Psychology 110 Chapter Notes
Psychology 110 Chapter Notes PSY 110
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Chapter 1 Origin and Methods of Psychology Overview De nition of psychology Six approaches to psychology Fields of specialization History of psychology Ethical issues Overview of scienti c method P P PP N De nition of Psychology 1 The scienti c study of mind and behavior 2 Psychology is a science it uses the scienti c method to advance our understanding a Astrology is a pseudoscience 3 Focused on mind and how it affects behavior a Mind product of a healthy brain Six approaches to psychology 1 Psychoanalytic Freud a famous late 18005 b Puts psych on the map the general idea of the unconscious minds c Was believed throughout history that humans were rational beings and animals were irrational beings i we think before we act d A lot of our behavior is unconsciously motivated e Hypothesized mental illness caused by early memorieschildhood expe ences i Focusing on sexual development issues 2 Behavioral Watson Skinner a 19131920 b We should not build a structure of psych on imaginary ids egos and superegos i We should only study behavior c Ex bell experiment i Dog salivates with bell ii We cannot understand what the dog thinks but we can measure behavior d Little Albert i Believed that phobias were learned so we should be able to remove a phobia ii Took baby albert and put rat in front of him 1 Introduced rat and would put loud noise behind his head over and over iii Tried to counter condition the phobia but the baby was adopted later and could not complete the experiment 3 Gestalt Kohler Wertheimer a The whole is more than the sum of the partslook at the whole picture b Your experience cannot be reduced to a number of experiences the whole experience is much more 4 HumanisticAbraham Maslow Rogers a Every person is motivated to reach their full potential b We get stopped along the way by the negativity of important people around us c If someone has a disorder we could argue they were shaped that way from negative i Can get rid of it by positive support 5 Cognitivethinking memory language problem solving creativity a The study of thinking b Dif cult to study and measure people lie to others or themselves don39t tell the whole story we justify ourselves 6 BiologicalMedicalPhysiological a We can study the brain neurotransmitters hormones Fields of Specialization 1 Human Services a Clinical work on serious mental illness b Counseling problems with everyday life c Community d School 2 Applied a Educational looks at teaching learning and processes related to school b Forensic anything to do with the legal system c Sports motivational issues in sports d Industrialorganizational applying to these settings i Employee relationship issues e Health apply psych to the medical setting i Doctornurse relationships f Engineering designing equipment and interfaces 3 Experimentalbasic science Social Personality Cognitive Developmental Physiologicalmedicalbiological Duncp History of Psychology 1 Charles Darwin 1859 a Nature selects the ttest characteristics b Looking at individual issues and seeing how they ran in familiesstreet cred c Published book on origin of species d Rest on idea that there are individual differences for any characters and you can graph a distribution of them i Nature selects on variability 2 Sir Francis Galton 1884 Anthropometric Lab a Reasoned that humans must have evolved from lower animals b If Darwin is right the individual differences among people must run in family c Galton starts gathering data off 10005 of people in London in the Anthropometric Lab i Gets as many relatives as possible to demonstrate variables run in family ii Concludes that variables in fact do run in families iii Strong support for the idea of evolution 3 Wilhelm Wudnt 1879Titchener 1893 a Wudnt set up laboratory in Germany generally thought of as rst scienti c laboratory for the study of psychology b Titchenerstudent of Wudnt came to America and made rst psych program in America in 1893 4 William James 1890 Principles of Psychology a quotgreatest American psychologistquot b Pulled ideas from around the world and created a book on Psychology 5 Sigmund Freud 1900 a Was getting international reputation b Idea unconscious mind i Focused on problems mental illness ii Assumed problems started in early childhood iii Sexual development issues strong factor that shapes personality 6 Ivan Pavlov 19205 a Russian physiology studying digestion of food among dogs b Steps i Took German shepherds and put in harness so they couldn39t move ii Measured how much saliva was produced when giving dog food iii Noticed if man who fed the dogs walked in the dogs would salivate iv Side tracked and began studying classical conditioning 1 One stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus 7 John Watson 1913 19205 a Little Albert i tried to produce phobia in baby ii Prove phobia could be learned and then could countercondition the phobia iii Use later for therapy of phobias b 1913 articulated the behavioral approach Ethical Issues 1 Institutional Review Boards IRB Any study with human participants must be approved by IRB 2 Minimize risk try to make sure that no harm is done to patients 3 Informed consent you have the right to know what you are doing not why you are doing it 4 Right to privacy anything revealedlearned about you in the experiment is private 5 Debrie ng after experiment is over you may get additional information about the study 6 Record keeping 7 Animal research highly regulated Overview of Scienti c Method 1 Frances Bacon philosopher a Late 1500s 2 Davinci scientist in his art 3 Steps a Observation you have to observe the real world in some way b Theory c Develop testable hypothesis see if there is support for that theory i Hypothesis has to by falsi able d Test it i Yesas predicted supports theory ii No modify theory 4 A theory is never proven a Goal advance knowledge of a topic True Experiment vs Correlational Method 1 True experiment a Randomly divide subjects into 2 or more groups b Manipulate the independent variable i Variable varied systematically in an experiment c Measure the dependent variable d Example mean coffee gp 75 bpm mean no coffee gp 65 bpm i Is this difference statistically signi cance 1 Other important info how many people testedsampe size standard deviation ii May infer that coffee caused an increase in heart rate 2 Correlational Methods a Measure 2 variables b Calculate the relationship c Example Pearson39s correlation 90 d Problem support for hypothesis but cannot infer causality i Correlation does not imply causation 3 The 3rd variabledirectionality problem some unknown variable might affect other 2 variables a The variables measure aren39t causin linked at all b Ex study on what caused Autism i Watched mother talked with child 1 Mothers tended to be cold and aoof 2 quotthis parenting causes autismquot ii Direction was reversed the mothers were aoof because the mother stopped responding to the child c Ex the more bottled water that was consumed in the house the healthier the babies were i Parents giving kids bottle water most likely have more money 1 Better health insurance etc Chapter 2 Statistics 1 The eld of Statistics can be divided into 2 branchesdescriptive and inferential 2 Goal of descriptive statistics present data in an easy to understand way a Makes data easier to understand using data tables graphing data b Measures of central tendency X i Mean most worked with ii Median m Mode c Measures of variability i Range ii Standard deviation S most worked with 1 Average deviation of the mean 2 Standardizing scores allows us to compare scores on different scales of measurement 3 Z score X 7 a iii Variance d The normal curve and zscores lQ score a ma 55 7o 85 100115 130 145 X l l l l l l Z39STOBJES 3 2 i 0 1 2 3 I i g xzrm Standard deviation 957 P score WWWo I ii Memorize percentages in bell curve iii Lines are at each standard deviationnormal distribution on bell curve 1 3 and over 013 e Correlation coef cient Pearson39s r ranges from 10 to 10 3 i A correlation has 2 quantities direction and magnitude f Graphsthere are many kinds i Bar graphs histograms line graphs g Data tables Inferential statistics is the branch the uses some descriptive statistics like the Mean and Standard Deviation along with the probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality A few inferential tests are all are signi cance tests Ztest T test Ftest or ANOVA Regression using 1 variable to predict another is psychology Chi square or Xquot2 Such tests when used properly allow us to determine if obtained results are signi cant or reliable rhrDonm Chapter 3 The Biological Basis of Behavior Overview of Lecture 1 Overview of the Nervous system 2 The Neuron 3 The Brain Overview of the Nervous system 1 Central brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral runs throughout body a Somatic voluntary nerves anything we do consciously b Autonomic selfregulating The Neuron 1 Parts a b C i Sympatheticarousing ii Parasympathetic calming Cell bodySOMA where the cell functions Dendrites branches off the soma i Receives information Axon longest branch of the soma i Transmits information Myelin sheath support cells insulate the axon i System is insulated to protect the signal from being loss or it going somewhere it shouldn39t ii Insulation speeds up the transmission Terminal bers of axon branches of the axon i Transmits info from axon to other cells ii Each has swelling at end referred to as terminal budbutton 2 Neural impulse a chemical electrical change of polarity along a cell membrane a Goes from 1 direction cell body to terminal bers b Terminal buttons touch dendrites of next neuron 3 Synapse microscopic gap between terminal bud and dendrites of close neurons a Will only transmit signal if correct neurotransmitter are present 4 Neurotransmitterswhat allows the signal to go or not go a Acetylcholine b Norepinephrine c Dopamine d Serotonin e Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA 5 Sendingreceiving neuron a Sending neuron have vesicles containing neurotransmitter i Neural impulse causes cell to rerelease neural transmitter into synaptic gap of other neuron ii If receptor sites matched neurotransmitter being released receiving neuron will re b Cycle of neurotransmitters i Metabolisminactivation breaks down neurotransmitter into pieces ii