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Date Created: 02/01/15
bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis Chapter 1 What is Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental process Why do we do what we do Why study Psychology Makes you more aware of how people work Can help you be more effective in your career no matter the field NOT ALL PSYCHOLOGISTS ARE CLINICIANS Clinical amp Counseling Psychology ClinicalThe diagnosis and treatment of mental emotional and behavioral disorders and promotion of psychological health Counseling assist with personalinterpersonal problems in diverse areas Behavioral Neuroscience The study of links among brain and behavior Cognitive Psychology The study of how people perceive remember think speak and solve problems Sleep research included Developmental Psychology The study of how thought and behavior changed remain stable across the lifespan Educational Psychology Studies how people of all ages learn bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis Forensic Psychology Blends psych law and criminal justice Health Psychology The study of the role psychological factors play in regard to health and illness IndustrialOrganizational Psychology Application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings Personality Psychology Study of What makes people unique and the consistencies in behavior across time and situations Social Psychology The study of how living among others in uence thought feeling and behavior Sport Psychology The study of psychological factors in sports and exercise Emphasis often on group dynamics and performance The Origins of Psychology Early Origins 0 Prehistoric 0 As far back as Stone age humans tried to treat mental problems 39 Supernatural explanations I Trephination 0 A live person 0 Drill a hole in the skull 0 People lived through this 0 Believe this would release the spiritsdemons bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis Wilhelm Wundt founder of Psychology 0 Used scientific methods to study psych processes 0 Principles of Physiological Psychology 0 Book made connections between physiology and psychology 0 Established 1st psych lab in Germany 1879 0 Beginning as an experimental science 0 He studies himself and students Edward TitchenerStructuralism 0 Wundt s student 0 Structuralism studying most basic components or structure of conscious experiences 0 First school of thought 0 Introspection looking internally at conscious experience 0 Criticized a unreliable O Varied responses from introspection 0 Not used for kidsanimals O Invalid with complex topics William J ames Functionalism 0 Started psych at Harvard in 1870s 0 Opposed Wundt and Titchener s approach 0 In uenced by Darwin and evolution 0 Functionalism stressed importance of how behavior functions to allow people animals to adapt to their environments Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis 0 Austrian physician not psychologist 0 Behavior and personality in uence by unconscious con icts 0 Emphasized sexual aggressive nature of unconscious processes 0 Slip of the tongue dreams thought suppression 0 Powerful in uence on later theories Behaviorism 0 Behaviorism study of observable behaviors 0 Learning 0 Ivan Pavlov early 1900 s 0 Classical conditioning O Pavlov dog 0 John Watson coined behaviorism 0 Learning how behavior is acquiredmodified in response to environment bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis O Began testing in controlled labs O Mainly animal behavior BF Skinner O Operant conditioning I ReinforcementPunishment Humanistic Psychology Humanism emphasizes each persons unique potential for psychological growth and selfdirection Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow Importance of selfdetermination free will and potential Used in psychotherapy Contemporary Psychology Current Perspectives in Psychology Biological 0 Physical bases of behavior 0 Neuroscience Psychodynamic 0 Importance of unconscious in uence 0 Early childhood Behavioral 0 How behavior acquiredmodified by environment Humanistic Positive Psychology 0 Positive emotionsstatestraits O Optimism and increasing well being Cognitive 0 How we mentally processesin uence behavior Cross Cultural 0 Cultural patternsbeliefs in uence behaviors O Evolutionally The Great Debate 0 Nature vs Nurture 0 Nature 0 Inborn tendencies and genetically based traits 0 Nurture 0 All essentially the same 0 Nature and Nurture bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis 0 Environment interacts with biology to shape us EX Nature inherit artistic skill from parents Nurture parent engages in art with child Pseudoscience Claims are presented as scientific but not supported by scientific evidence What makes something pseudoscience is the way it is studies not content Science must be testable How to tell is something is Pseudoscience p x Testimonials rather than evidence weight lose pills 2 Scientific jargon wo scientific evidence use big scientific words thinking people will buy into it Combining current science with unfounded claims use current research Irrefutable or nonfalsifiable claim 5 Confirmation bias someone will place a study and see if it work ignore evidence look only at things that will support their claim PS Pseudopsychologies 0 Systems of explaining human behavior that aren t consistent with scientific evidence 0 Phrenology reading bumps on the skull O Palmistry reading palms 0 Graphology analysis of personality through handwriting Goals of Psychological Science 0 Describe behavior 0 Explain behavior 0 Predict behavior 0 Control or in uence behavior The Scientific Method Scientific method system for reducing error and bias is measurement Human observation subject to bias standardize how were collecting data Empirical Evidence bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis Accurate knowledge that we get through objective observation measurement andor experimentation 0 Formulate a testable hypothesis 0 Hypothesis a specific informed testable prediction about the outcome 0 A tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables 0 Hypothesis predict changes in variables 0 Variables a factor that can varychange in ways that can be observedmeasured 0 Operational definition defines variables in very specific term as to how it will be measuredmanipulatedchanged 0 Design a study and collect data 0 Analyze the data and draw conclusions 0 Report Findings 0 Descriptive methods observingdeciding behavior 0 Experimental methods 0 Statistics math used by researchers to organize summarize interpret data 0 Statistically Significant Mathematical indicates that results did not likely occur by chance 0 MetaAnalysis pulling my results from multiple studies into a single analysis 0 Publish or Report Findings 0 Must describe the study accurately in these reports 0 Useful for Replication repeat study to increase confidence in the findings Research Methods 0 Naturalistic Observation observing things in their natural environment 0 Unobtrusive 0 Pros Gives information about the real world 0 Cons Nothing controlled cannot demonstrate cause and effect 0 Case Study observe one person group over a long period of time 0 Data from numerous sources 0 What is the problem I May not be able to generalize about other people I Difficult to generalize to the greater population 0 Interview amp survey standardized set of Q s O Easiest to carry out with large samples 0 Based on selfreport 0 What is the problem with Representative sample I Need to make it more generalized I Trying to understand human with small samples to generalize a whole population 0 Representative sample sample selected segment of the population used to represent a group being studied bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis 0 Ex WSU students as a sample for studying college students 0 Random selection subjects randomly selected from larger group each person having an equal chance of being selected Correlation a measure of relationship between two variables 0 EX smoking and health 0 EX income and education 0 EX high school GPA and College GPA Advantage knowing value of 1 variable allows researchers to predict value of other variable Correlation Coef cient measure of strength and direction of relationship 0 Numerical value between 10 and 10 Strength how closely related the variables are Determined by number Closer to 10 or 10 stronger relationship Direction in which way are the variables related I Determined by sign or Positive Correlation between 0 and 10 0 Variable change in same direction 0 As one goes up the other goes up vice versa Negative Correlation 0 Variables change in opposite direction 0 As one increases the other decreases vice versa Disadvantage 0 Correlation does not prove causation O Probably other factors contributing 0 Ex race gender contribute to income 0 O O O Lurking 3rd Variable some other variable relate to the 2 variable leads to an illusory correlation 0 Ex studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between ice cream sales and drowning deaths 0 Lurking 3rd Variable Summer Hot weather Illusory Correlation when we perceive a relationship exists but doesn t Experimental Studies used to demonstrate Cause and Effect in research 0 2 Characteristics I 1 Manipulation of the variable I Random Assignment of participants to groups 0 Equal chance of being assigned into either group bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis Independent Variable Can be manipulated under controlled conditions Dependent Variable outcome response 0 Ex Independentl Dependent O Meditationl Blood Pressure Experimental Group receive treatment or independent variable Control Group Do not receive independent variable Placebo Substancetreatment that appears identical to actual treatment but lacks active substance SingleBlind participants do not know what group they are assigned to DoubleBlind neither participants nor researchers know the group assignment Prevents demand characteristics subtle cues from researchers that communicate response expected from participant Research Ethics Milgrim s Obedience Study 0 Obedience study Nazi regime 0 Presence of authority 0 Deception O Confederate actor pretending to be participant O Hypothesis 373 would get to 300V I What actually happened 65 Stanford Prison Experiment 0 Wanted to study how assigning people to roles affected behavior 0 Stopped study after 6 days 0 Guards degraded and punished prisoners 0 Mental Breakdowns What did we learn bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis O Milgrim obedience listen to authorities gures 0 Prison social role people change of what they think they should be like Informed Consent 0 What the study is about how long it Will take risksbenefit 0 Can Withdraw at any time Without penalty 0 Can t force people to participate Respect for Persons Safeguard the dignity and autonomy of individuals 0 Special precautions for protected populations 0 Children 0 Prison 0 Elderly Beneficence 0 Minimize costs and maximize benefits 0 Inform participants about costsbenefits Privacy and Confidentiality 0 Must keep information confidential 0 Only researchers able to access information 0 IMPORTANT Can be fined Justice 0 Fairness and equalitytreat all participants equally Research Ethics 0 Deception only allowed if it is a Not feasible to use other methods bxbehavior txtreatment dxdiagnosis b Deception can be justified by potential findings 0 Debriefing explanation of study following data collection 0 IRB institutional review board
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