BIL 160 In Class Notes
Popular in Biology 160
Popular in Biology
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Biology Lecture Chapter 22 Notes Evolution seen today 1 Lactose intolerance a Lactose tolerance was a mutation b When only milk was available those who were able to digest it survived 2 Cancer a Lifespan long ago was normally up to 20 years old b Now lifespan is 80100 c Cells have not evolved to survive and function for long lifespan i Why we have cancer 3 Eyeglass a Originally humans needed to see far away to hunt b Ancestors did not evolve to study things closely such as book i Actions evolving faster than our body 4 Aging a Without aging information would not be passed on from generation to generation b Older generation passes on experience 5 Cold and Malariameaning bad air a Cold does not make you so sick that you cannot walk so you can spread the virus b Malaria makes you very weak and limp i Mosquitos spread malaria person is not able to kill mosquitos 6 Anemia a Start distributing iron pills b Free iron is used by pathogen to survive i Usually iron remains bound to a proteinnot free 1 People with de ciency often do not have a lot of protein and therefore have a lot of free iron ii Pathogens bind to the iron and many people die of secondary infection 7 Addiction a Most drugs around affect our nervous system b Plants metabolize to protect themselves i Plants are eaten my insects ii The metabolize to affect the nervous system of the insect and protect themselves c At some point insects and humans share a common ancestor i So some plants affect humans similarly to insects ii Human nervous system gets affected and it s enjoyable so they continue to use the drug unlike insects that stay away from the plant 8 Breast cancer a Females in huntergatherer farmer populations hit puberty 1418 years old often time don t get enough nutrition so puberty gets delays b In nations that have enough food females get puberty at age 9 10 and have much more hormonal cycles and marry late i Cells are exposed to hormones for long time continually and breast cells become cancerous because there have been too many hormonal cycles c Pregnancy breast feeding is a natural contraception so less hormonal cycles and less incidences of cancer Chapter 22 Evolutionary Thought and Evidences of Evolution 1 Every trait can be explained by a Approximate cause i A cause that can immediately explain the condition b Evolutionary cause i A cause that is a result of evolution 2 Evolution is studied as a theory a PreDarwinian ideas Darwin s theory Post Darwinian theory modern synthetic theory b Darwin noticed similarity between parents and their offspring 3 Creationism theory that God has made organism and every species has to be perfect a There was a special and independent creation of every species and that life forms do not change through time from generation to generation b Example blood clotting i Several steps that lead to blood clotting ii Product of the rst step becomes the substrate of the second reaction etc iii People question why the steps were put in place if blood clotting isn t good 1 It was quotintelligently designedquot c Example heart i Heart became 4 changes ii Why would evolution support one chamber iii Heart was intelligently designed d Example eye i Evolutionist propose parts of eye were developed in steps 10 11 12 1 However eye cannot function unless all parts of eye are there quotintelligent designquot say that the eye started like that as a pack 2 George Cuvier advocated the theory of catastrophism a Did not believe in evolution i One organism did not give way to another b Explained new organisms by catastrophic events James Hutton concept of gradualism a There is always gradual change happening i no sudden change Charles Lyell theory of uniformitarianism a Constant change on earth going on b Ideas taken by Darwin i Organisms react with environment ii The environment in constantly undergoing change therefore organisms must undergo change Charles Darwin1808 1882 a Travelled in ship for 5 years around the world b Developed idea in Galapagos Islands i Studies mainly nches and tortoise English naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace is the codiscoverer of natural selection as the principal process of underlying selection Variation in a population a Darwin observed there is always variation in a population Thomas Malthus in uenced Darwin a Idea natural resources are limited b Idea organisms have the capacity to grow exponentially c Idea Variation is heritable Natural Selection A mechanism for change in populations that occurs when organisms with favorable variations for a particular environment survive reproduce and pass on the variations to the next generation a Differential reproductive success Fossil evidence carbon dating transitional forms Carbon dating used to nd the age of fossils i Halflife of fossil b Transition animal missing link between organisms in evolution Picture example has extended vertebral columnreptilian feature claws in the wingsreptiian feature teethreptiian feature feathersbird feature Ambulocetus natans ancestor of whales i Was terrestrial organism moved to water ii Fossils have presence of limbs 1 Now limbs have become shortened a 2 Body has been adapted for aquatic conditions 13 Comparative Morphology and Embryology a Homologous structures but different functions i Shows that all organisms evolved from a common ancestor ii Evolution from different living conditions b Analogous structuresopposite homology i Function is the same but anatomy is different ii Evolutionary pressures cause similar functions even though there are different anatomies c Embryology provides evidence all organisms come from common ancestor i Early stages of development very similar in all organisms ii Only later in development do the features that de ne a species show 14 Universal genetic code all organisms evolved from a common ancestor based on a similar amount of nucleotides in all organism a From bacteria to humans b Ex ATP i Energy is important for survival 15 Genome sequencing projects 16 Vestigial structure remnants of structures in organisms that the organism no longer uses a Can show step in evolution 17 Selection against melanism a During industrial revolution moths changed color in order to adapt to mimic their environment 18 An adaptation is a feature that is common in a population because it provides some improved function and are produced my natural selection a Structural adaptations arise over many generations b Example of adaptation in humans i Humans around the equator have darker skin color because of more melanin 1 Protects melanin from UV rays 19 Mimicry structural adaptation that provides protection 20 Darwin s Theory of Evolution Perpetual change Common descent Multiplication of species Gradualism i Evolution took a very long time and happened very slowly e Natural selection and adaptation goom Book Notes WNH 10 11 12 13 Evolution descent with modi cation Fossils the remains or traces of organisms from the past Strata new layers of sediment cover older ones and compress them into superimposed layers of rock Paleontology the study of fossils was developed in large part by French scientist Georges Cuvier Georges Cuvier theory of catastrophism the principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from those operating in the present James Hutton 1726 1797 proposed that Earth s geologic features could be explained by gradual mechanisms still operating to day Charles Lyell 1797 1875 incorporated Hutton s thinking into his principle of uniformitarianism which stated that mechanisms of change are constant over time Lyell pro posed that the same geologic processes are operating today as in the past and at the same rate JeanBaptiste de Lamarck 1744 1829 wrong theories a Use and disuse the idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger while those that are not used deteriorate b thought that evolution happens because organ isms have an innate drive to become more complex natural selection a process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits arti cial selection Humans have modi ed other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits a process called arti cial selection Natural selection summary Natural selection is a process in which individuals that have certain heritable traits survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals because of those traits Over time natural selection can increase the match be tween organisms and their environment If an environment changes or if individuals move to a new environment natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions sometimes giving rise to new species Homology similarity resulting from common ancestry Homologous structures represent variations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestor i vestigial structures are remnants of features that served a function in the organism s ancestors convergent evolution the independent evolution of similar features in different lineages a 14 0390 analogous species share features because of convergent evolution i different ancestor similar structure biogeography the geographic distribution of species evidence for evolution endemic which means species are found nowhere else in the world Biology Lecture Chapter 23 Notes 1 Terms to remember while studying genetic variation a Alleles variant forms of a single gene b Polymorphism occurrence of different alleles of a gene in a population c Gene pool all alleles of all genes in a population d Genotype gene construction e Phenotype expression of gene f Heterozygous two different individuals with two different alleles of a gene g Homozygous two same alleles i Population a group of interbreeding organisms present in a speci c location at a ii Can interbreed and produce fertile offspring h Allelic frequency is the frequency of the particular allele 2 Variation in a Population a Mutation and sexual reproduction produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possible b Every generation there is recombination 3 Mutation a A change in the DNA sequence i Chromosomal rearrangement ii Gene duplication b Types i Point mutation ii Deletion 4 Diploidy maintains genetic variation in the form of hidden recessive alleles a Asexual reproduction i Creates quotclonesquot ii No variation except through mutation b Sexual reproductionrecombination 5 Genetic Variation a Ex Non genetic variation i Map butter ies that emerge in spring orange and brown ii Map butter ies that emerge in late summer black and white iii quot different phenotype expression but a same genetically b Ex Caterpillar i Ingredient in food that changes gene expression ii Helps it blend in to bark or owers 6 Preservation of genetic variation a Diploidy b Heterozygote advantage c Frequency dependent selection i More the number better the tness of the species ii Ex Coral and king look very similar One is poisonous so it helps the other species survive d Neutral variation 7 Microevolution change in the allele frequency of generations a Individuals do not evolve people evolve 8 Hardy Weinberg Rule genetic change in populations a Provides a control condition i When a population is not evolving control ii Compare with evolved population iii Cannot use with populations that are evolvingal real organisms are evolving b Rules i Random mating ii No selection happening in the population iii No mutations iv No gene ow 1 No individuals can come in or leave the population 2 No immigration or emigration v Large population sites c Conditions are not possible in real life rule is theoretical i Provides an idea of what a control condition should be d pfrequency of d q frequency of d i Allele frequencies 1 pq1 ii genotype frequencies 1 pquot22pqqquot21 iii Question Considering the hardyWeinberg equation what portion of the equation would be used to calculate the frequency of the individuals that do not exhibit a disease but a carriers of a recessive genetic disorder 1 Answer 2pq 9 What drives evolution a Mutation b Genetic drift c Gene ow d Nonrandom mating e Natural selection 10Gene ow or migration a Makes separate populations more similar genetically i Ex Plants pollen dispersal b Causes change in allele frequency 11Genetic Drift a Sudden separation of a population b Random no selection for bene cial traits c Large population if there is a catastrophe there is a high probability that the allele frequency will barely change d Small populationbig effect 12Founder39s