Reuptake receiving cell takes broken down pieces back upabsorbs iii Synthesis pieces quotput back togetherquot to be used again iv Neurotransmitters are broken down instantly so the neurons don39t keep ring c Neurotransmitters are produced in neurons d Neuromodulators produced in glands and travel through blood but still have an effect on neurons i Natural opioids endorphins 1 Natural pain suppressant chemical in plants 2 Similar to those in humans a When people take them body stops producing opium and people get addicted to opium The Brain 1 Imaging techniques a CAT or CT an X ray of the brain b PETpositron emission tomography inject a person with a safe level of radioactive dye i Can look at what part of the brain is active at the moment c MRI magnetic resonance image and FMRI functioning magnetic resonance image i FMRI can look at what part of brain is functioning at the moment d Lesions stimulation and recording less used today i only way to know what part of the brain did what was to remove part of it and look at what function was lost ii For humans looks at people with naturally occurring lesions e EEG 2 Overview of the Brain a Cerebral cortex cerebrum neocortex i Main part of brain ii In more primitive animals they did not have a cerebral cortex 1 Continued to get bigger in mammals iii Has left and right hemisphere 1 corpus collosum thick bundle of bers that connect the hemispheres b cerebellum movement balance coordination i has left and right hemisphere c contralateral connection right side of brain controls the left side of body left side of brain controls right side 3 Cerebral cortex a Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex i Occipital lobe vision ii Temporal lobe hearing 1 Wernicke39s area language comprehension iii Parietal feelingsbodily sensations f iv Frontal lobe movement 1 Broca s area production of speech 2 Planning monitoring emotional behavior organizing sensory information The geography of the visual eld is retained in the primary visual cortex i What happens in the cortex is an EXACT representation 1 Cells re in the shape of the object Primary Visual cortexPVC seeing can get blind spots Visual association cortex where we comprehend what we see i Worse to have damage here than PVC ii People with damage can see an object but can39t comprehend what it is Central Fissure motor and sensory regions i Motor cortex back of frontal lobe 1 More than half dedicated to the face and mouthswalowing moving lips ii Sensory cortex front of occipital lobe 1 More feelings in mouth and a little less than face Feelings in other parts of body less Brain plasticity suggest that the brain is exible enough that adjacent regions of the brain can take over other functions if ability is lost 4 Theory about epilepsy a b d e Scientist noticed epilepsy on temporal lobes on one side of brain Doctors were doing damage to myelin sheaths in brain when babies were taken out with forceps Brain cell would mis re electrical storm would start and cause similar area on other side to re and start a feedback loop i Event would become a seizure Studied cats cut corpus collosum i Found no impairments Split brain research on people with temporal lobe epilepsy i Cut entire corpus collosum and seizures stopped 5 Message you39re not just one thinking being we are not 1 processing unit a Have right and left hemisphere and lower brain 6 Split brain and lateralization a Left hemisphere processes information analysis verbal activity i Talking understanding language speech reading writing spelling and grammar b Right hemisphere synthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch acts on patterns quick to act Chapter 4 Notes Overview 1 Visual Perception of form 2 Depth Perception Visual Perception of form 1 Studying areas of consciousness realized vision was important part 2 Figure Ground discrimination you couldn39t see anything if you couldn39t discriminate the gure from the background a MC Escher artist that played around with backgrounds i Bird picture The white birds y against the night sky the blue birds y against the blazing sun 3 usory contours a boundary or line that doesn39t exist 4 Grouping of elements Gestalt laws of grouping a Law of proximity we group objects that are close togetherbeong together b Law of similarity similar objects belong together c Law of good continuity we are going to perceive an image in the way that makes the most continuous sense d Law of closure we don39t separate lines want things to be continuous in quotillusionsquot in which there are spaces between shapeslines etc e Law of common fate objects that move together are seen as belonging togther i Ex camou age Depth Perception 1 Binocular cues 2 eyes a Binocular disparity our two eyes see things from a different angle i Leads to stereopsis in the brain ii Stereopsis when you39re a kid and you see 2 things your brain fuses them and you can recognize them as one image 1 Ex magic eye toy b Convergence feelings in muscles tendons eye to focus Closer objects eyes converge Further objects eyes spread apart 2 Monocular cues 1 eye a Motion parallax get info of dimensions by moving to differentiate objects from background i Relative motion b Elevation above the horizon The closer the object to the horizon the further away it is nterpositionoverlap when one object overlaps the other Linear perspective When 2 parallel lines appear to converge in the distance e Aerial perspective Objects in the distance are hazier i Water molecules in the air makes things further away hazier f Relative brightness objects in the foreground closer to us are perceived as being brighter an g Texture gradient objects get smaller in the distance Perceptual Constancy 1 Size constancy objects will appear to get smaller in the distance 2 Shape constancy a door is a door is a doorwhether it is open shut or viewed at an angle a At different angles a door opening looks different but it is still a rectangle 3 Brightness constancy if you39re looking at a piece of white paper you see that it39s white no matter how bright the room is a A white sheet will look white under any lighting conditions even though a white sheet in a dark room may appear gray Other issue in Perception 1 Topdown processing you see the big picture if necessary you can start looking at the details 2 Bottomup processing You look at the small details and put them together to make a big picture Attention 1 Attention we usually think is visual however attention is independent of our senses 2 Dichotic listening studiescocktail party phenomenon a in each ear they would play a different message into your headphones i Studies of 195039s where participants quotshadowedquot one ear while ignoring inputs to the other ear In past notes change EKG to EEG Chapter 5 Notes Sleep and Altered States What is consciousness 1 Awareness of being aware 2 Two mirrors aimed at each other I m aware of you and I know that you39re aware of me 3 Rouge and mirror test Take a young child 15 years old and put in front of a mirror Rougered marker put onto nose while child is not looking a The child will laugh at the kid because they think someone else has something on their now They don39t have the selfawareness to realize that that is themselves b As they get older they realize it is them If they can39t pass th e test as they get older something may be wrong The Tarzan Syndrome idea that the great apes evolved from clammering animasanimas that run through the tree tops i Larger animals have to be aware of how much they weigh so they can grab branches that can support them ii Selfawareness gt social awareness e Conscious awareness i Preadaptation sometimes something evolves for one reason but we put it to another use an Altered Consciousness 1 Any state other than fully consciously aware 2 Hypnosis drugs sleep state intense emotional state daydreaming meditating Sleep the best studies altered state 1 Brain activities varies during sleep a Beta waves Found when you are wide awake b Alpha waves As you begin to relax 2 There are 4 stages of sleep a REMRapid eye movement sleep b Roughly 4 stages last 90 minutes each c Wake up in REM sleep remember in dream i Wake up in deep sleep extremely groggy 3 Circadian Rhythm daily rhythms a Ex humans are day creatures other animals are more alert at night b Regulated in mammals by melatonin i Melatonin puts you to sleep ii Hormone injected into system when sun goes down when sun comes up the pineal gland stops producing melatonin c Seasonal affective disorderSAD seasonal depression i When the days get short people get depressed ii Dependent on light for energy levels iii Treatment light therapy move to Florida alcohol 4 Why do we sleep a Repair theory we go to sleep in order to recover from quotdamagequot of life physical and emotional b Adaptive nonresponding it39s adaptive to go to sleep i Evolution has given us this mechanism to keep us safe at night 5 Why do we dream a Repression hypothesis Freud39s theory of psychoanalysis i Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind and the seat of repressed memories ii The dream landscape is the private property of the dreamer iii Dreams have 2 contents 1 Manifest content what is actually in the dream 2 Latent content hidden content something in the dream may represent something else b ActivationSynthesis hypothesisrandom neural activity when you go to sleep at night your conscious brain in turned off i Your reptilian brain that takes charge ii There are random neural rings and your brain is seeing random thoughts and memories and is trying to put them together to make a story 1 Connecting the dots making meaningful patterns c Problem solving hypothesis we dream in order to solve products i Hypnogogic state we start to focus on anxiety producing situations of the dream then we fall asleep 1 First dream often has to do with things you struggled with that day 2 Second dream similar problem that happened in earlier in life 3 Last dream compares rst and past problem and problem solves d Memory consolidation dreams are to store long term memories i Dream is like the editing room ii We choose what stays in memory what we see in dreams 1 Routine unimportant memories get dropped 6 Sleep Disorders a Insomnia inadequate or insufficient sleep b Narcolepsy people have sudden sleep attacks i Different emotions can trigger an attack c Sudden infant death syndromeSlDS infants that suddenly die in their