EDUC 200 brain notes
EDUC 200 brain notes EDUC 200
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 Brain Web Quest for EDUC 200 The brain is an incredible bundle of roughly 1 trillion neurons that all work together to enable you to function. Individually you will explore the brain in all its complexity through the internet. Use any or all of the following sites (you will not need all of them): http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/organs/brainmap/index.shtml http://www.stjude.org/Flash/basic_neuro0405v2.swf http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/3d/ http://www.waiting.com/brainanatomy.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/work/anatomy.html http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/healthandhumanbody/humanbody/brain article.html Note you will need to click “interior” to see the inner structures. Explain in your words the function, location, and associated processes of each of the following parts of the brain. In addition, label all parts on the diagrams provided. The purpose of this exercise is to brain the brain in interactive and 3D diagrams, so make sure you look at many different websites, answering them all from one may prove frustrating and less meaningful. Part I. Lobes of the brain: Parietal LobeOne of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain. Parietal Lobe, Right Damage to this area can cause visualspatial deficits (e.g., the patient may have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken and/or written language. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure). Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation Frontal Lobe (judgment of texture, weight, size, shape). Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 Occipital LobeRegion in the back of the brain which processes visual information. Not only is Parietal Lobe the occipital lobe mainly responsible for visual reception, it also contains association areas that help in the visual recognition of shapes and Occipital Lobe colors. Damage to this lobe can cause visual deficits. Frontal LobeFront part of the brain; involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions" including behavior and emotions. The anterior (front) portion of the frontal lobe is called the prefrontal cortex. It is Temporal Lobe very important for the "higher cognitive functions" and the determination of the personality. The posterior (back) of the frontal lobe consists of the premotor and motor areas. Nerve cells that produce movement are located in the motor areas. The premotor areas serve to modify movements. The frontal lobe is divided from the parietal lobe by the central culcus. Temporal LobeThere are two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain located at about the level of the ears. These lobes allow a person to tell one smell from another and one sound from another. They also help in sorting new information and are believed to be responsible for short term memory. Right Lobe Mainly involved in visual memory (i.e., memory for pictures and faces). Left Lobe Mainly involved in verbal memory (i.e., memory for words and names). Part II Now Go to: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/illusions/movement.html 1. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION” – Does the rotating spiral appear to be expanding or contracting? Expanding. 2. STARE AT THIS BLACK AND WHITE SWIRL FOR AT LEAST ONE MINUTE (while it’s spinning), THEN LOOK AT AN OBJECT THAT IS STANDING STILL. WHAT HAPPENS? The thing that I am looking at moves in the opposite direction. 3. Why does this happen? Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 This happens because in the visual nervous system there are cells that respond to specific directions of motion. So, when a person looks at an object moving downward such as a waterfall, that person's downward receptors are in action. Let's say he stares at the downward motion long enough for those cells to become fatigued and then looks at a stationary object, like the grassy hill. The grass will appear to be moving upwards. The upward receptors compensate for the fatigue of the downward receptors. This phenomenon is known as an aftereffect. 4. Look andthe other 2 movement illusions – describe what you see: The 2 one is a combination spiral made up of 2 spirals with lines going in opposite directions. The Last one gives the illusion of depth. NOW CLICK ON “COLOR” 5. What do you see at the intersections of the white lines? Dark Spots 6. Go to Illusion 2: What happens when you change from black lines to white lines? The orange bricks look darker with a black background and lighter when the white background is applied. With a slight change in the pattern, this illusion goes from one of color contrast to color assimilation the complete opposite effect. NOW CLICK ON “ANGLES” 7. Do these 2 lines appear to be the same length? No 8. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION”: What do you see? That the lines are of equal length. 9. Go to Illusion 2: Which line appears to be longer? The second set of lines 10. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION”: What do you see? That the lines are of equal length 11. Go to Illusion 3: Do the lines appear to be crooked or straight? Crooked 12. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION” and turn background off: What do you see? That the lines are straight. 