effect group of individuals getting separated from a mainland population 13Bottleneck effect When there is a lot of evolutionary pressure very little individuals survive from a large population 14Nonrandom mating a Causes genetic problems b Changes allele frequency c Over long term not bene cial to only keep quotbestquot of population because one disease can wipe out the entire population 153 Modes of natural selection a Directional selection extreme traits are selected goes towards one direction b Disruption selection population has only extreme traits but not intermediate ones c Stabilizing selection only intermediate population is selected 16Question In a population of sh body coloration varies from a white to a very dark shade of green If changes in the environment resulted in decreased predation of individuals with lightest coloration this would be an example of a A directional 17Question Given a population that contains genetic variation what will be the correct sequence of evolution 1 a new selection pressure arises 2 Poorly adapted individuals die 3 Differential reproduction occurs 4 Allele frequencies within the population change i A 1 2 3 4 18Why natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms a Evolution is limited by historical constraints i Can modify existing organisms only b It can only work on existing variation c Adaptions are often compromises i No perfect individual d Chance natural selection and the environment Book Notes 1 genetic variation differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments 2 average heterozygosity gene variability can be quanti ed as the average heterozygosity 3 geographic variation differences in the genetic composition of separate populations cline a graded change in a character along a geographic axis Sources of genetic variation a Formation of new alleles i Ex Point mutation b Altering gene number or position i Chromosomal changes that delete disrupt or rearrange many loci at once c Rapid reproduction d Sexual reproduction 6 Population a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed producing fertile offspring 7 HardyWeinberg principle The gene pool of a population that is not evolving can be de scribed by the HardyWeinberg principle 8 Pquot2 2pq qquot2 1 9 Conditions for HardyWeinberg Equilibrium P1P a No mutations The gene pool is modi ed if mutations alter alleles or if entire genes are deleted or duplicated b Random mating lf individuals mate preferentially within a subset of the population such as their close relatives inbreeding random mixing of gametes does not occur and genotype frequencies change c No natural selection Differences in the survival and reproductive success of individuals carrying different genotypes can alter allele frequencies d Extremely large population size The smaller the population the more likely it is that allele frequencies will uctuate by chance from one generation to the next a process called genetic drift e No gene ow By moving alleles into or out of populations gene ow can alter allele frequencies 10Factors that alter frequencies in a population a Natural selection b Genetic drift Chance events can also cause allele frequencies to uctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next especially in small populations i Founder effect When a few individuals become isolated from a larger population this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool differs from the source population ii Bottleneck effect A sudden change in the environment such as a re or ood may drastically reduce the size of a population c Gene ow the transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes 11Effects of genetic drift summary a Genetic drift is signi cant in small populations b Genetic drift can cause allele frequencies to change at random c Genetic drift can lead to a loss of genetic variation within populations d Genetic drift can cause harmful alleles to become xed 12Closer look at natural selection a Relative tness b Types of selection i Directional selection occurs when conditions favor individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range ii Disruptive selection occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of a phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotypes iii Stabilizing selection acts against both extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants 13Sexual selection form of selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates a Can result in sexual dimorphism a difference between the two sexes in secondary sexual characteristics i Sexes look different in appearance ii intrasexual selection meaning selection within the same sex individuals of one sex compete directly for mates of the opposite sex iii intersexual selection also called mate choice individuals of one sex usually the females are choosy in selecting their mates from the other sex 14Preservation of genetic variation a Neutral variation differences in DNA sequence that do not confer a selective advantage or disadvantage b Diploidy i In diploid eukaryotes a considerable amount of genetic variation is hidden from selection in the form of recessive alleles ii Recessive dominant alleles c Balancing selection occurs when natural selection maintains two or more forms in a population i Heterozygote advantage and frequency dependent selection 15Heterozygote advantage If individuals who are heterozygous at a particular locus have greater tness than do both kinds of homozygotes 16Frequency dependent selection the tness of a phenotype depends on how common it is in the population 17Why natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms Selection can act only on existing variations Evolution is limited by historical constraints Adaptations are often compromises Chance natural selection and the environment interact apem Biology Lecture Chapter 24 Notes What is a species Conservation of species a Understanding species is important for conservation b DNA barcoding Important to code DNA to understand species Spatial expression of genes can affect development which can have a dramatic effect of phenotype a HOX gene 5 Species concepts a Biological species concept i Interbreeding organisms that can produce fertile offspring b Morphological species concept i By physical attributes c Ecological species concept i No two species can occupy the same nichehabitat occuanon 6 Question what was the species concept probably used by Linnaeus a A morphological 7 Pace of speciation a Punctuated pattern nd organisms evolving rapidly over short period of time i Happens so fast you don t see intermediate changes ii After evolution stops caed stasis b Gradual pattern 8 Q If a population contains 160 RR individuals 480 Rr individuals and 360 rr individuals a Calculate genotype frequencies of RR Rr rr i RR 1601000 ii Rr 4801000 iii Rr 3601000 b Allele frequency of R i 1602 480 800 ltR alleles in population ii 8002000 allele frequency of R 1 1000 individuals with 2 aees each 9 2 basic patters of evolutionary change a Anagenesis parental population taken away by evolved population i One species is replaced of another species ii Caused by gradual accumulation of adaptive traits b Cadogenesis both new and parental species pattern i Creates more diversity N 39 IgtUU 10 Q Which of the following applies to both an anagenesis and dadogenegs a Branching b Increased diversity c Speciation d More species e Adadaptive radiation 11 Kinds of speciation a Allopatric speciation geographically isolated i Means quotdifferent countryquot b Sympatric speciation arise in the geographic area i Means quotsame countryquot ii How it can occur 1 Polyploidy increase in chromosome number a Allopolyploid a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species 2 Habitat differentiation 3 Sexual selection 12 Reproductive lsolating Mechanisms extrinsic isolating mechanism a Geographical isolation 13 Reproductive isolating mechanism intrinsic isolating mechanisms a b c d Gametic isolation an embryo will not form if the egg and sperm 14 0390 15 16 17 Ecological isolation Temporal isolation species mate at different times of dayyear Behavioral isolation even if they breed at the same time they will not mate if they are not attracted to one another Mechanical isolation not physically compatible do not fuse properly Hybrid inviability or infertility of if the fertilization occurs successfully the offspring may not survive or it if survives may not reproduceex Mule Founder population may lead to rapid speciation because Difference in natural population versus the original population Genetic differences due to genetic drift Prezygotic Postzygotic Which of the following would be considered an example of a post zygotic isolating mechanism a 18 a Fertilized egg fails to develop correctly Hybrid Zones Over Time When closely related species meet in a hybrid zone there are three possible outcomes i Strengthen of reproductive barriers 1 Become More and more species speci c more distinct species ii Weakening of reproductive barriers iii Continued formation of hybrid individuals 1 Hybrids will continue making hybrids Book Notes 1 Speciation the process by which one species splits into two or more species 2 Microevolution changes over time in allele frequencies in a population a Macroevolution the broad pattern of evolution above the species level 3 gene ow the transfer of alleles between populations 4 reproductive isolation the existence of biological factors barriers that impede members of two species from interbreeding and producing viable fertile offspring a hybrids offspring that result from an inter speci c mating b Prezygotic barriers quotbefore the zy gotequot block fertilization from occurring i Such barriers typically act in one of three ways 1 by impeding members of different species from attempting to mate 2 by preventing an attempted mating from being completed successfully 3 by hindering fertilization if mating is completed successfully c postzygotic barriers quotafter the zygotequot may contribute to reproductive isolation after the hybrid zygote is formed 5 Reproductive barriers Prezygotic Factors a Habitat isolation Two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may encounter each other rarely b Temporal isolation Species that breed during different times of the day different seasons or different years can not mix their gametes c Behavioral isolation Courtship rituals that attract mates and other behaviors unique to a species are effective reproductive barriers d Mechanical isolation Mating is attempted but morphological differences prevent its successful completion e Gametic Isolation Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species 6 Reproductive barriers Postzygotic Factors a Reduced hybrid viability The genes of different parent species may interact in ways that impair the hybrid s development or survival in its environment b Reduced hybrid fertility If the chromosomes of the two parent species differ in number or structure meiosis in the hybrids may fail to produce normal gametes i sterHe c Hybrid breakdown Some rstgeneration hybrids are viable and fertile but when they mate with one another or with either parent species off spring of the next generation are feeble or sterile 7 De nitions of species a Morphological species concept characterizes a species by body shape and other structural features b ecological species concept views a species in terms of its ecological niche i the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of their environment c phylogenetic species concept de nes a species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor i forming one branch on the tree of life 8 allopatric speciation gene ow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations 9 Sympatric speciation A subset of a population forms a new species without geographic separation a Polyploidy A species may originate from an accident during cell division that results in extra sets of chromosome i Autopolyploid an individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species ii Allopolyploid when mating with each other but cannot inter breed with either parent species b Habitat differentiation when genetic factors en able a subpopulation to exploit a habitat or resource not used by the parent population c Sexual selection 10 hybrid zone a region in which members of different species meet and mate 11 Formation of hybrid zone and possible outcomes a Three populations of a species are connected by gene ow b A barrier