Statistics for Behavioral Sciences
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences PSY 291
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 291 at University of Miami taught by Rick Stuetzle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 257 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Statistics in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences Ch1 Statistics and Scientific Method 0 Four Methods of Acquiring Knowledge I Authority something is true because of tradition or because some person of distinction says it s true 0 Advantage It s more efficient because we don t have the time or expertise to learn the information firsthand O Disadvantage The information can be wrong or bias and because we don t learn it firsthand we lose the ability to gain that skill set on our own I Rationalism uses reasoning alone to arrive at knowledge it assumes that if the premises are sound and the reasoning is carried out correctly then the conclusion will be true 0 Advantage It s transparent other people can evaluate it objectively and going through the process 0 Disadvantage If use the logic process wrong then the conclusion will be wrong but you can still use the process correctly and have the conclusion wrong I Intuition sudden insight the clarifying idea that springs into consciousness all at once as a whole not by reason 0 Advantage It s quick easy and simple 0 Disadvantage could be wrong biased and is not transparent evaluated by others objectively I Scientific Method uses both reasoning and intuition for establishing truth and it relies on objective assessment experimenter can hold incorrect hunches but the data will expose them 0 Advantage regulated and transparent O Disadvantage Takes time lengthy process can be biased 0 Population complete set of individuals objects or scores that are being studied 0 Sample the subset of a population it s easier to use this in an experiment because it s easier to collect data on a smaller group of subjects than a population 0 Variable any property or characteristic of some event object or person that may have different values at different times depending on the conditions should be contrasted with a constant doesn t have different values at different times I Independent Variable a variable that is systematically manipulated by the experimenter I Dependent Variable the variable measured to determine the effect of the independent variable I Data the measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment 0 Statistics a number calculated on sample data average value of a sample set7 S roman numerals 0 Parameter number calculated on population data uses Greek letters I Observational Studies no variables manipulated and cannot determine causulaity I Naturalistic Observation goal to attain an accurate description of the situation being studied I Parameter Estimation estimate population parameters I Correlation Research focus on two or more variables to see if they are related 0 True Experiments determines whether change in one variable causes change in another variable An independent variable is manipulated to see the effects on the dependent variable 0 Random Sampling everyone has equal chance of being selected therefore less chance of biasness and more representative of the population allows the laws of probability to apply to data and helps obtain a sample representative of the population every combination has equal chance of being selected 0 Two Main Branches of Statistics I Descriptive take a large amount of information and reduce it to something more simple EX range average and median and graphs do not extend past the data given I Inferential uses obtained sample data to infer to populations when testing samples because it s so small inferential is used to apply to the population 0 Purpose of Inferential Stats Hypothesis Testing Parameter Estimation Ch2 Descriptive Statistics 0 Measurement Scales helps determine which statistical inference test is used to analyze the data least sophisticatedmost sophisticated How is the thing being measured and what s being measured I Nominal lowest used to label or categorize have no magnitude but can calculate how frequent the value occurs I Ordinal has magnitude rankorder the objects being measured on the basis of whether they possess more less or equal amounts of the variable being measured I Interval has magnitude and equal spacing EX Celsius scale of temperature because it has equal spacing and magnitude but does not have an absolute zero point because 0 degrees does not mean there is no heat I Ratio has magnitude equal spacing and an absolute zero point EX Kelvin on the temperature scale when it hits 0 degrees it means there is no heat at all which means that it has an absolute zero point Use this scale whenever counting is involved 0 Continuous Variables can have infinite values ows can t jump from one value to another Ex weight height age and time 0 Discreet Variable no values in between the two values the exact value ex how many cats dogs or students 0 Real Limits of Continuous Variable range of scores in which the true score falls Ex weight on a scale above and below of the recorded value score i 12 smallest unit Ch3 Frequency Distributions 0 Frequency Distribution presents the score values and their frequency of occurance I Grouped Frequency 1 Find the range 2 Width of each class interval i range of intervals 3 Continue steps of ungrouped but with intervals I Cumaltive Frequency number of scores that fall at or below the upper real limit of each interval 0 Cumaltive Percentage percentage of scores that fall at or below the upper real limit of each interval 0 Percentile Point the value below which a certain percentage of the distribution falls 0 Percentile Rank the percentage of the distribution that falls below a certain value respectively
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