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EDUC 200 brain notes

by: Kayla Notetaker

EDUC 200 brain notes EDUC 200

Kayla Notetaker


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Notes about the brain.
Developmental Sciences and The Context of Poverty
EDUC 200
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to EDUC 200 at Winthrop University taught by Waters in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Developmental Sciences and The Context of Poverty in Education and Teacher Studies at Winthrop University.

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Date Created: 04/06/16
Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 Brain Web Quest for EDUC 200 The brain is an incredible bundle of roughly 1 trillion neurons that all work together to enable  you to function.  Individually you will explore the brain in all its complexity through the internet. Use any or all of the following sites (you will not need all of them):­0405­v2.swf­and­human­body/human­body/brain­ article.html   Note ­ you will need to click “interior” to see the inner structures. Explain in your words the function, location, and associated processes of each of the following parts of the brain.  In addition, label all parts on the diagrams provided.  The purpose of this  exercise is to brain the brain in interactive and 3D diagrams, so make sure you look at many  different websites, answering them all from one may prove frustrating and less meaningful. Part I.  Lobes of the brain: Parietal Lobe­One of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the  top of the brain. Parietal Lobe, Right ­ Damage to this area can cause visual­spatial deficits (e.g., the patient may  have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left ­ Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken  and/or written language. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure).  Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation Frontal Lobe (judgment of texture, weight, size, shape). Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 Occipital Lobe­Region in the back of the brain which processes visual information. Not only is Parietal Lobe the occipital lobe mainly responsible for visual reception, it also contains association areas that help in the visual recognition of shapes and Occipital Lobe colors. Damage to this lobe can cause visual deficits. Frontal Lobe­Front part of the brain; involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions" including behavior and emotions. The anterior (front) portion of the frontal lobe is called the prefrontal cortex. It is Temporal Lobe very important for the "higher cognitive functions" and the determination of the personality. The posterior (back) of the frontal lobe consists of the premotor and motor areas.  Nerve cells that produce movement are located in the motor areas. The premotor areas serve to  modify movements. The frontal lobe is divided from the parietal lobe by the central culcus. Temporal Lobe­There are two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain located at about the  level of the ears. These lobes allow a person to tell one smell from another and one sound from  another. They also help in sorting new information and are believed to be responsible for short­ term memory. Right Lobe ­ Mainly involved in visual memory (i.e., memory for pictures and  faces). Left Lobe ­ Mainly involved in verbal memory (i.e., memory for words and names). Part II Now Go to: 1.  Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION” – Does the rotating spiral appear to be expanding or  contracting? Expanding. 2. STARE AT THIS BLACK AND WHITE SWIRL FOR AT LEAST ONE MINUTE  (while it’s spinning), THEN LOOK AT AN OBJECT THAT IS STANDING STILL.  WHAT HAPPENS? The thing that I am looking at moves in the opposite direction.  3. Why does this happen? Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 This happens because in the visual nervous system there are cells that respond to specific directions of motion. So, when a person looks at an object moving downward such as a  waterfall, that person's downward receptors are in action. Let's say he stares at the  downward motion long enough for those cells to become fatigued and then looks at a  stationary object, like the grassy hill. The grass will appear to be moving upwards. The  upward receptors compensate for the fatigue of the downward receptors. This  phenomenon is known as an aftereffect. 4. Look andthe other 2 movement illusions – describe what you see: The 2  one is a combination spiral made up of 2 spirals with lines going in opposite  directions. The Last one gives the illusion of depth.  NOW CLICK ON “COLOR” 5. What do you see at the intersections of the white lines? Dark Spots 6. Go to Illusion 2: What happens when you change from black lines to white lines? The orange bricks look darker with a black background and lighter when the white  background is applied. With a slight change in the pattern, this illusion goes from one of  color contrast to color assimilation ­ the complete opposite effect. NOW CLICK ON “ANGLES” 7. Do these 2 lines appear to be the same length? No 8. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION”: What do you see? That the lines are of equal  length. 9. Go to Illusion 2: Which line appears to be longer? The second set of lines 10. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION”: What do you see? That the lines are of equal  length 11. Go to Illusion 3: Do the lines appear to be crooked or straight? Crooked 12. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION” and turn background off: What do you see? That the lines are straight. 13. Go to Illusion 5: Is this a perfect circle? No 14. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION” and turn background off. What do you see? The lines disappear and the circle is a perfect circle.  