to gene ow is established c This population begins to diverge from the other two populations d Gene ow is reestablished in a hybrid zone e Possible outcomes for hybrids i Reinforcement strengthening of reproductive barriers hybrids gradually cease to be formed ii Fusion weakening of reproductive barriers the two species fuse iii Stability continued production of hybrid individuals 12 Time Course of Speciation a punctuated equilibria periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change b gradual Other species diverge from one another much more gradually over time Biology Lecture Chapter 25 1 Earth began 45 million years ago 2 Oxygen was not present in the environment a Earth was very hot i Comets were hitting earth b Caused metals like nickel and iron to melt and melt to the middle of the earth c Once earth cooled water could remain liquid i Once water began accumulating life started very fast 3 Life began on a planet characterized by abundant volcanic activity frequent electrical storms repeated meteorite strikes and on atmosphere that lacked oxygen gas 4 How did life begin a PreDarwinian idea spontaneous generation i Nonliving material spontaneously give rise to living organisms b Experiment to refute spontaneous generation Louis Pasteur i The broth in a ask is boiled to kill preexisting organisms ii Control boiled media in ask there was no growth 1 A long Sshaped neck allows air but not microorganisms to enter the ask iii The neck was broken off there was growth 1 If the neck is later broken off outside air can carry microorganisms into the broth 5 Urey and Miller experiment a Another idea there was no oxygen in beginning of time b Organic molecules can form spontaneously under prebiotic condition c Going to discover Earth39s early conditions d Experiment i An electric spark simulates a lightning storm ii Energy from the spark powers reactions among molecules thought to be present in Earths early atmosphere iii Cool water ow for condenser iv Stimulated water vapor on earth v Boiling water for warm seas vi Organic molecules appear after a few days 1 Found amino acids nucleotides possibly small peptides e Evidence Earth39s early conditions could have provided this kind of molecule 6 Question Which putative early earth condition did Miller and Urey39s experimental apparatus not attempt to simulate directly a Presence of water vapor b lntense lightning storms c Warm seas d Intense UV bombardment 7 Organic molecules can accumulate under prebiotic conditions a Clay may have catalyzed the formation of larger organic molecules 8 Deep sea vent hypothesis for origin of life a Cracks in Earth39s surface that release hot gas such as hydrogen sulfideHZS b This heats the water near the vent and creates a gradient between the very hot water adjacent to the vent and cold water that is farther away from the vent c The synthesis or organic molecules can occur in this gradient 9 Which gas was probably least abundant in Earth39s early atmosphere a 02 b CO c CH3 d H20 e NH3 10RNA may have been the rst selfreproducing molecule a A ribozyme evidence i RNA can act as an enzyme itself without a protein 11RNA was there initially a There was a mutation b Mutant RNA could have had both catalytic and reproductive enzymes c RNA can replicate more and more by itself 12Question It is known that RNA can sometimes act as an enzyme for the synthesis of a Lipids b Proteins c More RNA d More DNA 13Chemical selection a 1St step mutation RNA molecules can produce new RNA molecules i 2nCI step second mutation provides molecule with ability to synthesize ribonucleotides b 1St step chemical selection amount of mutant RNA with enzymatic function increases because it can selfreplicate i 2nCI step chemical selection mutations favored so after many generations the protobiant has 2 functions replications and ribonucleotide synthesis 14Membrane like vesicles may have enclosed ribozymesprotocellprotobiant a Protobionts are systems that are considered to have possibly been the precursors to rst cells b because of waves in the ocean lipid molecules that were formed they came together and formed vesicles c scientist found that when vesicles kept growing they ultimately stopped i there was limit to surface to volume ratio constrains ii so cells started to break apart iii early form of reproduction d protobiant and their lifelike functions could have given rise to living cells 15Deep sea vent hypothesis deep sea vents are cracks in the Earth39s surface that release hot gases such as hydrogen sul de a This heats the water near the vent and creates a gradient between the very hot water adjacent to the vent and the cold water that is farther away from the vent b The synthesis of organic molecules can occur in this gradient 16A deepsea vent communityquot photograph of a biological community near a deep sea vent consisting of giant tube worms clams and crabs 17Pathway to a cell a What were the earliest organisms like i Anaerobic prokaryotes don39t need oxygen to survive ii Some organisms evolved the ability to capture the sun39s energy 1 Autotrophic cyanobacteria iii Photosynthesis increased the amount of oxygen in the air b First cell would have selfreplicating molecules enclosed in a phospholipid bilayer membrane i PreRNA world polymerization and dehydration for nucleic acids and polypeptides ii RNA world reverse transcriptase enzyme copies RNA into complementary DNA iii DNAprotein world DNA replicates RNA from DNA encodes proteins Lipids form spheres iv Primordial cell selfreplicating system enclosed in a permeable protective lipid spher 18Evidence of presence of cyanobacteria in the past a FossHs 19Aerobic metabolism arose in response to the oxygen crisis 20Some organisms acquired membrane enclosed organelles a lnfolding of the plasma membrane i Gave rise to golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum b Mitochondria and chloroplast i Endosymbiotic theory ii Organisms takes in another 1 Proof they have separate DNA iii Both bene t 1 Mitochondria protected get nutrients 2 Host cell got energy and helped cope with excess oxygen iv Process 1 An anaerobic predatory prokaryotic cell engulfs an aerobic bacterium 2 Descendants of the engulf bacterium evolve into mitochondria 3 The mitochondria containing cell engulfs photosynthetic bacterium 4 Descendants of the photosynthetic bacterium evolve into chloroplasts 21Elysia cf furvacauda a Slug changes diet at least 3 times during its annual life history and is able to use the plastids from each of the algae it fed on 220rigin of multicellularity and division of labor a Evolve theories i Aggregation accumulation of unicellular organisms ii One cell multiplied without separating 23What was the consequence of the release of oxygen gas by bacterial photosynthesis a Made earth and oxidizing environment b Formation of the ozone protected organisms from UV rays c Helped trap iron from ocean i reduced into FeO made it environment where marine organisms could evolve 24Question The rst important step leading to life was most likely the formation a Membrane enclosed structure b 02 gas i First organisms were anaerobic c Organic molecules d C02 255 extinction events 2 are a Permian extinction 95 marine life extinct 65 land life extinct i Volcano dust shielded earth toxic gas ii C02 increases temperature of earth b Crustaceous extinction i Meteorite dust shielded earth ii Temperature went down dinosaurs died Biology Lecture Chapter 26 Notes 1 Systematics use fossil molecular and genetic data to classify organisms and infer evolutionary relationships a Taxonomy naming and grouping of organisms i Classi es organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships b Phylogeny nd relationship between ancestors and descendants i The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species 2 Binomial nomenclature a 18th century Carolus Linnaeus published a system of taxonomy based on resemblances i Twopart names for species 1 Usually in Latin ii Hierarchical classi cation b Ex Homo sapiens i Homogenus 1 First letter is uppercase ii Sapiensspecies 1 First letter of species is lowercase iii Completely underline or completely italics c International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature Systematics depict evolutionary relationships in branching phylogenetic trees Linnaeus a Illknown for creationism theory b Well known for classi cations 5 Hierarchical classi cation a Groups called taxons b Each level becomes more speci c 6 Taxons a Domain most inclusive b Species least inclusive c Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species 7 Decotony 2 branches coming from same base 8 What we can learn from phylogenic trees 9 What we cannot learn from phylogenic trees a Doesn t show patterns of descent b Don t indicate when species evolved or how much genetic change occurred in a lineage c It shouldn t be assumed that a taxon evolved from the taxon next to it 10Applying phylogenies a Provides important info about similar characteristics in closely related FE species b Was used to identify the species of wale from which quotwhale meatquot originated c Anthrax i Can tell where it originated from ii Disease caused by anthrax bacteria 1 Form endospore d HIV case study zoonotic disease i HIV l western Africa 1 Eat chimps 2 Hypothesis originated in chimps entered humans ii HIV II from central Africa 1 Eat mangabays iii Phylogenic analysis helped to determine origin e Secondary metabolites in plants i Many plants have become extinct because they were used for drugs ii Look for common ancestor nd related plants use those plants iii Helps for plant conservation 11Phyogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data a To infer systematics gather information about morphologiesconvergent and divergent traits to be distinguished genes and biochemistry of living organisms b Molecular clock and neutral variations i Molecular clock Part of the gene that we use to compare the mutation rate in organisms ii Neutral variations constantly happen 1 Bene cial mutations are very rare 12Question which kind of evidence would be of the least use to taxonomist a Knowledge that structures are homologous b Morphology c Domestication records d The fossil record 13Cladistics method of drawing phylogenic tree a Cladistics group organisms by common descent i Make cladogram ii Use shared derived characteristics b Clade a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all in descendants i Can be nested in larger clades but not all groupings of organisms qualifying as clades Outgroup what other organisms are compared to Clade types i Monophyletic group include ancestor and all of its descendants ii Paraphyletic group includes a common ancestor and some but not all of its descendants iii Polyphyletic group does not include the common ancestor an i V Samugh as 2365 Pearson Educn 01 Ina Dutl rag us FEU39EO39i EEquotuquotr Iiquot1C39iquot139lngs 14Shared ancestral and shared derived characters a In comparison with its ancestor an organism has both shared and different characteristics i shared ancestral character originated in an ancestor of the taxon ii shared derived character an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular cade iii A character can be both ancestral and derived depending on the context 15Trees with proportional branch lengths a Use branch length to show amount of genetic changes or amount of time i Can also use chronoogic time and branch points can be determined from the fossil record b Maximum parsimony assumes that the tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events is most likely c Maximum likelihood states that given certain rules about how DNA changes over time a tree can be found that re ects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events 16The best hypothesis for phylogenetic trees t the most data morphological molecular and fossil a Phylogenic bracketing bracket and infer from living organisms using opsin gene i allows us to predict features of an ancestor from features of its descendants 170rganisms evolutionary history is documents in its genome a Comparing nucleic acids or other molecules to infer relatedness is a valuable tool for tracing organisms evolutionary history b DNA that codes for rRNaribosoma RNA changes relatively slowly and is useful for investigating branching points hundreds of millions of years ago c Use mitochondrial DNA because it changes quickly i Use to look at species that have diverged very recently 180rthoogous genes when divergence of genes