13. Go to Illusion 5: Is this a perfect circle? No 14. Click on “ACTIVATE ILLUSION” and turn background off. What do you see? The lines disappear and the circle is a perfect circle. Part III Go to: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/scanning/index.html Briefly explain the following and provide at least one benefit for using each respective brain scan: Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 EEG Although not a "brain scan" as the term is usually used, the EEG, or electroencephalograph, deserves mention as one of the first and still very useful ways of noninvasively observing human brain activity. An EEG is a recording of electrical signals from the brain made by hooking up electrodes to the subject's scalp. These electrodes pick up electric signals naturally produced by the brain and send them to galvanometers (instruments that detect and measure small electric currents) that are in turn hooked up to pens, under which graph paper moves continuously. The pens trace the signals onto the graph paper. Although it was known as early as the nineteenth century that living brains have electrical activity, an Austrian psychiatrist named Hans Berger was the first to record this activity in humans, in the late 1920s. EEGs allow researchers to follow electrical impulses across the surface of the brain and observe changes over split seconds of time. An EEG can show what state a person is in asleep, awake, anaesthetized because the characteristic patterns of current differ for each of these states. One important use of EEGs has been to show how long it takes the brain to process various stimuli. A major drawback of EEGs, however, is that they cannot show us the structures and anatomy of the brain or really tell us which specific regions of the brain do what. CATDeveloped in the 1970s, CAT (or CT) scanning is a process that combines many 2 dimensional xray images to generate crosssections or 3dimensional images of internal organs and body structures (including the brain). Doing a CAT scan involves putting the subject in a special, donutshaped xray machine that moves around the person and takes many xrays. Then, a computer combines the 2dimensional xray images to make the crosssections or 3 dimensional images. CAT scans of the brain can detect brain damage and also highlight local changes in cerebral blood flow (a measure of brain activity) as the subjects perform a task. PETAlso developed in the 1970s, PET scans allow one to observe blood flow or metabolism in any part of the brain. In a PET scan, the subject is injected with a very small quantity of radioactive glucose. The PET then scans the absorption of the radioactivity from outside the scalp. Brain cells use glucose as fuel, and PET works on the theory that if brain cells are more active, they will consume more of the radioactive glucose, and if less active, they will consume less of it. A computer uses the absorption data to show the levels of activity as a colorcoded brain map, with one color (usually red) indicating more active brain areas, and another color (usually blue) indicating the less active areas. PET imaging software allows researchers to look at crosssectional "slices" of the brain, and therefore observe deep brain structures, which earlier techniques like EEGs could not. PET is one of the most popular scanning techniques in current neuroscience research. MRI & fMRIThe invention of MRI in 1977 was a major breakthrough in imaging technology. In an MRI, the subject is placed on a moveable bed that is inserted into a giant circular magnet. In the case of a brain scan, of course, only the head is scanned. The MRI machine's magnetic field, which runs straight down the tube of the machine along the line of the patient's body, Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200 actually realigns the body's hydrogen atoms (or, in this case, the atoms in the head). Normally, the nuclei of the body's atoms spin on axes aligned in all different directions. But the MRI's powerful magnet realigns the protons of the body's hydrogen atoms so that they all spin along the same axis, along the "line" down the length of the person's body. Now, the protons of the hydrogen atoms are facing either up or down (toward the top of the head or toward the feet). For the most part, the directions of these atoms almost entirely cancel each other out: The ones facing one direction cancel out those that are facing the other. But there are a few that are not canceled out. The MRI machine next sends a radio pulse at the area of the body being scanned. The radio pulse makes some of the "uncancalled" atoms spin at a particular frequency and in a particular direction, depending on the type of tissue they make up. When the pulse shuts off, the atoms return to their natural alignment and release energy, giving off a signal that the MRI machine picks up. A computer processes the signals and produces an image of the different types of tissue. MRI can produce very clear and detailed pictures of brain structures. Often, the images take the form of crosssectional "slices." The images of these slices are obtained through the use of "gradient magnets" to alter the main magnetic field in a very specific area while the magnetic force is being applied. This allows the MRI technician to pick exactly what area of the person's brain he or she wants an image of. Unlike PET, MRI does not require the subject to be injected with a tracer substance. end text Part IV Go to: http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/gray/content/psychsim5/launcher.html This is the PsychSim website. Click on “Hemispheric Specialization” near the bottom of the options. Complete the tutorial, taking some time to complete the answers. Copy your answers here: This website has been “Discontinued” Part V Go to: www.webus.com/BRAIN/braindominance.htm Take the Test. Are you left or right brained? What does this mean? I am Left Brained. Kayla Burns April 5, 2016 EDUC 200
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