Definitions MGT 20200
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Cindy Lee on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MGT 20200 at University of Notre Dame taught by Charlice Hurst in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at University of Notre Dame.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Global economic Began with US home mortgage and soon affected businesses as credit recession markets collapsed. It didn’t take long for these economic troubles to spread worldwide. (businesses have recovered, but workers have not quite) Economic inequality As economic growth has languished and sputtered, social discontent over growing income gaps has increased Baby boomers Those individuals born between 1946 and 1964 Gen X 1964 to 1978 Gen Y (“Millennials”) Those individuals born between 1978 and 1994 Post-Millennials The youngest identified age group, basically teens and middle- schoolers Environmental The degree of change and complexity in an organization’s environment ex: toilet paper would not be an environmental uncertainty Uncertainty Environmental The number of components in an organization’s environment and the Complexity extent of the organization’s knowledge about those components ex: dealing with other govts, technology bc its always changing and has different policies across borders Stakeholders Any constituencies in the organization’s environment that are affected by an organization’s decisions and actions. Can consist of: employees, customers, shareholders, anyone that influences Organizational A pattern of basic assumptions (ex. South will be open for breakfast) – Culture invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to these problem. Focus (horizontal Degree of integration of processes and capabilities within the firm axis) Structure (vertical Degree of flexibility and discretion vs. stability and control axis) Meta-Analysis Statistical method for combining the results of different studies in order to determine the “true” relationships among two or more variables. Achieves higher statistical power and greater reliability (reduced error). Calculates a corrected correlation (p) Means-end The values and beliefs of the organization, which are expected to lead to certain outcomes Socialization The process that helps employees adapt to the organizational culture ex: orientation, opening mass, class trip to the grotto Parochialism Viewing the world solely through your own perspectives, leading to an inability to recognize differences between people Ethnocentric attitude The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country National culture The values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and beliefs about what is important Hofstede’s One of the most widely referenced approaches to helping managers framework for better understand differences between national cultures. assessing cultures Performance The extent to which a community encourages innovation, high Orientation standards, excellence, and performance improvement Individualistic People look after their own family interests ex: US, Canada, Australia Collectivistic People expect the group to look after and protect them ex: Mexico, Thailand High power distance Accepts wide differences in power, great deal of respect for those in authority ex: Mexico, Singapore, France Low power distance Plays down inequalities, employees are not afraid to approach nor are in awe of the boss ex: US, Sweden High uncertainty Threatened with ambiguity and experience high levels of anxiety ex: Italy, Mexico, France avoidance Low uncertainty Comfortable with risks; tolerant of different behavior and opinions ex: Canada, US, Singapore avoidance Achievement Values such as assertiveness, acquiring money and goods, and competition prevail ex: US, Japan, Mexico Nurturing Values such as relationships and concern for others prevail ex: France, Sweden Long-term People look to the future and value thrift and persistence orientation ex: China, Taiwan, Japan Short-term People value tradition and the past orientation ex: Germany, Australia, US, Canada Uncertainty The extent to which a society, organization, or group relies on societal Avoidance norms, rules, and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events In-group collectivism The degree to which individuals express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organization or families Power Distance The extent to which individuals express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families Gender The degree to which a collective minimized gender inequality Egalitarianism Humane Orientation The degree to which an organization or society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, and kind to others Institutional The degree to which organizational and societal institutional practices collectivism encourage and reward collective distribution of resources and collective action Future orientation The degree to which a collective encourages and rewards future- oriented behaviors such as planning and delaying gratification Assertiveness The degree to which individuals are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their relationships with others Organizational Employees perceptions of how fairly they are treated at work justice Organizational Discretionary behavior that promotes the effective functioning of the citizenship behavior organization (OCB) Interpersonal (OCBI) Targets individuals (ex. Taking someone else’s shift) Organization (OCBO) Benefits the organization in general (ex. Attending optional events) Organizational Perceived oneness with the organization and the experience of the Identification (OI) organization’s successes and failures as one’s own Cross-cultural self- Belief in one’s ability to be effective in culturally diverse environments efficacy Cross-cultural Interest in other cultures; learning about other cultures is fun and/or intrinsic motivation aligns with one’s deeply held intrinsic values Diversity climate Employees shared perceptions about the extent to which their firm values diversity by utilizing fair practices and socially integrating all personnel Statistical A variable (ex. Firm motivational CQ) that affects the direction and /or Moderation strength of the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable Transition processes Actions that teams execute between performance episodes ex: how to set the team up for success, preparation for future actions, reflection on past episodes Goal specification Identification and prioritization of team goals Strategy formulation Developing courses of action and contingency plans and planning Action processes Activities that