happens after speciation event a Similar but not identical function b Ex Dog and human hemoglobin i Hemoglobin transports oxygen 19Paraogous genes when divergence happens one of the genes acquires a different function a Ex Myoglobin and hemoglobin i Myoglobin stores protein in the muscles ii Hemoglobin transports oxygen 20From two kingdoms to 3 domains a Early taxonomists classi ed all species as either plants or animals b Later 5 kingdoms were recognized c More recently the three domain names began being used 21The Universal Tree of Life a Horizontalatera gene transfer i Take in genes from environment take into plasmids acquire genes ii Complicates grouping of organisms b Now called quotring of lifequot Biology Lecture Chapter 27 Notes 1 Archaea share certain traits with bacteria a both lack nuclear envelope and membraneenclosed organelles b prokaryotes don39t have cytoskeletal structures 2 Prokaryotes a Bacteria were the rst discovered in the late 16005 Antony van Leeuwenhoek using the microscope he invented b Are much more diverse in both habitat and metabolism tan the eukaryotes c Bacteria help with increasing the muscularity of intestines 3 Prokaryote structure a The cell is surrounded by a membrane cell wall sometimes outer capsule agella b Protects bacteria from hosts39 immune system or digestive quotjuicesquot c Flagella vs cilia i Flagella Fewer in number thicker long 1 Help in locomotion 2 Taxis have response towards or away from stimuli ii Cilia short smaller larger in number d Fimbriae help in attachment to host cell help them infect host cell i Do not have membranous structure 4 Gram and Gram bacteria a Using a technique called the Gram stain i Scientist can classify many bacterial species into two groups based on cell well composition b Grampositive bacteria have a cell wall with a large amount of peptidoglycan that traps the violet dye in the cytoplasm c Gramnegative bacteria have less peptidoglycan and it is located in a later between the plasma membrane and an outer membrane The violet dye is easily rinsed from the cytoplasm and the cell appears pink or red after the red dye is added 5 Bacterial morphology shapes a Prokaryotic cells have a variety of shapes i Most common spherescocci rodbacilli and spirals 6 Bacteria morphology reproduction a binary ssion i Singular circular molecule is copied ii Prokaryotic cell gt DNA is copied gt cells begin to divide gt two identical haploid cells b Genetic exchange in bacteria conjugation i one donates DNA to the other ii Genetic material moves from the donor to the recipient all through a conjugative tube 7 Genetic diversity in prokaryotes a Rapid reproduction and mutation i Reproduce so fast that mutation happens more often overall b Transformation and transduction i Transformation Taking in naked pieces of DNA from the environment ii Transduction bacteria infected by virusbacteriophage 1 Sometimes phage DNA incorporated into bacteria chromosome c Conjugation and plasmids extra chromosomal circular DNA that is present in bacteria i Bacterial sex One bacteria forms sex pilus gt replicates some of its DNA gt pushes through pilus to other bacteria ii Conjugation of F 1 F and F a Fgenetic donor cells carry F plasmid make F pilus b Recipient cell lacks F plasmid called F 2 Process a Contact between donor and pilus b Bonds to the receptors on F c Plasmid becomes mobilized d From origin of transfer single strand enters F and a complementary strand is synthesized in Fto regenerate strand given away e When F and F mixed all become F d R vs F plasmid i Rplasmid contains gene conferring antibiotic resistance to the bacterium it is transferred into ii Fplasmid allows bacterium to produce sex pilus iii Rresistance F fertility 8 Mutation is the main process in which variation is brought about in prokaryotes 9 Endosporeforming bacteria a Most of these are in the genus bacillus i Can survive for a long time b Their sports are very resistant to environmental conditions and may survive millions of years before they revive i Water is taken out spore forms wall around it Will protect sport from environment until it is better ii Keep DNA safe iii not all bacteria form endospores 10Growth of bacteria a Sigmoid curve i Lag phase maturing still can39t divide ii Exponential growth phase binary ssion and constant rate nutrients used and waste builds up iii Stationary phase population stabilizes cells die or stop producing iv Lag phase die from lack of nutrients 1 of dead celsgt live bacteria 11Nutritional diversity 4 models of nutrition are found among prokaryotes a Autotrophy make own food i Photoautotroph use sun energy 1 Ex cyanobacteria ii Chemoautotrophy use hydrogen sul de or other chemicals to get energy b Heterotrophy use outside sources for food i Photoheterotrophy Get energy from sunlight but absorb organic compounds from outside ii Chemo heterotrophy chemicals and organic molecules absorbed from outside 12Relationship to oxygen a Strict aerobes cannot survive without oxygen b Strict anaerobes killed by oxygen do not like oxygen at all i Ex Ones that x nitrogen live deep inside root c Aerotolerent Don39t use oxygen but can survive in oxygen d Facultative anaerobes will use when oxygen is there will be anaerobic when oxygen isn39t present 13Diseases bacteria a Pyogenic cocci Means quotpusformingquot b Rickettsia and chlamydia i These bacteria are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells ii They can39t survive outside a cell c Nitrifying and nitrogen xing bacteria i Symbiotic ii Convert free nitrogen in air and brings it into the living system 1 We cannot use nitrogen but bacteria xes it 2 Nitrogen is important in DNA proteins d Cyanobacteria a major group of photosynthetic bacteria i The oceans contain large amounts of cyanobacteriacalled plankton that produce much of Earth39s oxygen 1 quotHeterocystquot heavily walled cells that perform nitrogen xa on 14ln some prokaryotic species a Metabolic cooperation occurs in surfacecoating colonies called bio lms b Quorum sensing makes bio lm to protect its own company c Ex Film forms over teethplaque i Make layers can clog pipes in buildings 15Bacteria diversity a Mitoplasmas are the smallest living organism on earth b Major groups chlamydia39s spirochetes Gram bacteria cyanobacteria 16Proteobacteria i Gram negative move with agella ii Ancient group still here today iii Ex Mitochondria b In some prokaryotic species metabolic cooperation occurs in surface containing colonies called bio lms 17Archaebacteria a Sometimes just called quotArchaeaquot i Cell membranes don39t contain fatty acids but instead use branched molecules called isoprenes b 3 main types i Type 1 methanogens convert hydrogen and c02 into methane to generate energy anaerobically ii Type 2 halophiles extreme halophiles grow in very salty conditions 1 Colorful bacteria in seawater evaporation beds great salt lake iii Type 3 thermophiles 1 Live at very high temperatures a Ocean hydrothermal vents b Hot springs in Yellowstone national park 18Prokaryotes are also major tools in a Mining the synthesis of vitamins production of antibiotics hormones and other produces nutrient recycling 19Question statements about Archaea a Based on DNA analysis Archaea are probably more closely related to eukaryotes than they are to bacteria b Some Archaea can reduce c02 to methane c Some Archaea can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30 salt d Some Archaea are adapted to waters with temperatures about 100 degrees Celsius 20Bioremediations uses biologic processes to clean up toxic and nontoxic compounds a Metalmicrobe interactions i Bioleaching extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms ii Biosorption dead microbial biomass bind and concentrate heavy metals iii Enzymecatalyzed transformations 21Biomineralization the complete biodegrading of organic materials into inorganic constituents such as C02 of H204 a Sulfate reducing bacteria b Citrobacter species 22Transformation of heavy metasuses of bacteria a Heavy metals are toxic to life b Disease causing c Help conserve habitable environment d Contamination of water supply Biology Lecture Chapter 28 1 Protists no hmonom 2 Excavata Not a true clade Extremely diverseauto heterotrophs Uni or multicellular Marine or freshwater Tremendous ecological effectoxygen Pathogen Useoil and calcium silica production etc Eukaryote a Diplomonads I ii iii iv v vi Have two nuclei and multiple agella adapted to anaerobic environments Lack plastids Have mitochondria that lack DNA an electron transport chain or citricacid cycle enzymes Parasite Ex Giardia intestinal5 found in streams can cause diarrhea b Parabasalids iv v vi vii Includes trichomonads move by agella undulating part of the plasma membrane runs along length of the body adapted to anaerobic environments Lack plastids Parasite Ex Trickomonas vaginai5 sexually transmitted if there is an infection woman will have green frothy secretion c Euglenozoans ii iii iv Ex kinetoplastid Trypanosoma 1 Causes sleeping sickness in humans 2 Causes swelling in the brain Ex Leishmaniasis plastic spread by sand y Ex Kissing bug bites on lip Euglenids 1 Cells much larger than bacterial cells 2 Have animal and plant like features a Autotrophicw chloroplasts b Converts to heterotrophic protest when chemicals are present 3 Chromalveolata a Dino agellates i ii iii iv Two agella spin as they move through the water Walls are made up of cellulose plates Very important producers Alveolates have vesicles just under their cell membrane v cause disease vi In Florida have a dino agellate invasion 1 Red tides is caused by this 2 It releases a neurotoxin that is fatal for sh b Ampicomplexans i Has structure called apicocomplex that is used to enter humans ii Malaria parasite is no longer autotrophic 1 Not toxic to human cells if you attack the degenerate chloroplast 2 2 cycles in humansasexua one occurs outside red blood cells one occurs inside red blood cells 3 Sexual cycle occurs in female anopheles mosquitos 4 mosquito injects gt Hide in the liver from blood defenses multiply gt Invade blood cells protected and can divide gt Get taken up by female mosquitoAnopheles gt transfers to another host 5 Use quinine from cinchona plant a Major drug used against malaria c Ciliates i Paramecium 1 Turns from asexual to sexual reproduction under environmental stress or overcrowding 2 Reproduction conjugation ii Unicellular but complex d Side note Stramenopiles tinselhairy agella i The water molds include some of the worst plant diseases ii Phytphthora infestans causes rot in plants 1 In the 1840 s Phytophthora caused the potato blight in Ireland Many lrish came to the US at that time e Diatoms i Diatomaceous earth f Golden Algae g Brown Algae i Kelpsgiant seaweeds also called as sea palms ii Live in deep parts of the ocean Muitioelllular haploid organism rim Mitosis if Mitosis HAiPILOIiD n Fertilization Meiosis DIPLOIiD 2n Multioeilular diploid organism 2n h I LIFE Se Figure 2114 we mesmmosamm Eighth isman 200Siraua39Associaiesrlnuandw 4 manage 4 Rhizaria a Radiolarians i Side note The pseudopodia of radiolarians known as axopodia ii Radiate from the central body iii Radiolarian siliceous quotskeletonsquot b Amoeba with protective TESTForaminiferans i Foraminiferans calcium carbonate tests 5 Archaeplastida a Red algae i Rhodophytes b Green algae i Chlorophytes 1 Include unicellular colonial and multicellular forms ii Charophytes will do with plants iii Unikonts iv Amoeba proteus v Amoebiasis Causal Agent 1 Several species of the protozoan parasite genus Entamoeba infect humans but Entamoeba histolytica is the only species known to cause disease The other non pathogenic species are important because they may be confused with E histolytica in diagnostic investigations c Amoebiasis Causal Agent i Several species of the protozoan parasite genus Entamoeba infect humans but Entamoeba histolytica is the only species known to cause disease The other nonpathogenic species are important because they may be confused with E histolytica in diagnostic investigations d E histolytica life cycle e Dictyostelium discoideum Biology Lecture Chapter 29 39 flswsrlng plants First seed plants Drigi at plants 39 1 Why plants moved to land a More sunlight b More C02 compared to aquatic environments i Solubility of carbon dioxide is not as high in water c Soil on land is more nutrient rich d Early terrestrial habitats lacked predators 2 What are plants a Multicellular autotrophic eukaryotes b All plants have cellulose in their cell