sleep i Babies create C02 trapseeping in bad position and run out of oxygen ii Back to sleep program 1 Used to put babies on stomach so they wouldn39t throw up in their mouth choke 2 Put babies on back now d Sleep apnea adults stop breathing during sleep i May not getting enough deep sleep or REM sleep Sleep walking Somnambulism Sleep talking th 9 Bed wetting Enuresis h Nocturnal Myoclonus moving around during sleep i They make real motions based on what they are dreaming Chapter 6 Notes Overview 1 Six Different kinds of learning 2 More on Classical Conditioning a Pavlov 3 More on Operant Conditioning a EL Thorndike b BF Skinner 4 More on Observational Learning a Albert Bandura Different kinds of Learning 1 Learning a relatively permanent change in potential behavior that results from experience 2 HabituationSensitization a Habituation a reduction in response following a stimulus when nothing bad happens b Sensitization A novel stimulus occurs and something bad happens the animal will respond more strongly to that stimulus in the future 3 Classical conditioning Pavlovian conditioning associative learning a Work of Ivan Pavlov i physiologist working with dogs in Russia in the 19205 ii Put dogs in harness tracked amount of saliva produced when puf ng meat powder in dogs face iii Feeder ruined data collection because the dogs saivated when they saw the feeder called this classical conditioning 1 Happens after repeated pairing b UCS Meat Powdersavation to meat unconditioned stimulus i Besavation to the bell conditioned stimulus A natural reflex before training 7 r I if UCS I UCR 5 Meat Leads to Salivation 39 b To Repealed k quot Pairing i cs Leads to i Salivation l Bell to i l 39 l L34 nanL A newly conditioned response after training 4 Operant conditioning instrumental conditioning Skinnerian conditioning a Humans and other animals learn to associate their behavior with either reinforcing or punishing consiquences b Based on rewards and punishments c Instrumental condition the behavior determines the outcome i The animal must do something that behavior can be rewarded or punished in order to determine the outcome d BF Skinner spent life studying 5 Observational learning social learning imitative learning modeling a Where one animal or person observes another and learns from them b The learner imitates the model 6 Insight learning Kohler s apes a Learning by thinking b Gestalt psychologists in Germany studied this c Kohler did experiments with intelligent animals i Chimp has 3 sticks of varying lengths ii Finally gures out to put sticks together to grab food iii No one has taught animal to do behavior no reward not natural iv Applied previous learning to come up with a solution 7 Taste Flavor aversion a Combination of taste and smell b If you eat something that makes you sick there s a good chance you will never want to eat that again c Sometimes causes problem when food isn t causality of sickness d Lifesaving one trial learning More on Classical Condition 1 Ivan Pavlov a UCS leads to UCR CS leads to CR i Salvation to meat unconditioned ii Salvation to bell conditioned b Learning curve i Acquisition training learning trials 1 Pavlovian the process of learning to associate a CS with an US 2 Operant the process of learning to associate responses with reinforcement or punishment ii Extinction training over a number of trials the animal is learning there is no longer an association 1 Occurs in Pavlovian conditioning when CS is repeatedly presented alone without UCS iii Spontaneous recovery the animal that was no longer responding to the stimulus begins responding to the bell after being set aside for a long period of time iv Generalizationdiscrimination 1 Generalization an animal will apply learning from a previous situation to another similar situation 2 Discrimination failing to generalizeappy previous learning because the new situation is different enough 2 Therapy a Phobias Watson counterconditioning i Phobia an irrational fear of something ii Babies may get phobias through classical conditioning b Systematic desensitization in therapy take the most fearful thing you could imagine about phobia i Make list of most fear provoking to least fear provoking ii Have them relax then have them relax in presence of phobia iii Goes from least to most fear until densensitized c Aversive conditioning cassica conditioning technique to stop a bad habit i Unpleasant stimulation used to reduce the frequency of an undesirable response d Drug addiction i Drug associated with other things More on Operant Conditioning 1 Thorndike and his Puzzle Box a Puzzle box a cage for trialanderror experiments with cats random b Law of effect any behavior followed by a reward will be more likely to occur in the future i Any behavior follow by a punishment will be more likely to occur in the future c Reward reinforcement Anything that makes the behavior of interest more likely to occur i Punishment anything that makes the behavior of interest less likely to occur d Negative reinforcement taking away something bad i Negative just means subtract does not mean bad e Primary and secondary reinforcement i Primary reinforcements that are biologically valuable ex food air water sleep shelter sex ii Secondary reinforcements gain value by getting you access to a primary reinforcement or another secondary reinforce ex grades 2 Skinner s Operant Conditioning Chamber a The Skinner Box rat can learn to press lever and food will come when bar is pressed i Monitor the learning curve ii Advanced research when computer could run the experiment 1 Possible to adjust parameters on automated data collection system b Manipulandum lever i Something that the animal could use ii Must be something the animal can do because reinforcement is tied to the behavior iii In these experiments the manipulandum was the lever c Schedules of Reinforcement i Continuous reinforcement every time you press a lever food comes down 1 Can varies duration amount of food kind of food but food still comes down every time lever is pressed ii Partial reinforcement 1 Fixed ratio animal has to press 2 times to get reward can be any number but reward does not happen every time 2 Variable ratio not predictable ratio 3 Fixed intervaltime 4 Variable intervaltime d Resistance to extinction when you learn something new one hopes that you do not forgot it i Hope will not forget what was learnedpossiby through reward when no reward is given ii In a 11 trial when no reward is given the behavior becomes unlearned iii In a 110 trial when no reward is coming they will continue wo reinforcement for a longer time 1 More nonreinforced has more resistance to extinction e Shaping Successive Approximation training to do something animals don t automatically know how to do things f Chaining shaping multiple things and only rewarding if they do more than one of them g Superstitious behavior as reinforcement what you do when reinforcement approaches random i Pigeons were put in a skinner box had to press the bar to get food ii Reinforcement was random iii Pigeons were doing the behavior they thought got them food h Acquisitionextinctiondiscrimination and generalization apply also 3 Applications to behavior problems a Behavior modi cationtherapyusing learning theory to improve performance teach skills or modify behavior b Biofeedback using a machine to monitor responses to stimuli 4 ObservationalSociallmitative Learning Modeling a Albert Bandura b Bobo Doll studies 1965 i Bobo is a clown toy ii Woman punched Bobo and would say something every time she touched Bobo iii Kids told to watch video of woman asked to wait next to toysBobo present iv Kids all hit Bobo c No trial learning children learned how to beat up Bobo but didn t do it because they know that it s wrong d Vicarious reward and punishment learning from other people s mistakes e Distinction between learning and behavior i It s possible to learn something a never do it ii We measure learning through behavior Chapter 7 Notes Memory Overview 1 Time frames of memory a The encoding process b Forgetting c The reconstructive nature of memory d Miscellaneous Time Frames of Memory 1 Sensory Register Sperling 1960 memory in the sensory apparatus most research was visual a Tachistoscope a slide projector can set it to show pictures in different intervals i It39s possible to project a word for a 500th of a second people may not see anything at all ii If the word is shown for a longer time people can register the word iii At times Sperling would project a series of letters b lconic memory sensory register in the visual on the visual domain i After we see something we have access to that image to our mind but it is very brief Echoic memory sensory register in the auditory domain Eidetic imagery a photographic memory such a powerful sensory register that they can hold onto images for a very long time have more memory an Short Term Memory 1 Less than a minute 2 The workbench of memory where you have to do something with memory a Keep it or forget it b Possibly made to communicate must remember what other person is saying and get their point in order to respond c Short term memory allows us to create a moment 3 Serial position effect a Primacy effect the rst things that are said are most recalled b Recency effect the last things that are said are the most recalled c Interference i Proactive interference when he said words in a sequence some try to repeat each word in order Things that are early in the list start to interfere with what comes next 1 The rst word interferes with the second 2 Would show a downward trend in who recall ii Retroactive interference the most recent thing interferes with what came before it 1 New information prevents you from recalling the old information 4 Very limited capacity Miller 1959 7 2 a Miller analyzed existing data sets trying to determine how much information can be held in short term memory b They were changing from using an operator to dial numbers from having to memorize numbersphone c The ability to retain information in short term memory is very limited i Can hold about 7 or 2 memories d Our capacity is the reason we are not able to multitask 5 Chunking TVFBljFKYMCA bringing groups of information together to make a single unit a FBIjFKYMCA Long Term Memory 1 Can last for a minute to a lifetime 2 Episodic memory personally experienced events a Episodes of your life 3 Semantic