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by: Margaret Guenther


Margaret Guenther
Society and the Individual
Alyssa Powers

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Society and the Individual
Alyssa Powers
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Margaret Guenther on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOC-S230 at Indiana University taught by Alyssa Powers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Society and the Individual in Sociology at Indiana University.




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Date Created: 02/01/15
Week 4 Lecture Notes 522015 Organizations and Institutions Organizations A large group of individuals with a definite set of authority relations Many types of organizations exist in industrialized societies but not all are bureaucratic p 139 Informal vs Formal Organizations 0 Country Time Lemonade Formal 0 Looking to reach a set amount of profit 0 CEO CFO Managers employees Division of Labor 0 Kid s Lemonade Stand Informal o Wanting a profit to buy a toy etc 0 One or two people working the stand and making lemonade Institutions Any structure or mechanism of social order governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community Institutions identify with a social purpose transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern living behavior Examples of Institutions 0 Education IU is an organization 0 The FamilyMarriage one unit of a family is an organization 0 Religion medicine the legal system military mass media league of nonprofit organizations Bureaucracy Max Weber Explicit hierarchy of authority Bureaucracy depends on this formal structure of hierarchy Rationalization encompasses all of the past formal policies the rules exist for the rules sake The Iron Cage of rationality when the red tape becomes so strict you feel trapped Three Strikes Law Law saying if you commitare convicted of three crimes of varying types you can be sentenced to a higher amount of time o Mandatory minimal sentencing o Removes leeway when a judge decides sentencing 0 Judge can t do anything The Origins of Office Speak Jargon set of language and symbols used in a certain situation to better explain something 0 Helps communicate broad orienting concepts efficiently o Differentiates ingroup members from outgroup members or others 0 What does jargon tell us about an organization 0 Once you get to the meaning of the jargon you are able to understand what s going on in that situation 0 Different types of language are used in different situations I Example how you speak in your dorm vs how you speak when you re home Organizational Development 1 Taylorism 1910s 0 Accuracy incentive viewed the workers as part of a machine 2 George Mayo 1920s1930s o Alienation wild cat strikes turnover management made sure the employers enjoyed coming to work financial greatness 3 SelfActualizers 1950s 0 Motivated without bosses around people entrust them 4 Marketers 1960s 0 Ideation native solutions advertisingmarketing selling product in a way that s appealing still around today Financers 1970s 0 Leverage valued Wall Street in group with training a lot less about humans more about profit Optimizers 1980s 0 People turning into product engines General Electric ATampT employees knew what is needed to do still around Disrupters 1990s 0 Download multitask Facebook make a business that shifts the market something new Creatives 2000s 0 Makers makerspaces distance themselves from people as machines Etsy Life Hakers 2010s 0 Vision value team value rebelling against bureaucracy sports teams Target Meyer Walmart Motivational goals to motivate employees Week 4 Reading Notes 322015 Groups and Networks Giddens 134152 Groups Social Group A collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a sense of common identity 0 You and your roommate make up a social group as do the members of your sociology class Social Aggregate A simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but does not significantly interact or identify with one another 0 People walking in a crowd waiting for a bus or strolling on the beach Social Category People who share a common characteristic such as gender or occupation but do not necessarily interact or identify with one another Primary Groups Groups that are characterized by intense emotional ties facetoface interaction intimacy and a strong enduring sense of commitment 0 Groups of friends gangs other peer groups 0 Members experience unity 0 Primary groups exert a longlasting in uence on our social selves Secondary Groups Groups characterized by large size and by impersonal eeting relationships 0 Businesses schools work groups athletic clubs and governmental bodies 0 People join secondary groups to achieve a specific goal to earn a living get a college degree or compete on a sports team Obedience is a kind of conformity Organizations Organization A large group of individuals with a definite set of authority relations Many types of organizations exist in industrialized societies in uencing most aspects of our lives While not all organizations are bureaucratic there are close links between the development of organizations and bureaucratic tendencies Formal Organization A group that is rationally designed to achieve its objectives often by means of explicit rules regulations and procedures Gladwell Small Change 16 Twitter Revolution Without Twitter the people of Iran would not have felt empowered and confident to stand up for freedom and democracy Innovators tend to be solipsists the want to get everything they know into their new model The marvels of communication technology in the present have produce a false consciousness about the past even a sense that communication has no history or had nothing of importance to consider before the days of television and the Internet Critical Friends the more friends you had ho were critical of the regime the more likely you were to join the protest There is strength in weak ties Mark Granovetter