wall i Cell wall is more rigid has mechanical strength c All land plants are monophyletic i Have common ancestor d Store food as carbohydrates 3 Adaptations a Appearance of cuticle i Noncellular waxy layer on leaves which prevents loss of water ii Layer secreted by epidermis to protect the leaf b All land plants are embryophytes i Have very elaborate embryo ii Protected my covering call embryo sac c Formation of gametangia i Structure that protects the gametes d Shoot and root system i C02 from air 1 Shoot stem branches leaves ii Water from soil 1 Root system roots e Protected from sun i Developed avonoids protects plants from UV f Protect from predatorsherbivores i Developed secondary metabolites 1 For protection offense and defense g Sporopollenin h Lignin 4 Chara a Type of algae b Still around for millions of years 5 Four major period of evolution a Charophytes i A group of green algae b Bryophytes i Ex mosses c Seedless vascular plants i Ferns d Gymnosperms i First seed plants ii Vascular plants iii Ex Conifers e Angiosperms i Radiation of owering plants 6 Closest living relatives of land plants are charaphyceans Land plants and charaphyceans have similar cellulose structure Chloroplast is homologous in both Similarities in cell division Apical meristems Cells found at growing tip of plant i Absent in chara in land plants e In chara the is no protective covering over zygotes i Not embroyphiles f Evolutionary change delay in meiosis i Provided advantage to land plants 1 Diploid zygote rst underwent mitosis to produce very large sporophyte2n which can take care of itself 7 Bryophytes non vascular do not have vascular elements a Xylem transports water i Some die and are called tracheids b Phloem sugar c Rhizoids help plant anchor itself d Ex Marchantia polymorpha need water to reproduce 8 Gametangia a Archegonia female gamete b Antheridium male gametesperm 9 Gametophytes ex Hornwort a Top is sporophytes b Bottom is gametophyte main part of structure c Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte d Homosporous produce identical spores 10Turgor pressure 11Pants more adapted to land but still not adapted to water a Ferns apem i Well adapted to land not independent of water ii Still of agella iii Are vertical have lignin iv Vascular plants 1 Have tracheids 2 Vacuoles v Have dominant sporophytes 1 Sporophytes dominant because they are diploid so there is more diversity more mutations b Celophytes extinct not discussing 12Large sporophytes advantage if predators eat will only eat part of it a Large number of sporophyles and spores b Helps in reproductive success 13Question Assuming that all belong to the same plant arrange the following structures from largest to smaest a Gametophytes Gametangia gametes antheridia i Gametangia protective covering ii Antheridia produces egg Biology Lecture Chapter 30 Book Notes 1 Questions a Need to know Gymnosperm diversity and life cycle 2 Seed consists of an embryo and its food supply surrounded by a protective coat 3 Seed and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land a Advantages to reduced gametophytes i Gametophytes of seed plants are almost microscopic ii spores retained within the sporangia of the parental sporophyte protects from 1 environmental stress 2 UV radiation 3 Drying out iii Can gain nutrients from sporophyte b Heterospory the rule among seed plants i Produce 2 kind of spores 1 Megasporangia produce megaspores produce female gametophytes 2 Microsporangia produce microspores produce male gametophytes c Ovules and production of eggs i lntegument a layer of sporophyte tissue that envelops and protects the megasporangium ii Ovule the megasporangium megaspore and their integuments 1 Inside a female gametophyte develops and produces 1 or more eggs d Pollen and Production of Sperm i Pollen grain developed by microspore consist of a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall 1 Pollen wall containing polymer sporopollenin a Protects grain as it39s transported from parent 2 Pollination transfer of pollen to part of seed plant containing ovules 3 Germination gives ride to pollen tube that discharges sperm into female gametophyte with the ovule 4 Pros a Water not needed for sperm transport b Sperm don39t require motility because of pollen tube e The evolutionary advantage of seeds i Seeds are multicellular 1 Embryo protected by seed coatayer of tissue ii Can remain formant after release from parent plant iii Have stored food supply iv Under favorable conditions can emerge from dormancy and germinate 4 Gymnosperms bear quotnakedquot seeds typically on cones a quotnakedquot seeds not enclosed by ovaries i Exposed on sporophyllsmodified leaves that form conesstrobii ii Gymnosperm evolution 1 Progymnosperms transitional species of seedless vascular plants 2 Carboniferous gt Permian period a Drier climate favored gymnosperms b Gymnosperms had seeds and pollen i Some had thick cuticles 3 Conifers conebearing gymnosperms a Spruce pine fir redwood 4 Phyla of gymnosperms Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Coniferophyta I Figure Wai The lliife grille If a pine What type m cell division occurs in a became a liemalequot ymnemp39me See Figure I19 p 23 Ira iers emulate ne scale has canihr special Mules earth a ntaining ringga saach tree has sppr39ar39vrgiurn Duly one awle is sh wn bath rmulate quot anti pollen mules Pallinatian m ur s whe n a pollen grain reaches the Mule The mllE grain M m e 2 marl germinates i rming 1 39 39 pollen tube that Longitudinal I 3me magsu it was seclran of through the cane uul i one rr39yEgap ra r39ngi urr39u H Microsparangia rI aporangium En I Germinatingquot pol len grain at Mtrmporocyles 3 En V 39 hill the pollen tube Longitudinal It f f s Surviving gt ewlapsd the SEC it 39 7 megaspawn A rr39u gasparmyie IJGIIE FI m Mncrcaperanglum in um f mg mm pradutirarg E ur ha plaid tells Drum survive as a r ruegaspare i in mparmytes divide by meiosis p39rt mirg ha plaid mifrmpores A rr39nkr sp ne newlam inta pallan grain Ea male 93 meta ph e milmed within the mlls wallii See s en su Female oi aw late scale gametaphyte l lthme rnegaspar e Euelaps i rim 3 lie r r na IE gar meta phirte that tur rtair nis two if three 3 arch gurain earth all which will Enr39r39rh an Egg Foocl resenes gamemphyle Dischanged tissue ni sperm nucleus in H coal Eni Fallen Embryo new spermMm 7 A 2 7 x l lly quotthe time the eggs are mature E39Q39El Hi ENE We tin91 spawn cells have dwelt pad in the pollen lubed whiffquot rantr2 mi to the Eerr mla g3 maytap Fertilization air ur s wl39lensmrm andegg nuclei unite FErtilizaLinn usually str urs I mDre than a year rather FJ39DIHWE UEIM All egg1 may be EEr LilirEd hut mually only one zygote Havelops into an r n ubrya The nlim39Lll39l39 becomes a seed consisting til an e rrubryo triad Haplcsirl hi Dipl id n su pplyd and seed mat hijokl39 c 5 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include owers and fruits a Angiosperm seed plants that produce the reproductive structure of owers and fruits b Characteristics In phylum Anthophyta c Flower specialized for sexual reproduction i animal or insect or wind pollenated ii up to 4 rings of sporophylls oral organsmodified leaves 1 sepals at base of ower usually green enclose ower before it opens 2 petals interior to sepals mostly brightly colored aid in attracting pollinators 3 stamens produce microspores develop into pollen grains w male gametophytes a lament stalk of stamen b anther terminal sac where pollen is produced 4 carpels make megaspores that produce female gametophytes a stigma receives pollen at tip of carpel b style leads from the stigma to the ovary c ovary at base of carpel contains 1 or more ovules i ovule develops into seed if fertilized d Fruits consist of mature ovary can also include other ower parts i Protect dormant seeds and aid dispersal ii Adaptations to disperse 1 Some function as parachutes or propellers a Ex Dandelions maples 2 Water a Coconuts 3 Animals a Burs that cling to animal fur 4 Edible fruits a Seeds pas through digestive tract deposit seed e Life cycle i Male gametophytes in pollen grains which develop within the microsporangia in the anthers 1 2 haploid cells generative cell that forms 2 sperm tube cell that produces pollen tube ii Each ovuledevelops in ovary contains a female gametophyte also known as an embryo sac 1 Consist of few cells and egg iii Pollen released from anther and carried to stigma at tip of carpel iv Crosspollination transfer of pollen from an anther of a ow on one plant to the stigma of a ower on another plant of the same species 1 Enhances genetic variability v Tube cellgt pollen tube grows until reachs ovary vi Penetrates through micropyle a pore in the integument of the ovule vii Discharges 2 sperms cells into female gametophyte viii One sperm fertilizes egg forming diploid zygote ix Other sperm fuses with 2 nucli in the central cell of female producing a triploid cell x Double fertilization is unique to angiosperms xi Ovule matures into seed zygotegtsporophyte embryo 1 Rudimentary root and 12 seed eavescotyedons xii Triploid central cell develops into endosperm 1 Tissue rich in starch and other food reserves 1quot mm lm were cradle ef elm a39ngEl mipemEI g th E then m N mler eeeeee eeelem 1 ltr rwgww WWW 7 late a pelleh grain The gen Haplee at amperage the ewe be eratiee tell at the germte r maneel r uriir miertw ree w 1 a r Dlpbldg gnt F39 A P plry tE Will l39ti39l39 d harming twe ape rm The tubE cell will eretime the pailen tube M Minutemanalum v Mitreaperetytee em enther Matule liewen en apeieuhyte plant g Eat v 393 Ea eule with Enigma Eeneratwe ell 39 r quot 39 397 1 E m39 ng zl h i g 39 a Inegaaearangiuni m Me tell WanEa matur b a 3953 Male Elan39let tilht39 eperepthr te lquotin pellen qraint I at Eerminating 39939 In the megaeperah gium at each eeule the megae p r f e ividee by meitele preduelr ng vaur megaheree Iiihe Meae parangium luue En L39T39h 39 2m tur eiu39ea and karma El V ismhi iiv n e Endeapen n an female gametephyte 39quotE ga p39 39g Seed Ilia E the mate deieleea irate an r m abry tl t it A P pee hageel a leith with irrte a seed ne limit tiemee turneu he ing the read are re t altDwtfil Ant medal tella Centraltell whith has 3 we nuclei Female gametep hyte en time eat Hiking Gr Eygete Eat denelem nsg e taleteem 3m entertainIllne 39 tieh ewehtually Wtth therm EH5 are iteherged ih seaeh mule E ubli fertilizatie n we ure ne eaerm fertilieee the egg Eurrrihg a zygate The ether eper m l e r39tllieee the re rttr al tell harmihg the eh eeperm Dieharged a feed euppht 2m in this EM melet eperm nuclei at meme 3e Plant Bleersi ty l The Emlu tinn ul keel Flame 613 g Angiosperm evolution i Fossil angiosperms 1 Archafructus may belong to the earliest diverging group of angiosperms known a Had simple owers b Bulbous structures oats suggesting it was aquaUc c Likely woody 2 Flowers may have been derived traits h Angiosperm diversity i Cotyledons seed leaves ii Old classi cations 1 Monocots species with one cotyledon a Typically parallel leaf veins b Orchids palms grain crops 2 Dicots species with two cotyledons a Typically netlike pattern leaf veins b Roses peas sun owers maples iii Recent classi cations 1 the vast majority of species under dicots form a clade eudicots 2 basal angiosperms appear to include owering plants belonging to the oldest lineages 3 magnoliids evolved later a contain both woody and herbaceous species b more closely related to eudicots than basal angiosperms iv Monocots vs Eudicots 1 Embryos a M one cotyledon b E two cotyledon 2 Leaf venation a M veins parallel b E veins netlike 3 Stems a M vascular tissue scattered b E vascular tissue arranged in ring 4 Roots a M root system usual brous no main root b E taprootmain root usually present 5 Pollen a M grain w one opening b E grain w three openings 6 Flowers a M ower organs usually in multiples of three b E ower organs usually in multiples of four or ve i Evolutionary links between angiosperm and animals i Defense behavior can develop in plants for protection ii Can also lead to reciprocal evolution 6 Human welfare depends greatly on seed plants Biology Lecture Chapter 32 Animal Form and Function 1 Evolution predator prey relationship Animals became larger in size Evolved n speed Fast metabolism majority are aerobic Hox gene has played a big role in animal form and function Emergence of complicated nervous system Majority of animals will have i Nervous tissue Ep heHal ssue iii Muscular tissue iv Reproductive tissue v Neuromuscular system 