memory facts and abstract knowledge a Most subjects in school rules rules of grammar math b Dif cult to learn 4 Procedural memory skills and habits a How to do something b Usually takes a long time to learn but memory last for a very long time The Encoding Process Storage 1 Moving memories from short term memory to long term 2 Shallow processing rehearsing information maintenance rehearsal a The minute you stop the information is lost b If you continue repeating it it may slide into long term memory 3 Deep processingeffortful processing if you start to visualize the memory or connect it to something a Eaborationeaborative rehearsal you need to do something more elaborate than just repetition i Organization helps you learn shows how major things t with minor things ii Visual imagery can link something you want to learn to something visual 1 Mnemonic devicesGO TO BOOK KNOW FOR TEST a Method of loci tying the new information to a location that you are familiar with Clustering Acrostics Acronyms Narrative story creating a story to help you to remember DQ00 Forgetting failure to retrieve information 1 Theories to explain forgetting a Decay theoryneutral decay when you forget something the memory trace has faded due to lack of use information is not coming back i Forgetting due to tissue damage you never actually forget b Interference theoryproactive and retroactive one thing is interfering with another c Motivatedactive forgettingFreudian repression you are actively forgetting things you want to forget memories is unconsciously motived 2 Amnesia a Retrograde you can39t remember the past but can create new memories i Complete or partial ii Some people can39t remember their past but can create new memories b Anterograde we aren39t updating our memory so we can39t recognize current things The Reconstructive Nature of Memory 1 Memories are stored in different places when we recall something we reconstruct the memory 2 Eye witness testimony not always accurate because we reconstruct memories we don39t remember then exactly like a tape recording 3 Elizabeth Loftus would show people a video a Implanted memories things can be added to memories b Schema a mental framework or outline i We can reconstruct memories around a bias or themeschema ii Words can be a schema iii We reconstruct our memories through preexisting schemas c False memory syndrome a memory recovered in therapy that wasn t real i A therapy and a patient may come up with a false memory Miscellaneous topics 1 People have asked the question what is the memory traceENGRAM 2 quotSearch for the ENGRAMquot with Planaria 1962 i There was a researcher looking for a memory trace ii When you gain a memory something must change in the brain iii Planaria is a at worm 1 ldea you could teach Planaria to run a simple maze 2 Once an animal ls trained it ll always go the same directing 3 If you cut the worm in half the head will grow a new tail and the tail will grow a new head 4 Both would still go the right direction 5 Memories stored throughout the body 6 Thought RNA was encoding memories 3 Eric Kandel s work with Aplysia 1989 a Aplysia is a sea slug used later for memory research b Have similar memory neurons etc c Kandel found i Normally a snail pulls its gills in slowly if its siphon is squirted ii But after repeatedly shocking its tail builds up neurotransmitter so that it will react more quickly iii Kandel extracted nerves to see what changed 1 Found memory involved gene expression d Both learning and memory are extensions of the developmental process In all other cell types development is nished by about age 12 In neurons developmental differentiation continues across a life span Chapter 8 Notes Motivation Historical Theories of Motivation 1 Motivation is asking the question why do people do what they do 2 Instinct theoryevoutionary theory Believed some people have instincts to do certain things like eating It became obvious that this theory does not answer anything Were abandoned early on Freud39s instincts i Eros life instinct 1 All the good things ii Thanatos bad instincts 3 Drive TheoriesDrive Reduction Theory a Biological need produces a negative statedrive state that motivates us to reduce behavior b Ex need for food produces hunger that motivates us to eat c Motivation is to do something to reduce the drive 4 Arousal theoryOptimal Level Theory a Realized that drive theory doesn39t hold up in the long run if everything we do is due to drive reduction b We are not motivated to reach a lack of motivation we are motivated to reach and optimal level of stimulation i If we have too much we are motivated to have less ii If we have too little we are motivated to have more c YerkesDodson Law i Xaxis arousalemotional state ii Yaxis performance iii A curvilinear graph 1 Low or high arousal performance low 2 Medium arousal performance high 3 Ex too little anxiety on test will perform poorly a Too much anxiety may be too nervous to remember what39s on the test 5 Humanistic Theory Maslow 1970 a Maslow39s Hierarchy of needs b We are motivated to ful ll our needs starting with our physiological needs c Once these needs are met we can focus on other things d Pyramid bottom to top i Physiological need to satisfy hunger and thirst ii Safety need to feel that the world is organized a predictable need to feel safe secure and stable need iii Love and belonging need to love and be loved to belong a be accepted need to avoid loneliness and alienation iv Selfesteem need for selfesteem achievement competence andindependence v Selfactualization need to live up to one s fullest and unique potential apem e Peek experience a period when time might seem to slow down you are so focused on doing what you are doing you being to experience the world differently 6 Social learning theory observational learning our motivations are taught to us socially we observe the people around us Chapter 9 Notes Personality De ne Personality 1 Personality the scienti c study of stable characteristics that distinguishdifferentiate people 2 TraitState distinction traits are permanent states last for a moment a Personality Trait internally motivated stable typical b Social psychology state externally motivated unstable situational temporary i External the situation made them angryany emotion 3 Early attempts a Astrology people thought astrology signs determine your personality i Was never proved theory abandoned b Phrenology your personality is shaped by the shape of your head c Somatotypes your body type determines your personality i Ectomorph thin ii Mesomorph average build iii Endomorph overweight or obese person iv Came up with a scale 17 for each category to determine personality d Palm reading e Graphology telling personality by handwriting Psychoanalytical Approach Psychodynamic 1 Freud a Born in 1856 in Vienna Austria was Jewish b Had family with several sisters a wife and children c When the Nazis took over Austriawas already anti sematic he was able to get out i Allowed him to leave because he was a world famous psychoanalyst ii Sisters were killed d Spent last few years of life got mouthjaw cancer from smoking cigars i Had many surgeries over years e Was extremely productive despite sickness 2 The structure of personality Freud a Personality is like an iceberg some is over the waterseen some is underunconscious mind b Most of personality of unconscious c ld Pleasure Principle Guided by the pleasure principle seeks pleasure avoids pain i part of personality you are born with is selfcentered ii Completely unconscious d Ego Reality Principle avoiding punishments and seeking rewards i forms on top of id ii Mostly unconscious guided by reality principle e Superego Morality Principle do right don39t do wrong i Forms on top of ego ii Partly unconscious partly conscious iii Ex a man is walking down the street holding hands with his wife he loves her Another very attractive women comes walking towards them Id says quotgo for itquot Ego says quotthere are consequences I39ve learned from the pastquot Superego says quotI39m not interested in other women l m happily marriedquot 3 The Ego Defense Mechanisms primitive mechanisms from the Ego a h Repression anxiety causing situations are pushed into unconscious memory i most important all other mechanisms include aspects of repression rationalize people interpret undesirable fear and behavior in terms that make it seem acceptable projection the defense mechanism by which people attribute their own undesirable traits to others displacement people divert their sexual or aggressive feelings from themselves to another i diverting feelings from the true source to someone that wasn t the cause ii ex you39re angry at your boss so you come home and yell at your dog regression a return to a prior stage after the person has progressed beyond that reaction formation do the opposite of what your idpeasure principle tells you i reactance where people do they opposite of what someone tells them to do in order to maintain the illusion of independence denial people refuse to accept reality or the true source of their anxiety i quotdenial ain39tjust a river in Egyptquot Sublimation people redirect socially uncomfortable impulses towards more socially acceptable goals or behaviors 4 Psychosexual development Freud the idea that sexuality begins at birth a Oralage 02 oral xations i Babies born able to feedbreastfeeding ii Oral xation may have if person had to little or too much breastfeeding in their childhood 1 Talking to much or too freely smoking over eating b Anal age 23 Anal RetentiveAnal Expulsive C i Toilet training is extremely important at this age ii Anal retentive lf toilet training is too harsh may be afraid of going to the bathroom 1 May be afraid of many things in future 2 People are overly neat and messy iii Anal expulsive if toilet training is too lenient may become very messy 1 A hoarder very messy iv Movie quotthis is where I leave youquot Phallic age 37 Oedipus i Where kids become interested in the differences between boys and girls 1 Kids will ask questions 2 by age 7 kids think they understand differences ii Oedipus complex little boys will be more strongly attached to mother than father see father as a threat 1 To resolve complex boy must eventually resolve issues with the father iii Electra complex Girls are more strongly bonded to the father than to the mother iv Penis envy Freud thought that if message