior  Not bone supported  Pharynx - the muscular passageway usually called the throat o Continuation of both the oral & nasal cavities o Common pathway for both food & air  3 Regions: o Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, laryngo-pharynx  Nasopharynx - superior portion from the nasal cavity down to the oropharynx o It includes the following:  Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)  Opening of phryngotympanic tube - drains middle ear  Uvula  Oropharynx - Contains the palatine & lingual tonsils  Clusters of lymphatic tissue  Laryngopharynx-lower part of the pharynx Larynx = voice box  Below the pharynx  Routes air into proper channel to produce sound - speech  Thyroid cartilage - 8 rigid hyaline cartilages  Adams’ apple - projection of thyroid cartilage anteriorly  Epiglottis - guards the airway by protecting the superior opening of the lower respiratory passages o Open - passage for air flow o Closed – during swallowing, restricts oral contents from going down into trachea 8  Vocal folds / true vocal cords - fold formed by a mucous membrane of the larynx.  Vibrate when air is expelled --> sound  Glottis - the opening between vocal folds Trachea = “ windpipe “  From base of larynx to ~ level of 5th ribs  C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage  Open portion of C is posterior to give esophagus room to expand during swallowing  The rigidity of cartilage maintains open trachea during the changing pressures of breathing  Cilia lines trachea  Cilia moves particles & mucous upwards o In the opposite direction of in-coming air o Away from lungs  Smoking - destroys cilia  Stuff most likely goes into R lung  Tracheostomy: pipe in neck to trachea wont be able to hear them talk 2 Main (primary) bronchi - right & left  Carina - point where the trachea divides  Right main - shorter, wider, & straighter than the left side  More common site for inhaled objects  The lungs occupy the entire thoracic cavity except the mediastinum  Apex - narrow, upper portions located deep to the clavicle.  Base - wide, lower portions located near the diaphragm.  Opposite orientation than heart, which has apex on bottom & base on top.  Lobes are formed by deep fissures  Right lung = 3 lobes Left lung = 2 lobes  Each lung is covered by serous membranes  Two layers : o Parietal Layer - lines the wall of ventral cavity o Visceral Layer - lines the outside of the organ o Serous Fluid - fluid in between the two layers  Membranes & fluid reduce friction as lungs move within the thoracic cavity  Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleural membrane with decreased pleural fluid o Dry, rough, increased friction, very painful  Pleural Effusion - excessive pleural fluid  Increased pressure on lungs o Difficult to breath, less painful than pleurisy Bronchioles – many branches of bronchi once inside lungs  Form a network of branching respiratory passageways throughout the lung  bronchial tree / respiratory tree  All but the very smallest bronchioles have cartilage to reinforce their walls  Terminal bronchioles lead to respiratory zone structures that end at alveoli  Only site of gas exchange  Respiratory Zone Structures (HAS GAS EXCHANGE COMPONENETS) o Respiratory bronchioles o Alveolar ducts /sacs o Alveoli  Conducting zone structures - all other respiratory passage structures that serve as conduits to & from the respiratory zone. (NO GAS EXCHANGE) 9  Majority of lungs are air spaces.  The remaining lung tissue is mainly elastic connective tissue o Allows for efficient passive recoil during exhalation.  Alveoli - tiny terminal air sacks that are a single cell layer thick.  Alveolar pores - tiny pores that connect neighboring air sacs o Provide alternative routes for air to reach alveoli when blockage occurs.  Pulmonary capillaries cover external surface of alveoli  Respiratory membrane / air blood barrier o Air flowing one side & blood on other side o Diffusion of gases between air & blood Gas exchange at Alveoli  Alveolar Macrophages - defense mechanism for the lungs. o Specialized cells pick up bacteria & debris in alveoli.  Surfactant - Lipid molecule that coats the gas exposed surfaces of the alveoli. o Lowers the surface tension of the lining of each alveolar sac to prevent collapse. o Keeps lungs open—decreases surface tension on lung surface (babies don’t have enough surfactant yet if premature, so lungs can collapse) Events of Respiration 1. Pulmonary Ventilation o Moving air in & out of lungs o Refreshes air in alveoli o “ Breathing “ 2. External Respiration o Gas exchange between the exterior of body & pulmonary blood via the alveoli 3. Respiratory Gas Transport o Gases are transported to & from the lungs & cells of the body by blood vessels 4. Internal Respiration o Gas exchange between the blood & tissue cells o Gas exchange between the blood & cells inside the body o “ Cellular respiration “ Breathing  Mechanical process  Depends on volume changes  Volume changes  pressure changes  Pressure changes  flow of gases to equalize pressures  Inhalation = air flowing into lungs  Exhalation = air flowing out