Part III Go to: Briefly explain the following and provide at least one benefit for using each respective brain  scan: Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 EEG­ Although not a "brain scan" as the term is usually used, the EEG, or  electroencephalograph, deserves mention as one of the first ­­ and still very useful ­­ ways of  non­invasively observing human brain activity. An EEG is a recording of electrical signals from  the brain made by hooking up electrodes to the subject's scalp. These electrodes pick up electric  signals naturally produced by the brain and send them to galvanometers (instruments that detect  and measure small electric currents) that are in turn hooked up to pens, under which graph paper  moves continuously. The pens trace the signals onto the graph paper. Although it was known as  early as the nineteenth century that living brains have electrical activity, an Austrian psychiatrist  named Hans Berger was the first to record this activity in humans, in the late 1920s. EEGs allow  researchers to follow electrical impulses across the surface of the brain and observe changes over split seconds of time. An EEG can show what state a person is in ­­ asleep, awake, anaesthetized  ­­ because the characteristic patterns of current differ for each of these states. One important use  of EEGs has been to show how long it takes the brain to process various stimuli. A major  drawback of EEGs, however, is that they cannot show us the structures and anatomy of the brain  or really tell us which specific regions of the brain do what.  CAT­Developed in the 1970s, CAT (or CT) scanning is a process that combines many 2­ dimensional x­ray images to generate cross­sections or 3­dimensional images of internal organs  and body structures (including the brain). Doing a CAT scan involves putting the subject in a  special, donut­shaped x­ray machine that moves around the person and takes many x­rays. Then,  a computer combines the 2­dimensional x­ray images to make the cross­sections or 3­ dimensional images. CAT scans of the brain can detect brain damage and also highlight local  changes in cerebral blood flow (a measure of brain activity) as the subjects perform a task.  PET­Also developed in the 1970s, PET scans allow one to observe blood flow or metabolism in  any part of the brain. In a PET scan, the subject is injected with a very small quantity of  radioactive glucose. The PET then scans the absorption of the radioactivity from outside the  scalp. Brain cells use glucose as fuel, and PET works on the theory that if brain cells are more  active, they will consume more of the radioactive glucose, and if less active, they will consume  less of it. A computer uses the absorption data to show the levels of activity as a color­coded  brain map, with one color (usually red) indicating more active brain areas, and another color  (usually blue) indicating the less active areas. PET imaging software allows researchers to look  at cross­sectional "slices" of the brain, and therefore observe deep brain structures, which earlier  techniques like EEGs could not. PET is one of the most popular scanning techniques in current  neuroscience research.  MRI & fMRI­The invention of MRI in 1977 was a major breakthrough in imaging technology.  In an MRI, the subject is placed on a moveable bed that is inserted into a giant circular magnet.  In the case of a brain scan, of course, only the head is scanned. The MRI machine's magnetic  field, which runs straight down the tube of the machine along the line of the patient's body,  Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 actually realigns the body's hydrogen atoms (or, in this case, the atoms in the head). Normally,  the nuclei of the body's atoms spin on axes aligned in all different directions. But the MRI's  powerful magnet realigns the protons of the body's hydrogen atoms so that they all spin along the same axis, along the "line" down the length of the person's body. Now, the protons of the  hydrogen atoms are facing either up or down (toward the top of the head or toward the feet). For  the most part, the directions of these atoms almost entirely cancel each other out: The ones  facing one direction cancel out those that are facing the other. But there are a few that are not  canceled out. The MRI machine next sends a radio pulse at the area of the body being scanned.  The radio pulse makes some of the "uncancalled" atoms spin at a particular frequency and in a  particular direction, depending on the type of tissue they make up. When the pulse shuts off, the  atoms return to their natural alignment and release energy, giving off a signal that the MRI  machine picks up. A computer processes the signals and produces an image of the different types of tissue. MRI can produce very clear and detailed pictures of brain structures. Often, the images  take the form of cross­sectional "slices." The images of these slices are obtained through  the use of "gradient magnets" to alter the main magnetic field in a very specific area while  the magnetic force is being applied. This allows the MRI technician to pick exactly what  area of the person's brain he or she wants an image of. Unlike PET, MRI does not require  the subject to be injected with a tracer substance. end text Part IV Go to:  This is the PsychSim website.  Click on “Hemispheric Specialization” near the bottom of the  options.  Complete the tutorial, taking some time to complete the answers.  Copy your answers  here: This website has been “Discontinued” Part V Go to:  www.web­  Take the Test. Are you left or right brained? What does this mean?  I am Left Brained.  Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200


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