was said to a girl about what a penis is the girl would have penis envy and would do anything to get a penis d Latency 7Puberty i Puberty when sexual maturity occurs 1 age 12 ii Nothing happens during this stage e Genital Carl Jung founded the School of quotAnalytical Psychologyquot 1 Carl Jung worked under Freud a Jung thought Freud put too much emphasis on sex b Kicked Jung out after too many disagreements c Best known for dream interpretation 2 Collective unconscious mind a shared unconscious mind that represents our shared ancestral past a Archetypes an element in the collective unconscious mind i Common themes ii Mandalas concentric gures which Jung believed the reason we liked the images was because they represent the self striving for wholeness 1 One of the elements iii Anima feminine side of every person iv Animus masculine side of every person v Many people took these ideas and analyzed movies and literature vi Joseph Campbell focused on mythologies Found recurring patterns 2 Many ideas and themes combined in certain places 3 Wrote The Power of Myth 4 George Lucas wrote Star Wars Trilogy a Followed ideas of Campbell b Used Campbell s idea If you write a story that taps into the unconscious mind of the audience it will be very popular b Jung separated from Freud NeoFreudian postFreudian 3 Erik Erikson founded the school of Psychosocial Development a Thought that sexual development wasn39t the only thing that affects your personality b Developed a theory that has 8 stages of psychosocial development c Separated after working under Freud Behavior Model of Personality personality is learned through 1 Classical Conditioning personality is shaped by learning 2 Look at note sheet Humanistic Models of Personality 1 Carl Rogers a Humanistic theory of personality all people are motivated to reach their full potential and get stopped along the way by negative b Unconditional Positive Regard if you raise a child with unconditional child regard the child will reach their full potential i quotRight now I m angry at you I m angry about what you did but I still love youquot ii Unconditional love iii Theorymethod of raising childrentherapy treatment iv Something you can provide in therapy to correct the damage of conditional love c Active Listening listening to the person until each person has completed their thought i Therapists teach patients to listen actively ii We make 5 common responses to emotion communications 1 Re ect active listening 2 Probe asking for more information 3 Reassure 4 Evaluate evaluating the situation and judging it 5 Interpret iii The only thing we should be doing is re ecting let the other person re ect on their situation 1 You listen and repeat back what you heard in your own words 2 After the listener has re ected and correctly interpreted what the other person said they can talk 2 Abraham Maslow another Humanistic psychology Biology affects personality 1 Breeding animals can breed animals to have different temperaments personalities 2 Gender differences on certain personality traits a Ex testosterone levels and aggressiveness Drug induced changes drugs such as alcohol can affect personality Jerome Kagen shyness a Study dangle Mobil over infants for the rst time i By the way they respond to a novel stimulus in infancy you can tell how their personality develop when they are old PS ii More excited infants shy when oder because they continue to get too overwhelmed my stimulus and learn to avoid them iii Calmer infants more outgoing with older 5 Identical Twin Studies a Studied identical twins separated at birth b Found that they often many things in common c Put thousands of people of people together see stronger similarity between identical twins than fraternal twins d Ex if one twin is deeply religious the other twin may likely be deeply religious possibly in another religion e Nature geneticnurture environment i Was believed at rst was 5050 importance ii No seeing it may be 7030 The Measurement of Personality 1 Galton started to measure individual differences 2 Objective test scores can be taken objectively can be measured with a score sheet a MMPI2Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 1942 at the University of Minnesota i In second edition ii Designed for clinical populations for people who are being diagnosed with a mental illness iii Not designed for the average person iv Has severaI subscaIes 1 Dots show muItipIes scores 2 Yellow line represents average score 3 Line graph v Create personality pro le from graph dots represent different personality traits 1 Thought that if they had a particular disease on score would be high 2 Found that some score combinations may show disease b 16PF 16Personality Factors i Used on the average person in noncIinicaI settings ii Graphed with bar graph iii We all have personality dimensions measures 16 1 Ex cooI reserved vs warm easygoing iv Psychologists could use graphs to write paragraph on the patient39s personality c MCMI Millon Chinical Multiaxial Inventory i Ted Million created this test was professor at UM ii Test was created in the 19705 and was improved over years 1 Was a than the MMPI2 iii Clinical test d NEOPI Neuroticism Extraversion Openness AgreeabIeness and Conscientiousness i Theory there were 3 main personality dimensions ii Neuroticism anxious vs not anxious iii Later added 2 personality dimensions 3 Projective Test Ambiguity have to be analyzed individually a way of getting to your unconscious mind with just a test a Projective hypothesis when you interpret in ambiguous stimulus that reveals your unconscious mind b Rorschach lnk Blot test i 1921 Swiss psychologist ii Ask people to look at picture and ask what they see iii Not scored look for overall pattern c TAT Thematic Apperception Test i Shows a series of pictures ii Ask to generate a story from picture iii Can be interpreted differently by psychologist d Incomplete sentence blank i Has a page with incomplete sentences patient nishes the sentences e Word association tests i Psychologist says a word and the patient says the rst word that comes to their head f Drawapicture test i Asked to draw something psychologists analyzes this 4 Research measures a Type AB ACoronary Prone Personality 1969 i Jenkin39s Activity scale Type Ahigh score Type B low score ii Type A great sense of time urgency workaholics 1 Theory more likely to have heart attacks coronary prone personality 2 Found there are hostile type A39s and not hostile type A39s 3 The more hostile had higher chances of getting heart attacks b lE Scale InternalExternal locus of control 1966 i Ranges from internal to external ii Ask where do you see control of important things in your life 1 Do you tend to blame yourself or accept responsibility iii External don39t take blame for misfortunes iv lnternal believe that they have control of the situation v Used scale for people on more extreme ends vi Was found it was better to be internal c OptimismPessimism scales i Optimism positive outlook ii One of the strongest predictors is the mother39s optimism level iii Optimistic children tend to deal with stress better d Need for Achievement Nach i People that have higher need for achievement achieve at a higher level Chapter 10 Notes Intelligence 1 Intelligence the ability to learn from and adapt to the environment 2 Evolution is an intelligent system a Learns and adapts over thousands of life History of Intelligence 1 Darwin39s Origin of the Species 1859 a Says people have individual differences 2 Sir Francis a Studied thousands of people in attempt to measure tness b Found that various characteristics and tness ran in families 3 Alfred Binet in Paris developed BinetSimon Scale 1905 a Developed rst modern intelligence test b Wanted test to be implemented in school system to separate those who can learn in a regular classroom from those who can39t c Wanted a special education program for each d Test was called StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale i Was one on one ii Teachers would give kids a test iii Most children that could speak French and pay attention iv Last question asked was dif cult for most children to answer v Children would get a score about how far they could go with the task each task was more dif cult than the last vi Used this to nd out normal distribution for each age e Started age norms Caught on in Paris France and was brought to America 4 Lewis Terman created StanfordBinet Intelligence Test a Brought to America where the BinetSimon Scale was further developed b The test was normed on 1100 Americans c IQ Mental agechronological age x 100 i Intelligence quotient ii IQ mathematics didn39t make sense 1 Kid age 4 functioning like age 6 a 64100150 2 Kid age 12 functioning like age 10 a 1210100120 3 IQ dropped but kid is still 2 years ahead d Today we use the standard deviation IQ 5 Army Alpha and Beta 1917 a Tests used on soldiers started when needed to draft men for WW1 b Army Alpha rst modern group administered intelligence test i Showed that most men were quotmoronsquot ii Most men were illiterate so it was not an accurate test of intelligence c Army Beta modern test created after Alpha test i Test was a nonverbal IQ test h 6 David Wechsler published Wechsler Scale in 1939 Competed with Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale Led to 3 test a Wechsler adult intelligence scaleWAlS age 16 and up i Test with many subtests comes in briefcase b Wechsler intelligence scale for children WISC age 616 c Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of intelligence WPPSI age 46 i Needed for when preschool kindergarten and 1St grade where created in the 605 ii WWII started and mothers had to start working Needed place for kids to go Measurement of Intelligence 1 Reliability Consistency if you have a test and it gives you the same result every time that test is reliable a Testretest test person twice at different times want scores to be the same i Usually what Pearson39s score 09 ii Longer the time interval between tests the lower the score will be b Splithalf internal consistency take a test at the same time the test is split and compared i Correlates the scores of the 2 halves of the tests c Ways to improve reliability i Add more test questions 2 Validity Accuracy a Must have reliability before analyzing validity b Content face item analysis looking at the test and making sure it is measuring what we are looking for i