of lungs Inhalation  Diaphragm & external inter-coastal muscles contract  Increase size of thoracic cavity  Diaphragm lowers / Rib cage expands  Lungs are stretched to enlarge 10  Lung volume increases, pressure decreases, & air rushes in until pressure equals atmospheric pressure. Exhalation  Usually a passive process  Elasticity of lungs - recoil  Inspiratory muscles relax & rib cage descends  Thoracic & pulmonary volumes decrease, pressure on gases in lungs increases greater than the atmospheric pressure, & air flows out of the lungs  Forced expiration - an active muscular process in some lung pathologies o Abdominal & internal inter-coastal muscles  Intra-pleural pressure - always negative  Prevents collapse of lungs  If intra-pleural pressure equals atmospheric pressure, lungs will recoil completely & collapse  Pneumothorax - air in intra-pleural space—air leak from outsidein; increase pressure in lungs  Emphysema: have to work hard to get all air out of lungs Non-respiratory Air Movements  A result of reflex activity or voluntary activity  Cough - clears lower respiratory track o Deep breath, close glottis, & then air is forced from lungs against glottis o Blast of air upwards  Sneeze - clears upper respiratory track o Similar to a cough, but the air routed through the nasal cavities instead of the oral cavity  Hiccups - Sudden inspirations as a result of diaphragm spasms o Initiated by phrenic nerve or irritation of the diaphragm  Yawn - A very deep inspiration o Ventilates the alveoli (opens them) o Need more Oxygen Breathing Control  Basic mechanisms set breathing rhythm  Phrenic nerve (C3-C5)  Diaphragm  Inter-costal nerves  External inter-costal muscles  Neural centers  Medulla & pons Medulla  Sets basic rhythm of breathing  Acts as pacemaker of breathing  Self-exciting inspiratory center  Medulla regulates breathing 12-15 resps/min Pons  Smooths out the basic rhythm of inspiration & expiration set by the medulla Stretch receptors o Specialized receptors found within the bronchioles & alveoli that respond to extreme stretch. (over-inflation) o Initiate protective reflexes via vagus nerve Sent to Medulla 11  terminate inspiration  expiration occurs Restrictive Lung Disease  The volume of air is reduced: Abnormal decrease in pulmonary ventilation • Disease; • Trauma; • Cardiovascular (PE or pulmonary edema); • Musculoskeletal, • neuromuscular • Auto-immune connective tissue disease; • Interventions (surgery, chemo, XRT); • Aging  Decrease in compliance of lung (recoil) and /or chest wall (movement)  Decreased ability to expand chest (i.e. RESTRICTIVE)  Increased pressure required to breath  Increased work load and energy to breath  Decreased lung volumes and lung capacities • Use accessory muscles to breath • Decreased activity tolerance • Use 5 times more oxygen just to breath  Decreased compliance of chest wall / muscle function • Rib fractures • Burns • Pregnancy, obesity • Postural changes - spine, rib cage (scoliosis) • Neurological conditions - Spinal cord injury (SCI), polio, muscular dystrophy (MD), ALS (Lou Gerhig’s Disease), MG, Guillan Barre’ Syndrome (GBS), diaphragm paralysis Obstructive Lung Disease  Decreased ability to move air in and /or out of lungs due to obstruction of air flow throughout the bronchi / bronchioles i.e. breathing in coffee straw v. normal straw  Affects mechanical function & gas exchange capabilities of the lungs  Decreased size of lumen of bronchi & bronchioles  Increased resistance to air flow  Loss of elasticity /recoil of lung tissue  Increased tendency of bronchial collapse which traps air  Decreased lung function  Increased work load  Decreased efficiency  Decreased gas exchange at alveoli and at all cells (O2 & CO2)  Decreased surface area of capillary bed and alveoli due to changes in tissues caused by disease  These can occur individually or in combination o Cystic Fibrosis o Asthma o Bronchopulmonary dysplasia o Chronic Bronchitis o Emphysema Pneumonia  An active infection of the lungs including the alveoli  Congestion and mucous production  Bacterial or viral 12  Aspiration pneumonia - abnormal inhalation of secretions, food, liquids, into the lower airway (i.e. breath in coke rather than swallowing) Chronic Bronchitis  Inflamed mucosal lining of bronchi and bronchioles  Mucosal thickening  Increased mucous production  Impairs gas exchange  Increased risk of infection  “blue bloaters” - carbon dioxide retention Emphysema  Loose elasticity of lungs  Almost become “floppy” o Decreased tone of smooth muscle  Expand & expand & trap air because bronchi / bronchioles collapse  Lungs are completely full & diaphragm is flat  Air is trapped and can not be exhaled  “Pink puffers” Cystic Fibrosis  Genetic disease  Causes increased production of thickened secretions  Chronic respiratory infections  Affects other secretory organs: o Pancreas o GI tract o Reproductive tract (males) Asthma  Hypersensitivity of bronchial passages  Easily irritated  Causes bronchi constriction  Wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath 13


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