our acquaintances are our greatest source of new ideas and information Social networks are effective at increasing participation not motivation Activism through networks has vulnerability because of the lack of central authority Al Qaeda was most dangerous when it was a unified hierarchy because there was disciplined and if captured the members wouldn t give up their comrades Week 5 Lecture Notes 1022015 Health and Illness Disease Biomedical conditions that lead you to feel bad 0 Example u aids cancer Illness You feeling bad Sickness The social component of ill health Sick role Giddens 558 0 Normative Expectations of the Sick Role 0 It s not your fault you re not held responsible for your sickness 0 Release from expectations ex don t go to workschool 0 Try to get better ex go to doctortake medicine Role set of given expectations associated with a certain position The Social Construction of Health Society decides what constitutes an illness ex obesity was seen as a sign of wealth 1222015 Family and the Life Course Family group of people directly linked by kin connections the adult members of which take care of the children 0 Family is a main agent of socialization Correlation Change together at the same time 0 Ex Height and weight when you grow taller your weight increases height doesn t cause weight gain 0 Fire trucks and damage Popsicles and murder Square vs Rectangle 0 A square is a special type of rectangle Correlational Living together before marriage and Divorce cohabitationmarriage at young age does mean divorce is more likely 061014 Attitudes and Attributes Selfful lling prophecy an inaccurate statement or belief which by altering the situation becomes accurate a prediction that causes itself to come true Representativeness Heuristic to judge something by comparing it to our neutral representation of a category Availability Heuristic to judge the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory ie airplane crash vs car crash which has more people Iraq or Tanzania Attitudes Attitude a predisposition to respond to a particular object in a generally favorable or unfavorable a person s attitude effects how they perceive and interact with the world Three parts of Attitudes 0 Cognition 0 Evaluation 0 Behavioral predisposition Functions of Attitudes 0 Heuristic function 0 Schematic function Define self and maintain selfworth 0 Protect person from thoughtsfeelings that threaten selfimage Cognitive Consistency Cognition an individual s perception of personal attitudes beliefs and behaviors people may have a different attitude compared to their behavior Cognitive dissonance tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions the person has to believe they had a choice to engage in the behavior if you have no choice you did not experience cognitive dissonance 0 Postdecision dissonance our attitudes change after a behavior compared to what our attitudes were before the behavior 0 Counterattitudinal behavior we act in a way that is inconsistent with our attitudes we are motivated to change our attitude to match our behavior after the behavior 081014 Emotions Sociology of Emotions 0 Sociologists study how social conditions affect the development display and interpretations of emotions Dimensions of Emotions Thoits 0 Situational cues when and what emotion is appropriate in a given situation ie someone giving you a birthday gift 0 Physiological changes physical changes in our body that re ect whatever situational cue 0 Expressive gestures the public channel of expression ie smiling crying 0 An emotional label ie happiness All of these conditions do not have to occur simultaneously for an emotion to exist or be recognized by another person Emotion Management 0 Emotion work the act of trying to change in degree or quality an emotion or feeling 0 Evocation working to bring forth an emotion that is initially absent 0 Suppression working to change an emotion that is initially present 0 Emotion work techniques 0 Cognitive working to change our ideas thoughts images to change a feeling 0 Bodily working to change the physical changes of an emotion ie try to slow down breathing do muscle relaxation exercises 0 Expressive working to change your expressive gesture to change your feeling ie smile to try to feel happy 0 Emotion Management the work required to induce or inhibit feelings so as to render them appropriate to a situation 0 Surface Acting Efforts to manage the emotions of self and others through the outward production of expressions Via surface acting emotions are managed from the outside I in 0 Deep Acting Effort to alter internal feelings as a way to display an emotion to one s self and others Via deep acting emotions are managed from the inside I out 131014 Emotions Emotional Socialization and Social Institutions Emotion Mmgement Emotion work the act of trying to change in degree or quality an emotion or feeling Emotion management the work required to induce or inhibit feelings so as to render them appropriate to a situation Emotional Alienation a forced distancing between how we immediately want and need to feel in a situation and how we have to feel in a situation because of feeling rules can cause us to become alienated from our self Dimensions of Emotions Thoits 0 Situational cues 0 Physiological change 0 Expressive gesture 0 An emotional label Emotional Socialization symbolic interactionists View the learning of emotions like any aspect of social life we develop meaning of emotions through interaction Sociocentric model of emotional socialization the primary means of learning about emotions comes from social instruction primarily from family friends and schooling Example of emotional socialization Girl My mom is late Staff Member Does that make you mad Girl Yes Staff Member Sometimes kids get mad when their moms are late to pick them up Smith amp Kleinman Article Emotional management techniques for doctors 0 Transforming contact 0 Focus on the positive aspects of their jobs 0 Laughter 0 Use their