Item analysis when you look at a single item from a test and correlated it with a the total score from the test c Criterion Predictive concurrent when you take an intelligence test and you correlate it with some other measure of intelligence i Predictive looks at 2 different time points ii Concurrent looks at 2 test and correlations at the same time d Construct the degree to which a test is measuring what it actually claims to measure 3 Standardization exact testing conditions a Same directions b Same time limits c Same testing conditions Theories of Intelligence 1 Charles Spearman39s 2 Factor Theory 5 and g Charles Spearman disputed idea of IQ Came up with 2 factors that can measure intelligence Ggeneral intelligence score IQ Sspeci c intelligence score apem i Ex verbal score common sense score etc ii Many kind of factors 2 Thurston39s 7 Primary Mental Abilities a Believed there was no ggenera intelligence score b Verbal comprehension word uency number ability special ability associative memory perceptual speedwe associate speed with intelligence fasterbetter general reasoning abilitycommon senseproblem solving 3 JP Guilford39s a Thought there more than 7 mental abilities b 5 contents x 6 products x 6 operations 180 abilities c 5 contents you can use your content on visual auditory symbolic semantic behavioral d 6 operations evaluate products i Evaluation convergent production etc e Test was not practical because you could get 180 scores f Resist giving 1 number scores i If you tell someone they have a low IQ they are marked for life ii If you tell someone they have a high IQ they may think they don39t need to study they are superior to others 4 Howard Gardner39s Theory of Multiple Intelligences a Got the domain name and patented the theory b Was not the rst to come up with idea rst to claim it c Included linguistic musical logicalmathematical spatial bodily kinesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalistic i First person to put musical intelligence and bodily kinesthetic your ability to control your body ex re exes ii Thought athletics was a mental process iii Social intelligences 1 Interpersonal the ability to read other people 2 Intrapersonal the ability to know yourself a Usually goal of psychotherapy is to improve ability to know yourself iv Naturalistic intelligence better at things such as hunting folk medicine 1 Some people easily remember the details Controversies 1 NatureNurture 5050 Nature genetics hereditary biology Nurture environment learning Intelligence is shaped by a combination of both Initially everyone thought it was 5050 As studies when on concluded its 70 nature 30 nuture ArthurJenson 1960s became famous for thinking balance was 8020 i Said since your intelligence is mostly due to genetics no point in nurturing certain people ii quotso why bother giving special education programs for poor peoplequot ThrDQDO39QJ iii Conservative selfcentered bias Wanted to think that poor people were inferior g The Bell Curve 1994 6040 i A book written about distinction ii Said quotwe should defund head start programsquot iii Head start program before school starts to provide educational exposure to kids iv Said program was pointless because intelligence was mostly geneUc 2 Test Bias a Will say if one group does better at a test than another group people will say the test was bias b Test bias is differential predictive validity c If you do a regression analysis and calculate a correlation i Must do predictive validity study to tell if test is bias ii Bias difference in correlation between groups Chapter 11 Notes Development Overview FP P PWF History and Background of Developmental Psychology Issues in development Prenatal development Social attachment Freud39s 5 stages of psychosexual development Piaget39s 4 stages of cognitive development Erikson39s 8 stages of psychosocial development Lawrence Kohlberg39s 3 levels of moral development KublerRoss ve stages of death and dying 10Misceaneous topics Philosophical background 1 2 Development the study of change and growth over time Original thought a Development from birth to 13 stop development after childhood b Now know that development happens throughout life life span development i Conception until death development starts in the womb ii Radiation and cancer are concerns for development of children in the womb Middle ages Original Sin goal of childrearing was salvation a Original sin story of Adam and Eve the child is born with the original sin of Adam and Eve Renaissance 14th to 17th century in the 17th century John Locke spoke of Tabula Rasa or Blank Tablet a A child is born and blank slate and you can raise them in a certain direction In the 18th century Jean Jacques Rousseau spoke of Innate Goodness of the Noble Savage i Children are born good b More recently in 192039s scientist began carefully observing children John Watson39s demonstration with Little Albert in 1920 a Golden girI syndrome protected so much in childhood that they can39t handle failing in the real world b The government put money into programs such as Head Start and Developmental Psychology took off Development the study of growth and change over time a Child development vs lifespan development Issues in Development 1 The NatureNurture Nature Nurture Genetics Environme nt Biology Learning 2 ContinuityDiscontinuity a Does development occur in a continuous way or is there an abrupt point between stages b Do stages before affect later stages in life c Continuity Ex a tree grows bigger and bigger continuously d Discontinuity ex a caterpillar turns into a butter y different stages 3 Cross SectionalLongitudinal research methods a Longitudinal same people are measured again and again and again b Cross sectional research design in which groups of subjects of different ages are assessed and compared at one point in time so that conclusions may be drawn about behavioral differences which may be related to age differences i Note read Guns Germs and Steel and The Sixth Extinction 4 Age vs IQ a Fluid activity ability to learn new things peaks very early and lowers over time b Crystallized intelligence ability to apply previous learning to new situations starts very low and increases across the life span wisdom c Fluid to crystallized over life span Prenatal development 1 Stages a Zygote 02 weeks fertilized egg microscopic b Embryo 28 weeks c Fetus 29 months 2 Teratogens any agent that might potentially cause a birth defect a Alcohol can cause fetal alcohol syndrome i Mental retardation addiction to alcohol hyperactivity and undersize ii Some studies have found that women that have had alcohol even once during pregnancy increases their risk signi cantly of fetal alcohol syndrome b Aspirin large doses and lead to respiratory problems for the baby c Heavy metals like lead and mercury i Big problem in past lead was in old paint ii Pipes that brought water to home were made of lead iii Babies can t be cured because it interferes with development of the brain d Vitamin A and D in large doses i Fat soluble vitamins can accumulate in your tissues and cause problems ii Large doses of vitamin A can cause cleft pallet e Thalidomide a nonaddictive sleeping medication used for people with sleeping disorder found that if taken during pregnancy morning sickness could be controlled i Babies were being born in France England Canada and Australia and were being born with no arms or legs ii Found in the 23rd day of gestation that is when the arm starts to bud out 1 If mother had thalidomide in system during those days of development the arms or legs would not form 2 Thalidomide prevents capillaries from developing bad for arms good for tumors a Now used to control tumor growth f Rubella German measles i Originated in Germany in the 605 ii If a woman gets Rubella during pregnancy the baby can be born death blind or both 3 Advantages of breast feeding a Bonding with mother and baby b Builds up the immune system of baby c Perfect nutrition Social Attachment 1 Freud oral grati cation a Believed baby was born in the oral stage of sexual development b That babies are bonded to who they are fed by 2 Harlow and Zimmerman 1959 Contact Comfort a Baby provides nurturing that baby needs b Test animals were made in complete isolation i Had surrogate monkey ii Had one with wire monkey and one terrycloth monkey iii Freud thinks they will bond with the one that feeds him was wrong 1 Monkey bonded with terrycloth monkey because it was more soft and comfortable 2 Contact comfort 3 Konrad Lorenz imprinting during a critical period a Focused on wading birds birds that have nest on the ground and are water birds b They all hatch at the same time c Imprinting the animal with follow the rst things that moves and call them mother d Convinced geese that he is the mother e Window period baby needs to bond with mother within rst 36 hours 4 Erik Erikson 1968 Trust vs Mistrust age 02 so attachment for humans probably includes all of the above Said age 02 trust vs mistrust stage Believes each stage is a 2sided crisis Every baby has to resolve the 1St crisis hopefully in the positive way Baby must trust in the primary caregiver in the rst stage Once you resolve the rst crisis you are most likely to go to the second one 0qu9 i If you do well in the rst crisis you are more likely to do well in the second one ii If the crisis is not resolved in a positive way it could scar the baby for like f Very often kids will develop a sense of trust even in very bad conditionsparents don39t treat the child well i Most resolve rst stage positively 5 Mary Ainsworth s Strange Situation Test Securely Attached Insecurely Attached Avoidant Resistant Ambivalent a Developed test i Bring kid into room they have never been in before with complete stranger ii Mom tells kid she is going to leave child there with stranger iii Looks how kid acts when she leaves why she39s gone and when she comes back iv Many bad things come from insecure attachment v Secure child won t want mother will leave trusts mother child will settle down quickly shows happiness when mother comes back 1 Child will engage with stranger while mother is gone vi Insecure child won t want mother to leave inconsolable when mother is gone shoqs anger when mother comes back 1 When mother is gone won t engage with stranger vii Insecure attachment causes 1 bad parenting with no one stepping up into the parent position 2 The mother getting