2 Ancestor of animal clade was probably a colonial agellated protist a Animals are monophyletic i all gap junction for cell to cell communication ii choano agellate ancestor b functional specializationdivision of labor of cells in colony arose and cells continued to differentiate c common set of extracellular matrix like collagen 3 Levels of Organismal Complexity a Protoplasmic grade of organization i Initially one cell would carry out all kinds of function b Cellular grade of organization i Aggregation of cells that are functionally differentiated c Celltissue grade of organization i Different cells perform a common function ii Aggregation of similar cells into de nite patterns or layers becoming tissue d Tissueorgan grade of organization i Different tissues work together to have common function e Organsystem grade of organization i Organs form different organ systems 4 Physical constraints on animal size and shape a Body size increased over time b Constraints i Surface to body ratio 1 Bigger organisms retain more heat H Shape c Problems i Bigger body size 1 Needed a mechanism to distribute nutrients ef ciently to the cells a Ex tube within a tube body plant i Easier for organisms to distribute nutrients and throw away waste material 5 Much of animal diversity evolved to acquire ability to a capture and eat many different food types and avoid becoming food for other animals ThrDQDO39QJ b Due to animal prey relationship c Need to search for food favored sensory structures to provide detailed information about their environment Cephalization formation of heads 1 Important heads have eyes ears nose etc 6 Body Plan Key Features a General structure of animal arrangement of organ systems and integrated functioning of parts b Symmetry overall shape of organism d e f primarily associated with cephalization 1 Most bilaterally Symmetrical if can be divided into similar halves on at least one plane 1 If notasymmetriclike many spongesvery few organisms Types 1 Spherical symmetry can cut on any plane equal tests 2 radial symmetry can cut from any angle on a plane 3 bilateral symmetry can cut in one half and will me mirror image a cephalization came b helped get food and gain speed iv body plan is related to motility 1 to acquire food energy must be expended a sessile animals stay in one place they must move food to themselves b motile animals move through environment Body cavity Way to group organisms SegmentationHOX genesextensive gene duplication Embryonic cell layers Way of categorizing organisms Skeleton 7 Development of animal plans a Starts with development of embryo Stages Ovulation fertilization cleavage morula early blastocysts implantation 1 Morula a mass of cells 2 Blastocyst hollow ball with inner cells mass a Continuous movement of inner cells to form disk 3 Embryonic disk 2 layers of cells between two cavities a Disk separates into embryonic germ layers 4 Gastrula 3 germs layers a Organisms with 2 layers diploblastic b Organisms with 3 layers triploblastic i Most organisms are triploblastic b Formation of gut Gastrulation showing blastopore formation During gastrulation one side of the embryo moves in or invaginates 1 When it goes in there will be a pore blastoporeformed during gastrulation 2 Movement forms tunnel structureprimitive gut archenteron c Distinct layers of cells in early development i Mesoderm helped complexity and ef ciency of organisms ii Diploblastic animals have 2 cell layers 1 Outer ectoderm 2 Inner endoderm iii Triploblastic animals 1 Ectoderm mesoderm endoderm 2 Coelom played important role a Only in mesoderm b Usually lled with uid acts as cushion for organs cushions again mechanical stress iv Germ layers are fundamental tissue types found in all animals except sponges no true tissues 1 The fate of ectoderm mesoderm endoderm v Acoelomate gt pseudocoelomate gt eucoelomate 1 Acoelomate a A solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs 2 Pseud in nemotodes a Have cavity but not true coelom b Not surrounded by mesoderm 3 Eucoel a True coelem b Cavity surrounded by mesodermal cells on all sides 8 Tue within a tube body plan a Organism with mouth and anus b Best way to provide nutrients and rid waste products 9 Hypothesis of animal phylogeny a One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons i All animals evolved from colonial agellatemetazoan ii Biliateria majority all bilateral symmetry in Ecdysozoaa 1 Undergo exdysismolting iv Trochophore larva diamond shaped cilia in middle of body b Points of agreement all share common ancestor which is monophyletic i Sponges are basal animals ii Eumetazoa is a clade of animals eumetazoans with true tissues iii Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilatera 10Question bilateral symmetry in the animal kingdom is best correlated with a A Motility and active predation and escape 11Zygote a Can undergo i Radial cleavage cells stick on each other if you separate blasphemers can develop into different organisms ii Spiral cleavage if you separate blasphemers it will not develop separately 12Segmentation a Facilitates specialization of body regions b Advantages i Helped in controlling movement precisely ii Each segment has own set of organs c Metamerism serial repetition of similar body segments i Tagmatisation fusion of identical segments to become a larger segment ii Each segment called metameres 13Exoskeleton a Protects body from attack mechanical stress b Way to grow can shed 14Hy a No skeleton 15Endoskeleton a Protection 16Thermoregulation a Endotherm body temperature is maintained at a constant level i Ex Humans birds b Ectotherm body temperature changes with environmental temperature Biology Lecture Chapter 33 Book Notes 1 Invertebrates animals that a backbone 2 Poriferasponges a Basal animals monophyletic b Suspension feeders capture food particles suspended in the water i Water drawn through pores into central cavityspongocoel then ows out larger openingosculum c Lack true tissues similar cells act as functional unit d 2 layers separated by gelatinous regionmesohyl i Both in contact w water gas exchange and waste removal by diffusion ii Amoeboyctes use pseudopodia 1 Move through mesohyl take up food from surrounding water carry nutrients to other cells iii Choanocytes collar cells engulf bacteria and food particles by phagocytosis iv Hermaphrodites each individual functions as both male and female in sexual reproduction by producing sperm and eggs e Games arise from choanocytes or amoebyocytes i Eggs reside in mesophyll sperm carried out of sponge ii Cross fertilization sperm drawn out into neighboring individuals iii Fertilization in mesohyl zygotes develop swimming larvae iv Larva develops into sessile adult after settling on suitable substrate 3 Cnidaria a Ancient phylum of Eumetazoans b Body plan sac with a central digestive compartmentgastrovascular cavity i Cavity is mouth and anus 1 Also acts as hydrostatic skeleton a Contractile cells can work against c 2 types i Sessile polyp 1 Polyps cylindrical forms that adhere to the substrate by the aboral end of their body and extend their tentacles for Prey ii Motile medusa 1 Moves freely in water by passive drifting and contraction of bell shaped body a Ex Free swimming jellies d Carnivores often use tentacles arranged in ring around mouth to capture prey i Push ford toward gastrovascular cavity 1 Enzymes secreted to break down prey e Tentacles armed with cnidocytes i cells function in defense and prey capture ii contain cnidae capsulelike organelles capable of exploding outward iii nematocysts specialize cnidae containing stinging thread f Clades i Hydrozoans 1 Alternate between poly and medusa forms 2 Produce asexually under favorable conditions budding and pinching off parent to live independently 3 Produce sexually when conditions deteriorate form resistant zygote that can remain dormant H Scyphozoans 1 Prominent stage medusa 2 Live asjellies iii Cubozoans Have box shaped medusa stage Complex eyes in fringe of medusa Stronger swimmers than scyphozoans Tropical oceans equipped with highly toxic cnidocytes Ex Sea waspChironeX eckerI one of deadliest organisms known iv Anthozoans Flower animals sea anemones and corals Only polyps Often symbioses with algae Many secrete hard exoskeleton of sodium carbonate a Generation builds off skeleton of last wewwe PWF 4 Lophotrochozoans a Unique traits i Some develop ophophore crown of ciiated tentacles that function in feeding ii some go through stage trochophore arva b Flatworms i Live in marine freshwater and damp terrestrial habitats ii Flat bodies iii Acoelomates ack body cavity 1 All body in contact with water 2 Gas exchange and nitrogenous waste elimination though diffusion iv Protonephridia networks of tubules w ciiated structuresfame bulbs that pull uid through branched ducts opening to the outside v Most have gastrovascular cavity with 1 opening vi 2 lineages 1 Catenulidschain worms a Freshwater habitats b Reproduce asexually but pudding at their posterior end c Offspring produce own buds before dethatching from parent 2 Rhabditophora a Diverse freshwater and marine vii Free living rhabitophorans 1 Important predators and scavengers 2 Planarians prey on smaller animals or feed on dead animals a Move by cilia on ventral surface glide on secreted mucus b Light sensitive eyespots and lateral flaps to detect certain chemicals 3 Reproduce through ssion or sexually a Hermaphrodites cross fertilization viii Parasitic species of rhabitophorands 1 Trematodes a Most require intermediate host for larvae to develop b Some mimic surface proteins of host or manipulate hosts39 immune system into tolerating its existence 2 Tapworms a Adults mostly live inside vertebrates b Anterior end has suckers sometimes hooks to attach to intestinal lining of host c Absorb nutrients across body surfaceno mouth d Progolottids units that form long ribbon sacs of sex organs c Rotifers i Tiny animals in freshwater marine and damp soil ii Alimentary canal digestive tube w 2 Openings instead of gastrovascular cavity iii Organs in pseudocoelom 1 Fluid serves as hydrostatic skeleton 2 Movement circulates nutrients iv Crown of cilia draws water into mouth v Pharynx bears jawstrophi that grind up food vi Reproduction 1 Parthenogenesis asexual females produced from unfertilized eggs 2 Some can produce sexually under high levels of crowding a Develop male and female eggs b Male eggs can develop into resistant embryos and remain dormant for years i Develop into females after dormancy d Lophophorates Ectoprocts and Brachiopods i Ectoprocts 1 Most encased in exoskeleton studded with pores through which lophophoresciliated tentacles around mouth extend 2 SessHe ii Brachiopods 1 Lamp shells 2 Marine live attached to sea floor by stalk e Molluscs i Snails slugs oysters clams octopuses squids ii Soft bodied most secrete protective calcium carbonate shell iii Coelomates have 3 main parts 1 Foot muscular used for movement 2 Visceral mass contains most internal organs 3 Mantle fold of tissue that drapes of visceral mass and secretes shell if present a Mantle cavity water lled cavity houses gills anus and excretory pores iv Feed using radulastraplike organ to scrape up food v Most have separate sexes gonadsovaries and testes in visceral mass vi Life cycle of many marine molluscs include ciliated larval stagetrochophore vii Clades viii Chitons 1 Oval shaped body eight dorsal plates on shell 2 Body itself is unsegmented 3 Cling to rocks ix Gastropods 1 Undergo torsion a Visceral mass rotates as embryo develops anus and mantle cavity wind up above its head 2 Some have single spiraled shell x Bivalves 1 Aquatic include many species of clams oysters mussels and scallops 2 Shell divided in 2 halves 3 No distinct head or radula 4 Gills for gas exchange and feeding a Most are suspension feeders b Trap particles in mucus coating gills cilia move to mouth xi Cephalopods 1 Active marine predators 2 Tentacles grasp prey 3 Closes circulatory system a Welldeveloped sense organs and complex brain 4 Ammonites shelled cephalopods f Annelids i Means quotlittle ringsquot ii Segmented worms in sea most freshwater habitats damp soil iii Coelomates iv 2 groups polychaetaPoychaetes and olgochaetaearthworm and relatives leeches 1 Polychaetes a Segments have parapodia that function in locomotion 5 Ecdysozoans i Each has numerous chaetaebristles made of chitin ii Some function as gills 2 Oligochaetes a Relatively sparse chaetae b Earthworms i Eat way through soil ii Absorb nutrients through alimentary canal