patient 0 Empathized wrongly 0 Blamed the patient 0 Avoiding contact 0 Cover up different parts of body that made them uncomfortable 0 Faculty let them avoid contact completely if it was something that made them upset Martin Article Overeaters Anonymous 0A 0 Taught method of shame avowel 0 Talk about the shame Weight Watchers WW 0 Shame management approach 0 The shame is there but they focus on the weight loss so that the shame will go away NAAFA 0 They taught contestation 0 Change your meaning of being overweight that it is not your fault but genetic Arluke Article 0 Veteran workers taught new workers emotional management techniques 0 Feelings of society if you re an animal lover you wouldn t euthanize an animal 0 Feelings of job it s your job so you have to euthanize the animal 0 Techniques 0 Using the animal focus on the comfort of the animal during the euthanization Transforming shelter animals into virtual pets Use the owner it is the owners fault that the animals are in the shelter Assistavoid euthanasia Emotional strategies for dealing with outside others educate people hide their job sarcasmbittemess O O O 0 201014 Ethnomethodology Deviance and Labeling Ethnomethodology Breaching Experiments Purposeful efforts to disrupt or breach the takenfor granted assumptions that guide our conduct in everyday life as a way to make those assumptions visible The attitude of daily lifenatural attitude The takenfor granted assumptions that we have as we go about everyday life 0 I assume that the world is ordinary and normal and I act accordingly 0 I assume that you assume that the world is ordinary and normal and that you will act accordingly 0 I assume that you assume that I assume that the world is ordinary and normal and will act that way Ethnomethodology An approach to sociology that studies the takenfor granted methods the ordinary people use to make sense of and act in the world uses breaching experiments to reveal the attitude of daily lifenatural attitude Deviance Deviance any thought feeling or behavior that departs from accepted practices in a society or group 0 Deviance is relative to the group being studied 0 To see if there is deviance in an experiment we look at how the group reacts Reflexivity process by which individuals think about a behavior within its social context and give meaning to it Labeling theory argues that deviance is a consequence of a social process in which a negative characteristic becomes an element of an individual s identity 221014 Deviance Labeling and Stigma Qbeling theory of deviance 0 Primary deviance the initial act that causes others to label the individual a deviant 0 Secondary deviance occurs after an individual accepts the deviant label and continues to commit deviant acts thus supporting the initial label 0 Moral career when a deviant lifestyle becomes a normal part of an individual s life 0 Retrospective interpretations reinterpretations of past behaviors in light of the person s new role as deviant Stigma I Stigma an attribute that is deeply discrediting in interaction 0 Types of stigmas I A physical deformity or abominations of the body I Being part of a social group with low status I Something viewed culturally as a character aw 0 Stigma management strategies I Passing attempts to hide an undisclosed stigma by concealing information about it I Covering keeping a known stigma from creating tensions in interaction by downplaying it I Educational accounting educate people to change their stereotypes I Neutralization strategy in which we accept attribution of deviance given to rule breaking act but offer an account explaining why we should not be labeled deviant for engaging in act 0 Denial of responsibility acknowledge that act is deviant but give explanation of why it couldn t be avoided I Denial of injury acknowledge that act is deviant but no one was hurt so they shouldn t be considered deviant 0 Denial of victim or victim s status acknowledge that someone was harmed but denying that they are a victim ie revenge 0 Condemning the condemners condemning the people who are trying to give them a label 0 Appealing to higher or other loyalties acknowledge that it is a deviant act but saying they have a loyalty to something greater ie cheating on an exam because their friend just had a really bad thing happen so the relationship is more important I Claims of normality acknowledge that it is deviant but it is ignored or not enforced I Tertiary deviance redefining deviant acts attributes or identities as normal or even virtuous Madness amp Civilization 27102014 1656 was an important date in the history of madness because that is the year that the Hopital General opened in Paris 0 Criminal deviance and mental deviance grouped together In the age of reason people who thought or acted unreasonable needed to be separate from the masses 18th19th Century the idea that criminal and mental deviance were not the same began Medicalization of deviance ways in which social problems including mental health have come under boundaries of medicine I Historically three forces have driven what aspects of social life become medicalized 1 The power and authority of the medical profession I Labeling is the first step of the process of treatment 2 Activities of social movements amp interest groups I Trying to legitimize a problem to get help for the people with a mental issue I Modern interest groups in uencing the medicalization process are more economic than social in nature including 0 Health maintenance organizations 0 Pharmaceutical industry I Consumers 3 Directed organization or professional activities Modified Labeling Theory suggests that even if mental illnesses are only partly socially constructed the consequence of being labeled as such can produce behaviors that yield poorer mental health Acceptance of negative stereotypes about people with mental illness can produce negative selffeelings fear of being disvalued and social withdrawal


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