sick 3 Second baby being born too soon rst baby may not get enough attention Freud39s 5 stages of Psychosexual Development 1 Oral anal phallic latency genital Piaget39s stages of Cognitive Development 1 Swiss psychologist growing up in French speaking part of Switzerland 2 Whenever you learn anything we either assimilate the new info or accommodate for it a Assimilation take information in whole the info goes with our previous understanding so we accepttake it in i Info ts with our preexisting schemas b Accommodate when the new information does not t with what you know and you have to change your schema 3 Egocentricism The human species is selfcentered a Ego self b Babies are very selfcentered in one way but as the child gets older they begin to gain appreciation of another person39s view 4 Stages a Sensorimotor 02 when kids are able to learn things through motormovement and sensing i Ex tying shoe seeing walking ii Object permanence know that objects still exists when you look away 1 Ex Piaget39s put39s toy on baby and see if they pay attention to it 2 Piaget puts cardboard in between baby and toy 3 Before certain age baby would forget toy was there 4 Develops rst 510 months b Preoperational 27 develop language vocabulary verbal systems math systems musical systems i Symbolic Reasoning let one thing represent another thing c Concrete Operational 712 Conservational a mental manipulation of real physical objects i Test Piaget 1 A child examines two glasses ofjuice and sees that they are the same 2 The researcher pours the contents of one glass into a taller and narrower glass 3 The child is asked to choose the glass that has quotmorequot in it Children who have not yet developed the ability to conserve choose the taller glass and often declare quotit has more in it it39s biggerquot ii Conservation if nothing is added or subtracted amount of object remains the same iii Piaget did test with picture of mountains 1 Operational kids can imagine 2 the perspective of others and what they are seeing d Formal Operational 12 amp older the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically or create abstract ideas i Learn to helplessness kids learn something before they are ready and due to the negativity they never reach their full potential Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development 1 Erik learned that his father was not his real father and he was a product an affair of his mother Erik was named after his father He named himself Erik Erickson the son of himself Trust vs Mistrust 02 lnfant Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 24 toddler a Autonomy independence 4 Initiative vs Guilt 46 Early School a Initiative the ability to actively explore and investigate the environment b Want kids to develop ability to do things and try things c A child who has a learning disability may struggle in early school i Develops shame and doubt then guilt UJN 5 Industry vs Inferiority 612 Middle School a Industry eagerness to build skills and perform meaningful work b Traditional society roles for women and men that got passed down through generations i Children would be around older people of same gender ii Children ask to help start with small task iii The children were never forced to work they wanted to when they were ready c Kids growing up constantly getting insulted can develop sense of inferiority 6 Identity vs Role Confusion 1222 Adolescence a Identity guring out who you are as an individual b Early 1218 years Late 1822 i Early adolescence group identity gure out what quotgroupquot or quottypequot of person you are or belong to ii Late form individual identity within the group 7 Intimacy vs Isolation 2234 Early Adult a Intimacy the ability to experience to open and supportive relationships without fear of losing your own identity 8 Generativity vs Stagnation 3460 Middle Adult a Generativity getting involved with future generations b of your own family ex grandchildren c Stagnation when you are focusing on yourself d When you39re getting old your happiness will most likely come from connections with your family 9 Egontegrity vs Despair 60 and up Late Adult a Older people look at their past Some people want to continue learning while others stop b When you look back at the past will they look at their happiness or live in despair c UsuaIIy worry about relationships with people Lawrence Kohlberg s 19271987 1 Was a student of Piaget a While Piaget was studying cognitive development Kohlberg studies moraI development b Had three stages levels of moral development 2 PreconventionaI Punishment and Reward 410 years old a Based on punishments and reward 3 Conventional Rules and Laws earIy adolescence a RuIes have been internalized b Kids may not yet understand the xed nature of rules 4 Post Conventional Internal Code as few as 25 reach this level of moral reasoning a You don39t turn to the law you look in yourself internal moral code or rules b Many people don39t reach this level because they are afraid to not do as they are told 5 Elizabeth KubIerRoss a Wrote books had therapy sessions and workshops about confronting death b 5 Stages of Death Dying and Greif i Denial Freudian defense mechanisms we ignore the fact that we will die Spend most life in this stage ii Anger angry that it is happening to you iii Bargaining make deal with universe quotif I can live I will donate be a better personquot iv Depression v Acceptance 6 KublerRoss this might be the best way to work through our mortality a It39s a system that can be used for grief counseling Miscellaneous Topics 1 Old storm and stress view thought that teenager were a storm of stress and it can be extremely damaging a Realized that this isn39t true because many teenagers end up iving successful ives b In early 905 study was done by the Carnegie foundation i Said half of US youths are at risk of damaging their lives study warns ii Problems of addiction to drugs sex etc iii Now the storm and stress view is back 2 An Emerging Theory of Morality a Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham in Social Justice Research 2007 i Haidt tries to gure out what people do all over the world ii Gets information on every moral code he can all over the world iii There of 1005 of religions 1 Story about creating how you should die how you should cope with the death of a loved one coping mechanisms iv Looks for basic mora elements put them into categories v Created questionnaires vi Hope by understanding why America is so divided we can nd a way to work through it Moral foundation Focus by iberasikes Focus by change and future conservativesvaue past Harmcare Yes Yes Fairnessreciprocity Yes Yes Ingrouployalty No yes Authorityrespect No Yes Puritysanctity No yes Chapter 12 Notes Social Psychology Overview What is it Attitudes Groups Aggression text only Prejudice Interpersonal attractionsincudes friendship and marriage What is it P P PP N 1 The study of interactions between 2 or more people a Study anything 2 people can do b Ex a person teaching another Attitudes 1 Attitudes beliefs or opinions about anything The ABC Model 2 Attitude behavior problem people will express an attitude or belief that may not re ect their actual behavior a Questions validity of surveys 3 ABC a valid attitude must have 3 main components a A affect a positive or negative b B behavioral c C cognitive 4 ABC ex I love apples a Positive apples b Behavior person should eat paint pick apples c Must know that you love apples 5 Persuasion trying to change someone39s attitude a The Yale Approach looks at what people look for in a leader i Speaker credibility attractiveness similarity 1 Similarity want to relate to someone like you sells everyday products 2 Attractiveness we want to buy things that can make us feel more attractive a We are in uenced by the way people look ii TargetAudience gender knowledge forewarning inoculation iii Message 1 1sided works best when audience is already in favor to the message 2 2sided works best when audience is not initially in favor of the message a Needed when you want to change someone39s mind 3 Inoculation providing a weakened form of a persuasive argument and then refuting them 6 Cognitive dissonance a Persuasion type theory b In 1957 Leon Festinger wrote a paper c 120 study the less is more study i Spools placed in order ii Told to turn each spool a quarter of a turn iii The do this in order then you start from the beginning and turn the spools again iv Then told people to stand next to a board outside and told others to sign of for the study it39s interesting Every person did what they were told Some people go offered a dollar some offered 20 People for 1 said study was interesting 20 people said study was boring The people that got less changed their behavior PWNE Cognitive dissonance 1 Cognitive dissonance a theory that people experience psychological discomfort or dissonance whenever cognitions and behavior or in con ct 2 A drive theory of motivation and attitude change one of the biggest theories in social psychology a Consistency theory people want to be consistent i Attitude should be consistent with behavior ii When people do things that aren39t consistent they should be put in a negative stage 1 Negative stage cognitive dissonance b Attitude discrepant behavior leads to cognitive dissonancea negative state leads to v Change in attitude vi Change behavior vii Seekjusti cation CausalAttributional Theory 1 A judgment that we make about why somebody did something 2 Ex why your friend did well on a test Stable Unstable Internal Smart Effort External Easy Test Luck 3 Sfak a Fundamental Attributional Error When somebody does something that39s a problem we are more likely to use internal attributions b For our own problem behavior we employ a selfserving bias We over use external attributions i We let ourselves off the hook with excuses Groups 1 Studying people in a group how group membership affects individual behaviors 2 Social in uence anything one person can do to in uence another person 3 Social in uence Conformity going along with unwritten social normsrules a Solomon Asch Asch s conformity study i Had cardboard piece of paper Had one piece that was a standard the rest varied in length ii Had groups of males and showed a standard card and asked which card was the same length iii Only one person in the group was an actual subject iv Federate person that is asked to pretend to