c Reproduction i Exchange sperm ii Stored wile citeum secretes mucus iii Mucus slides along worm picking up eggs then the stored sperm d Leeches i Predators that feed on invertebrates some are parasites a Most speciesrich animal group b Includes animals that shed a tough external coatcutice as they grow c Nematodes Roundworms in most aquatic habitats soil moist tissues of plants in the body uids and tissues of animals Have alimentary canal but lack circulatory system Reproduce sexually internal fertilization d Arthropods vi vii viii Mostly insects Hard exoskeleton segmented body jointed appendages Body completely covered by cuticle 1 Relative impermeability to water helped prevent desiccation of land Welldeveloped sensory organs eyes olfactorysmell receptors antennae for touch and smell Open circulatory system 1 Hymolymp propelled by heart through short arties into spacessinuses surrounded the tissues and organs Organs allow diffusion of respiratory gases Most aquatic species have gills Suggest living arthropods evolved from the phyum cheicerates myriapods hexapods and crustaceans 1 Chelicerates a Claw like feeding appendages called cheicerae serve as pincers or fangs b Earliest eurypteridswater scorpions c Modern bulk are arachnids i 6 pairs of appendages 1 Chelicerae pair of pedipalps that function in sensing feeding or reproduction 2 4 walking legs ii Gas exchange through book lungs staked plate like structures contained in an internal chamber 2 Myriapods Millipedes and centipedes Terrestrial Mandibles jawlike mouth part Millipedes each segment has 2 pairs of legs i Eat plant matter e Centipedes each segment has one pair of legs i Carnivores 3 Hexapodsinsects a Many undergo metamorphosis i Incomplete metamorphosis resemble adults but are smaller and lack wings ii Complete metamorphosis larval stages specialized for eating and growing look dif Than adult b Reproduction usually sexual c Innovation some can y 4 Crustaceans a lsopods include terrestrial freshwater and marine species b Decapods large crustaceans lobster cray shes crabs shrimp i Cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate c Planktonic crustaceans contain many species of copepods apem 6 Deuterostome a Echinoderms iv v vi vii Viii Slow moving or sessile marine animals Thin epidermis covers endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates Water vascular system network of hydraulic canals branching to extensionstube feet that function in locomotion and feeding Asteroidean sea stars and sea daisies Ophiuroidea brittle starts 1 Distinct central disk long exible arms Echinodea sea urchins and sand dollars 1 5 rows of tube feet that function in slow movement 2 Muscles that pivot their spines for locomotion and protection Crinoidea sea lilies and feather stars 1 Sea lilies attaches to substrate by a stalk 2 Feather stars crawl using long exible arms 3 Suspension feeders Holothuroidea sea cucumbers 1 5 rows of tube feet lack spines b Chordates Bilaterally symmetrical coelomates with segmented bodies Selected Animal thlla Key C untept unsepvt 311 5 Flanges aae basal animals that laelt true tissues pp EH E ij seating tissues and assesses new tie sprmges aeremplisit tasks ma as gas attestsagag nutrient transact aaa waste remnant CDHIEEFII 333 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum elf eur39rielgaaaa as the F I F s Describe tits arsitiariee anaemia and its majar aariaa ans F lhyl um PetilEtra sausages Cnidaria hytlrass jellies sea anemia es earls Destri ptiun Latik true tissues llarse thrsanaejstea teller tells flagellate tells Tha l ingest bacteria anal tings lead particles Unique stilr ging aimelures triernalawslsj hm Fdls i pEfi lli d tells mitiatyresj diiplDbl ti ranlzlialiusr symmEtricah gaslrtwastalar ii vil y dige iv tamparhment with a single opening Cuneept 333 Plalyhelmi ri l hes Dnrsmealraily 39l39lla39lljenesi tmsegmehte implicitratherHaas a elade ieieirs39liiied llatwarms39jl ataelernates gastraaasmilarr tearin car he meleeular data have the ieasiest range ef ligE Elll E Timid animal beds le rms trap Gilli I533 39 n I n is the tepiiatmciiaaaaa Haas mitesquot as uyl mm Emma wad39 mi39 gmI f39llh HE WTquot unique mmphalagical features shared quotgeswe mQFJh a u is all Elfin membersquot Emlaia HE39S ELWP 391 m 1 Imamquot Ea w F tillateei erewn E anhaph mtes Cnelamates with Iaphaphares feeding E Ectepreeta structures bearing tilia ted lamasirst Brashiaeatia E F Mnlllusea alarms Caelamates with three main hasty parts 5 sr39iailsr sq aids 397 muscular feet ai seerai mass mantle f3 melter sedated r39rieus39l have hand shell E marl eatcalcium sarhanate mg 4 Airin er lsla segmented Ceelemates with segmented heel wall 5 a weh39risj anal internal argians eastIt digestive tract which is urisegmernteel E neeprt 334 Nematode 39Eylihdrieal urisegmented pSEUdDEDEl cd zum anE the 1351 speci erich rimmeiwnr39ms mates with tapered reads his einfulamry animail gram pp 53 3 593 3 EFSIEWH LJ I ll H El Ed s i illesss39HMt slagrieal sales is E i i V n m md El gm Wmmm l s l il d I Freelamates segmeh ted thesisI 5 trustateans insects minted apiraenslzages and eaaslse lel n srja itiersj made lei Jrelem and Emilie Euneeprt 315 Echinedermata sea Ceelemates with laiia teralljhr symmetrical Eghinu ermg an d Ehmdmgg are m SENS sea urn hiris larvae and i39aeaipart beds erganiaatien as i deu ter estem es pp 4592494 adults unique water vascular system Fair se read th atnecliimaj39Emis and 393 d lk um Chardata glahe eilets Caelemates natashnrdsela rsal iml S mim Emilia Expmm MW mm Q UJ ifEtESr vertebrates less heme tartarquotaha ranges slits pestanal f mum mmmm m be m tall gsee Chapter as Vertebrates 1 What we are studying a Gnathostomes jawed vertebrates emulates i FEH39E fal 39 u 395 Fi39 i Aneeu rsal ihiilaleriian eim i elm it I Eehmedemie 39 Umehnrdetee L quot Hinged iiewe eels e1 paired appendages 1 vertebral eelulmn reniulm ekuiili Elleberetiem elf brain Paired EEI39iIE IW ergene urn head Neural ereeit eeile Netee erdi D il il h ll w HEW l d Phenr eell elite Fasten tail V Aneesirali deutemstome b Cnpy ght l iF39eareem Eduee leri Inner pubillehlng ea Emjemiri Gumminge 2 Hypothesis how vertebrates evolved vertebratee Gephaileeimrdetes a 3 4 anatomic features all chordates have a Will all be present during at least one point in life cycle b Postana tail helps animal balance mostly present in arva form f Notochord Present between nerve form and gut uid lled cells with strong cover I ii iii iv Provides place for attachment of the muscles Prevents body from shrinking Helps animal swim and provides strength In higher primates gets replaced by vertebral column however remnants are still present 1 Intervertebral disk lt remnants Dorsal hollow nerve cord part of nervous system Front bulges out and becomes brain back becomes spinal chord Pores through which water enters Prevents water from entering into guy directly Evolved into gills 1 We have bones in here from these 2 Gills have given rise to jaws for better predation Dorsal iMuscilie hollow sgmmts nerve cord Notochord Pharyngeal slits Postanal tail Copyrigth Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummmgs 4 Phylum Hemichordata quotAcorn wormsquot a Not true chordate does not have Postanal tail b Slits help in exchange of gas c Proboscis helps make mucus d Benthic marine worms live in burrows 5 Primitive chordates provide clues to the origin of vertebrates a Subphylum urochordata 6 iii iv Tunicate has outer leathery shell ln larva form has notochord and Postanal tail 1 In adult form these degenerate and it loses its brain 2 Eats its own brain once it develops Adult is sessile and feeds via pharyngeal slits Presence of other 2 features b Subphylum Cephalochordata the lancet Branchiostoma iv Craniates Cranium structure that protects delicate brain cartilaginous or bony All have neurocrest cells Much more developed head vertebral column and a closed circulatory system a b c Also called Amphioxus Small primitive chordates lmbed body into sand 1 Tentacles stick out to move water and bring in food Are chevron i Closed system prevented mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood d Development i Dorsal part of embryo undergoes invagination 1 Neural crest cells ii Neural crest cells Form bones cartilage other connective tissues melanocytessecretes pigments forming ganglion Dorsal edges Neural Neural of neural plate crest crest Ectoderm Ectoderm V Notochord a b e anyrighl Pearson Education lnc publishan as Benjamin Cummings f Jawless CraniatesAgnatha i Hag sh 1 Secrete slime as defense mechanism blind 2 Jawlike structure made of keratin like substance ii Lamprey 1 Jawlike structure made of cartilage 2 Latch onto skin of sh a Drink blood and meat 7 Gnathostomes a Animals that replaced jawless vertebrates b Hypothesis i Gill arches were modi ed to jaws c Fish i Cartilaginous H Bony 1 Ray nned 2 Lobe nned d Cartilaginous sh Chondrichythes i Ex Sharks rays ii Have to constantly swim iii Sharks rows of teeth replaced time to time iv Rays mineralized jaws 1 Calcium diphosphate deposition 2 Column partially mineralized e Osteichthyes bony shes i Ray nned sh 1 Have swim bladder a Evolved from lungs b Help balance and oat 2 Operculum protects gills 3 Lateral line sensory structuresending can sense pressure of water 4 Complete digestive system deuterostome 5 Lobe nned sh ii Lobe nned sh 1 coelacanth 2ung sh a able to drag body to other poo if their environment dries up b evidence of transitional animal which could have been the originator of tetrapodsanimals with 4 limbs c note amphibians can only reproduce in water i not completely independent of water ii amamniotes 1 amniotic layer protects embryo from dehydration Biology Lecture Chapter 34 Notes Continued Tetrapods 1 Acathostega i Bone supporting gills ii Could drag body on land not walk 2 AmamniotesAmphibians Toads and frogs don39t have tails Have to go back to water to breath In frogs tail regresses from larva stage Caecmans i Lost limbs are still vertebrates e Wood frog i Body can completely freeze f Glass frog i Can see through body 3 Amniotesincludes reptiles mammals and birds a Can reproduce outside of water b Amniotic egg i Amniot protects embryo c Reptiles i Highly concentrated urine comes out in form of uric acid 1 Conserves water to excrete uric acid instead ii Leathery shell iii Scales protect body from drying out 1 Some have scutes triangle extensions a Modi ed scales in case of alligators and crocodiles apem 4 Birds a Birds evolved from reptiles b Archioparistransitional animal i Reptilian like fossils 1 Vertebral column extended into tail 2 Wing claw toothed beak ii Alien characters 1 Airfoil wing with contour feathers c Scales modi ed into feathers i First for warmth became for ying ii Nomadic bones light bones iii Lost beaks reduced body weight iv Ovary develops only during breading season rest more rather than y 1 Helps reduce body weight most of the time v No urinary bladder 1 Solid waste excrete nitrogenous weight as uric acid a Less body weight b Conserves water d Question which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs i A birds 5 Mammals a Features Hair maintains internal body temperature Mammary glands Sweat glands maintains body temperature 4chambered hearts prevents mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood 1 More ef ciency in exchange of gas b Subclass MonotremataPrototheria First beast Ex platypus 1 Lay eggs no placenta 2 No teeth Closely related to reptiles 1 Evidence mammals evolved from reptilian like ancestor c Subclass Metetheriamarsupials Means changed beast All have marsupium bag like structure provides space for development of baby d Subclass eutheriaplacentals iv 6 Primates True beast Extremely diverse Have placenta do not lay eggs 1 Give birth to young ones develop in body of mother 2 Placenta has embryonic and maternal tissue a Structure through which embryo gets all its nutrients and oxygen 3 Gestational period is long show family tied social behavior a Derived Characteristics I ii iii iv v vi Hands and feet no claws Flat face Welldeveloped parental care and social behavior Binocular stereoscopic vision At least 3 types of teeth teeth differentiation Forward facing eyes b Differences Prosimians have prehensile tail c Phylogeny Prosimians I ii iii iv v vi d Anthr I ii iii iv v Snout slightly protruded Not well distributes Paraphyletic Sharp teeth insectivore Active at night nocturnal Arboreal live on trees opoids Diverged later from ancestral primate Well distributed Include humans