occur as the team works towards the accomplishment of its goals and objectives Monitoring progress Paying attention to, interpreting, and communicating information necessary for the team to gauge its progress toward its goals Systems monitoring Tracking team resources (ex. Money) and factors in the team environment (ex. Inventories) to ensure the team has what it needs Team monitoring and Members going out of their way to assist others (interpersonal backup behavior organizational citizenship behavior) Interpersonal Activities focused on management of interpersonal relationships processes Conflict Mutual respect, willingness to compromise, norms of cooperation and management harmony Affect management Fostering emotional balance and ability to cope with stress and frustration Social loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually Group cohesiveness The degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the groups goals Team faultlines Hypothetical dividing lines that may split a group into subgroups based on one or more attributes. Faultlines based on task-related differences are “informational faultlines” Process Modifications of methods used to perform tasks: transition, action, interpersonal Structure Architercture of differentiation and integration of labor in the team: interdependence, centralization, rewards, role specialization Fundamental If we have problems its because of certain people or certain processes attribution error (aka underestimating structure) Collective induction When problems have a correct solution, but it is not possible to clearly demonstrate why that solution is correct, self-managed groups tend to go with the solution proposed by the most members Principles of Management Definitions Feedback & Coaching Halo Error: overall impression of rate influences judgements along independent dimensions of performance AKA when you make specific inferences about a person based upon a single trait or general impression o An overall positive view of the person = positive rating o An overall negative view of the person = decrease ratings Leniency error: tendency to assign ratings that are generally higher or lower than warranted by actual performance o Ex: if I think of myself of a tough person I’ll be tough on ratings Procedural Justice: part of the process for managing employee performance o Ex: if no feedback along the way, I’ll be confused at why my bonus is small at the end of the year Interactional Justice: delivering feedback with respect and with adequate, accurate information Disruptive Justice: acceptance of outcomes Formulate your feedback: 1. Be direct 2. Identify specific behavior 3. State impact 4. Caution Observation: pay careful attention to behavior Analysis: trace connection between behavior and impact of behavior Interpersonal Interaction: deliver feedback in a way that can be heard Self-management: be aware of how providing feedback impacts ones own emotional state Psychological support: listening, reassurance, patience, sharing own experiences Instrumental Guidance: collaborative instruction on how to enhance performance Personality & Work Outcomes Personality: consistency in affect, behavior, and cognition, variability within consistency (fluctuations over short spans of time, change over the life span), situation-independent, situation-dependent, heritable Openness: being curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas Conscientiousness: being organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, and dependable Extraversion: being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations Agreeableness: being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm Neuroticism: being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody Behavioral Approach System: extraversion, openness Behavior Inhibition System: neuroticism Constraint System: conscientiousness, agreeableness Locus of Control: the degree of control you feel that you possess over your life Self-Esteem: global evaluations of one’s worth, different from narcissism Competition: when quick, decisive action is vital Collaboration: to find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised Avoidance: when an issue is trivial or tangential Accomodation: when you find your wrong Compromise: when goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches Speaking Up Employee Voice: the expression of ideas, suggestions, and concerns with the intent of being constructive rather than merely to criticize o Not out of self-interest Psychological Safety: the shared belief that the team is safe for interpersonal risk-taking o Risk of looking ignorant, incompetent, intrustive, negative Effective Voice: try to frame suggestions in an approach oriented way, know your manager and devlop a good relationship, know your organization, manage your emotions, make sure you are doing your core job well, and voicing to peers does little good Labor Issues National Labor Relations Act: enacted in 1935 to protect the rights of employees and employers to encourage collective bargaining, and to curtail certain private sector labor and management practices, which can harm the general welfare of workers, businesses, and the US economy Developmental Networks Right to Work: affirms the right of every American to work for a living without being compelled to belong to a union. Compulsory unionism in any form is a contradiction of the Right to Work Networking: building, maintaining, and using informal relationships that possess the potential benefit of facilitating work-related activities of individuals by granting access to resources and maximizing common advantages Brokers: people who have diverse and far reaching networks o Promoted faster, produce more creative output, make more money, and receive more favorable performance evaluation Self-monitoring: extent to which an individual monitors behavior according to the social context Initiation: aspirations become fixed expectations, opportunities or interaction exist Cultivation: both individuals continue to benefit from interacting Separation: one or the other partners need change Redefinition: stresses of separation diminish Increase your self-awareness: knowing your goals, values, strengths, weaknesses and interests better equips you to seek out people who can guide and support you Practice your relational skills: listening deeply, asking good questions, sharing your own experience appropriately, showing interest in other points-of-view Strive for diversity: different knowledge basese, across hierarchical levels, in and outside of your workplace Right to work is false 12 protected
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