gorillas orangutans chimpanzees Arboreal or terrestrial Live on trees or land vi Active during day time vii Larger brain capacity and body size a Moreintelligent viii Omnivores 7 Hominid lineage a Humanlike ancestors b Diverged from other primates about 7 million years ago c Humans compared to other hominids i Brain size large size allows development of language and social behavior ii Jaw shape shortened to give a atter face iii Erect posture helped release hands for hunting iv Slow postnatal development longer parental care v Bipedalism walking on two legs vi Shorter digestive tract became omnivores 1 Longer intestine usually seen in herbivores d Disadvantages i Painful birth e Neanderthals i Jaw and eye more protruded ii Hypothesis 1 Out of Africamost supported a Homo erectus evolved in African and migrated to different parts of the world b The homo sapiens developed c Mitochondrial evidence 2 Multiregionalism a Homo erectus independently evolved from different places b Gene flow caused similarities 1 Ecology a Introduced by Ernst Haeckel b Study of the interactions between organisms and their environment environment composed of abiotic and biotic factors 2 Components a Abioticsoil altitude climate latitude other b Bioticpredators prey parasites other 3 Major areas a Population ecology vi vii Viii group of individuals belonging to the same species that inhabit a speci c geographic location at a speci c point in time Study of size rate of increase or decrease distribution density numbers of individuals and structure gender age rates of birth and death factors that affect growth Study of population growth and factors that affect growth Characteristics of Populations 1 Density number of individualsper unit area eg per acre or hectare or unit volume eg in a column of water 2 Spacing dispersion clumped uniform and random Growth models 1 Exponential growth model J shaped 2 Logistic growth model S shaped K carrying capacity 2000 7 1 0quot Exponential growth 1 500 x 1500 Logistic growth 1 000 7 1500 N 1 500 Population size N d N10N dt 500 D 5 10 15 Number of generations vow3 Demography study characteristics of a population that affect growth 1 Methods follow a cohort group of individuals born around the same time over time a construct a life table for the cohort ecologist estimate population size and density by sampling 1 for sedentary organisms count organisms in sampling areagrid direct counting 2 for mobile species mark and recapture 3 multiple sampling important statistics make life table 1 how many individuals are in age range 2 calculate death and birth rates for population 3 survivorship number of individuals that reach the next year of life population size can increase and decrease ovr time 1 birth of individuals born 2 death of individuals dead 3 immigration and emigration xi Birth and death rates affect the population size SO 1 Survivorship curve the proportion of individuals from the initial cohort that survive to each successive stage of the life cycle 2 Population differ in ages at which the experience the most mortality 3 Types a Type I high survivorship for most age groups except older individuals b Type II constant survivorship rate for most age groups some species of birds lizards annual plants invertebrates and rodents c Type III low survivorship early but individuals that do make it live longermany species of sh marine invertebrates and trees produce many young and no parental care xii Factors that in uence population growth can be dependent or independent of its39 density 1 Population regulation 2 factors 2 Densitydependent depend of number of individuals in the population a Food mates 3 Densityindependent do not depend on the number of individuals in the population a Weather climate drought typhoon hurricane excessive rain or snow etc geological disturbances xiii Age structure 1 Direct counting and marrecapture methods permit ecologists to assess size and density of populations in a particular space but not all organisms in a population contribute equally to population growth 2 Some reproduce more than others So we need to take into account individuals with differing reproducing capacities which often depend on differences in age 3 So we need to now the age structure of the population ie the number of individuals within each age group Rapid growth Slow growth Zero growth Kenya Age UnneclSE es Yearofbhth Haw 8121 Maile Female Before 1915 1 Female 7579 1915 1919 70 74 1920 1924 65 69 1925 1929 50754 1930 1934 55 59 1935 1939 50 54 1940 1944 45 49 19451949 40 44 1950 1954 35 39 19554 959 30 34 196041964 25 29 1955 1959 20 24 39 1970 194 15 19 1975 1979 10 14 39 1980 1984 5 9 1 1985 1989 0 4 1990 1994 y W 854202468 864202458 864202468 Percent of population Percent 0t population Percent of population 5 Reproductive patterns re ect the predictability of a species39 environment a Rstrategist produce large of offspring but provide few resources for supportunpredictable environment b K strategist 6 Other factors affecting population growth Life History Traits a lnteroparous species mate many times repeated reproductionK selected b Semelparous species mate oncelifetime big bang reproduction r selected r is intrinsic growth rate 0 r is maximum rate at which the population would grow under ideal conditions c Early age of reproductive maturityex some rodent species 1 Some species have delayed maturity some are born pregnant b Community ecology i Study of interactions among species ecological succession ii Species that affect ecology 1 Keystone species removal of them can largely effect the community a Not numerous however large effect 2 Dominant species species high in number 3 Ecological engineers a Provide tools to create bridges between islands c Ecosystems and the biosphere i Study of cycling of materials and energy through ecosystems ii Food chain gt tropic levels 1 Producers 2 Consumers a Herbivoresprimary consumer b CarnivoresSecondary consumer c Tertiary consumertertiary consumers i No predators die naturally Tree of Life Chapter 25 1 Clay hypothesis a Clay provided a platform for simple molecules to concentrate and form bonds 2 Hydrothermal vents a May have catalyzed the formation of complex molecules b Proof so organisms get energy from inorganic substances 3 Formation of Protobionts a Existed before life evolved b Formation of outer layer formation of cell 4 Initially RNA would have been the rst molecule that could catalyze its own replication and act as a hereditary molecule a RNA eventually replaced by DNA because it is much more stable 5 Cell to multicellular a In between there was the formation of colonies b Division of labor between colony of cells formed complex organisms 6 Protobionts to cell Originally had cell could have been chemoautotroph Photoautotroph evolved oxygen level went up Organisms became aerobic During this formation necessity for endosymbiosis with oxygen utilizing prokaryote in another prokaryote e Other engulfment resulted in chloroplasts f Mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA 7 Formation of ozone a Protected organisms from powerful UV rays b Oxygen reacts with UV ozone apem Svstematics Chapter 26 1 Phylogeny evolutionary history and interrelatedness of organisms a Taxonomy group classify name organisms b Evolutionary history of organisms with phylogeny 2 Binomial nomenclature Genus species name 3 Phylogenic tree a Most common from one node you have two divergence points called nodes i From each nodes have sister taxons most related 4 Uses a Conservation b Look at spread of disease c Common tree time how many genetic changes occurred i Modi ed as philogram how many changes have occurred ii Ossumetric tree shows time and when a divergence occurred d Derived characters compare with outgroup i Outgroup should not be too close or too far from the outgroup ii Can compare outgroup and ingroup gure out derived traits for every clade e Clades i Monophyletic ancestor and all of its descendants ii Paraphyletic ancestor some descendants from other cade iii Polyphyletic descendants of different ancestors because of traits that don39t t together 5 Maximum parsimony simpler the tree the more accepted it will belesser number of evolutionary events a Maximum likelihood accept simplest tree with least number of DNA changes b Use several sources fossils morphology molecular evidence 6 Molecular evidence a Use molecular clocks can tell when divergence occurs b Certain genes change at an expected constant rate c Not all genes however mutate at the same rate in all species 7 Orthologous genes acquire the different function after speciation a Paralogous genes occur in the same species by duplication events i Have an extra gene and it will be used for other functions 8 Morphological analysis a Convergence happen by chance developed similar evolutionary traits from similar condions Chalfjafkj 1 Eukaryotes a Prokaryotes no cytoskeleton no membranous organelles no nucleus 2 Nutritional a Autotrophs utilize energy from carbon dioxide b Chemoautotrophs c Photoheterotrophs sun and carbon from other organic materials d Chemoheterotrophs 3 Relationship to oxygen a Obligate aerobes b Facilitated aerobes c Anaerobes poison by oxygen 4 Quorum sensing a Form bio lms 5 Morphology a Sphere rod b 3 layers cell wall capsule plasma membrane c Flagella mbriae pili i Some pili used for transferring DNA and helping conjugation 6 Mutation a Transformation acquire DNA from environment b Transduction virus enters hijacks system affects DNA infects others 7 Conjugation a F strain F strain 8 Bacterial growth a S shaped curve sigmoid curve i Lag phase 1 Divide through binary ssion ii Exponential growth phase iii Stationary phase iv Death phase Chapt 28 Protist Jfkafj 1 Protists 2 Mitozones 3 Parbessalates a Cause sexual transmitted dieseas 4 Euglensoma a Sleep sickness 5 Euglena a Characteristics of both animals an plants 6 Dino agellates a Cause red tides 7 Epitocomplex a Ex Plasmodium in malaria i 2 cycles for maleria ii Liver and red blood cells where malaria occurs 8 Ciliates ex of parmeciums a 2 nuclei i One causes variation ii One helps maintain organism 9 Stremenophiles 10Diatoms a Major produces of aquatic rule b Oil silicone c Autotrophic 11Golden algae 12Brown algae 13Red algae 14Green algae a Closest to land plants 15Radiolariens a lmport for source of silica 16Dictyostelium a Use as model system to study cell movement b Can form unicellular or multicellular complex 17Transition from unicellular to multicellular 18Taxis 19Amoeba histoletica present in tropical areas a Infection through contaminated water b Fatal Plant Diversity 1 Chara carophyceans Closest to land plants Food stored as carbohydrates Both have cellulose cell wall Cell division is similar Dissimilarities i Epical meristem present in land plants not carophyceans 2 Required traits for land plants Cuticle to prevent desiccation Nitrogen xation Flavonoid protect from UV Development of avonoid Secondary metabolites i Protect from herbivory Vascular system Sporopollenin i Protect spores and pollen h Embryo i Multicellularoutercovering ii Gametangia harbor female and male structure i Lignin i Found in fern onward 3 Overall trend a Dominant diploid part dominant saprophytic part i Emergence of seeds b Stronger and stronger vascular elements i Transport of water and minerals ii To keep structure iii Lignin helped get as much sunlight as possible 4 Life cycle of bryophytes and life cycle of ferns 5 Green algae and land plants similarities Similar cellulose synthesizing complex Both of chloroplasts Nuclear chloroplast genes similar Cell division Sperm structure plants Gametangia protects gametes Sporopollenin protect gametes Lignin Dominant sporophyte generation i Well protected embryo Independent of water Dunc91 Dunc91 LOT 03 I Q 0 envearbeorw f g Welldeveloped vascular tissue Evolution of seeds 7 Bryophytes a b c d 8 Ferns a b c All need humid conditions need water to reproduce No roots have rhizoids No lignin Lipoids hydroids absorb water but are not vascular elements Not independent of water for reproduction Sporophytes dominant generations Alternation of generation i Helps keep chromosome number constant 9 Delay in meiosis in land plants a 10Extra a b Better gametophytes Cambrian explosion before Permian extinction Sudden appearance of a large number or organism in fossils Explosion of seed species diversity 1 Lactose Intolerance Cause a Lactose tolerant is mutant form b Helped people survive
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