be a subject v Federates would say wrong answer Found 76 of students would conform with an obviously wrong vi With 1 federate pressure to conform is lower than if there are more federates vii Why people conformed 1 Normative conformity conforming to be part of the group 2 Informational conformity believe group knows more than they do 3 The power of an ally if one person disagrees with the group then the real subject is free to choose their original idea a Even an incompetent ally can work Social in uence Compliance when you go along with a speci c request 2 step process a Doorintheface technique a large request followed by a smaller request i Compliance rate is doubled for second request b Footinthedoor technique a small request followed by a large request i Used as an old door to door sales technique ii Household product company 1 25 said yes to big request rst 2 If started with small request then big request percent is 50 3 Call rst and ask what kind of soap they use 4 Next week they ask to have people come into the person39s home and look at all their household products Social in uence Obedience Milgram a Milgr m published study in 1960 i Had fake shock machine when you pull switch down gives shock to person in the other room 1 Usually middle aged avg man ii Subjects recruited at random at Yale University Advertised in newspaper for males that want to be in a learning experiment iii 2 men come into room together 1 real participant on is fake participant 1 Subject always ended up being teacher 2 Fake participant is always learner 3 Experimenter also present iv Whenever learner makes mistakes subject teacher has to give shock to learner 1 Shock keeps getting higher after each question until quotdanger severe stockquot v Learner says he has heart condition experimenter says the shock shouldn39t effect heart condition vi By the time the person got to severe shock levels the learner would say his heart is bothering him 1 Experimenter said that the teacher must continue 2 Most people continued39 6 Groupthink a very bad decision that a group or committee made a Every person assumes that they are the only one that think it39s a bad idea so they don39t say anything b Causes of groupthink i Illusion of invulnerability ii Strong pressure to conform to group iii Strong leader who made hisher opinion known at the start 1 Leader quotI think we should do this what do you thinkquot iv Mind guarding 1 when somebody says the rules are clear but someone raises an objection c methods to prevent groupthink i someone who plays devil s advocate ii participation is anonymous iii everyone told to raise as many objections as possible 7 Helping in an Emergency a The bystander effect the more people present in an emergency the less likely anyone will help i Found more likely to help if person is better dressed ii Found more likely to help if problem was not caused by their own actions b Why this occurs i Fear of social blunder when you39re alone you don39t care what other people think and person is more likely to take action we don39t want to do anything that appears stupid 1 Social comparison when there are multiple people watching everyone looks at each other 2 Diffusion of responsibility If there is one person witnessing the emergency they have all the responsibility a The more people there are the small percent of responsibility you have Aggression look at text book 1 Instinct Freud Thanatos and Eros a From motivation lecture instinct theories of aggression gave way to drive theories 2 Drive FrustrationAggression Hypothesis 1939 a A popular but outdated theory that said all aggression stems from frustration of some desire 3 Social learning a The current theory that claims aggressive behavior is learned classically operantly or observationally This is more optimistic because it does not have to be learned A nonviolent world is possible Prejudice 1 De ne a b c d e 2 Social Prejudice an attitude A belief about a person based solely on their membership in a group Stereotypes a component of prejudice a belief that every member in the group has a certain quality or characteristic Discrimination a behavior the behavioral consequence in which one group is treated differently from another group Racism the belief that observable differences among the races are due to genetics Sexism belief that sexual differences between sexes is due to genetics categorization the very strong human tendency to divide the world into 2 group quotmy group and the othersquot a b c Us vs them the ingroup vs the outgroup Our side is always the good side Maintained by illusory correlation i lllusory correlation a pattern in the data that does not exist ii We collect the instances that support the idea that we are good and select the instances that support the idea that others are bad iii Outgroup homogeneity quotthey are all alikequot Selfserving bias When they do something it proves the group is bad When someone in our group does something bad it is only that individual that is their Interpersonal Attraction 1 a b c d Important factors Similarity 1 thing that holds couples together Proximity you have to be close together physically in order to get together Reciprocity Physical attractiveness 1 thing that gets people together 2 Romantic love a b Passionate love starts out high and drops off over time Companionate love starts low and builds up over time i Higher level in relationship Chapter 13 Emotions 1 Plutchik39s wheel of emotion emotions can be put on a wheel there are 8 primary emotions a Primary emotions Joy acceptance fear surprise sadness disgust anger anticipation Secondarymixed emotions can mix emotions to form other ones 8 primary 8 secondary emotions Emotions vary in intensity e Said that opposite emotions could not mix 2 How do we know others emotions a Vocal tones body language facial expression b Paul Ekman i Famous for reading expressions to see if someone was lying ii Went around world and proved Darwin39s theory iii Darwin our facial expressions are part of our human genetic heritage 1 Mentioned disgust anger fear happiness sadness and surp se 2 Facial expressions not taught iv Categorized smiles types for different situations and feelings 1 Duchenne smile a truly happy smile v Microexpression an expressions shown for an extremely short time most people don39t notice c Looked at nonverbal cues as more stable cues for showing emotion because they are more dif cult to fake or hide 3 How do we know our own emotions look in book a JamesLang i Linear thing one thing leads to another and eventually leads to an emotion b Cannon Bard one things to these other to things one part experiences emotion the other part experiences physiological change c Schachter and Singer i 2 things come together to from one d Evidence supports each of these theories e The Suproxin Study i We label feelings through context in part 4 Are emotions taught a Facial expressions are not taught b When you should show your emotions is cultural i Some people taught not to show their emotions ii Display rules when is it appropriate to display emotions c The recognition of facial expressions needs to be learned 000 Stress 1 Stress wear and tear on the body due to the demands placed on it 2 Focusing on psychological wear and tear 3 Sources of stress a Life events i Holmes and Rahe 1967 major life events checklist 1 2 3 4 5 Asked people have you had any of these major stressful life events in the last time a Ex getting a divorce getting a ticket on your car death of a loved one Would give people stress scores Compared to how often people got sick and what the sicknesses were Did not nd correlation why a Most stress comes from minor daily hassles Started looking more at minor events and coping styles to stress b Cognitive Appraisal Lazarus the way that we think about our stressors affects how stressful they are an Con ict decisions and choices we don39t like too many choices Frustration blocking of goal directed behavior e Environmental sourcesheat humidity noise crowding i Particularly when event is unexpected unpredictable uncontrollable ii Illusion of control sometimes we imagine that we have control PWF Can be helpful mentally 2 groups took test one in noisy room one in loud room Group in loud room did made more mistakes Another group in loud room were told they could press a button under the desk if the noise was too much but it was needed for the study a This group did the same as those in the quiet room b They felt like they were in control 4 Physiological Reaction a Selye s General Adaptation Syndrome b Selye s studied rats Rats go through stress response called General Adaptation Syndrome c Stages i Alarm when organism realized there is a problem ii Resistance an effort to combat the stressor iii Exhaustion whenif the resistance fails 1 2 3 5 Coping with stress The organism may get sick Years of stress can lead to health problems We were designed to cope with short term stress continuous stress can weaken immune system a Social factors having one or more supportive relationship i Supportive relationships ii Sense of belonging to a group b Cognitive factors i Richard Lazarus idea Problem vs Emotion focus 1 On average men are more problem focused on average women are more emotion focused 2 Sometimes we focus on the problem and look for solutions sometimes we focus on emotions and look for comfort to cope ii Sense of commitment to an idea iii Internal locus of control 1 Internal belief we have some control over the situation 2 The internalexternal scaleJulien Rotter 1966 iv Having actual control 1 It39s better to really have control 2 Less stressful and more willing to do things v Learned Helplessness 1970 1 Martin Seligman wrote quotLearned Helplessnessquot 2 Reviewed a lot of literature starting with animal studies There is an electric floor and a dog is in a cage A light turns and the dog gets shocked The dog eventually gives up In the next study one half of the cage is not electrical e The dog has already learned helplessness so it doesn39t try to escape 6 Personality factors stable characteristics about people a lE scale Locus of Control b Type A or B personality i Type A high sense of time urgency 1 hostility is the real issue 2 When things aren39t going quickly they are more easily frustrated c Optimism vs Pessimism i Optimism people cope better with stress ii Optimistic children do better in school have higher grades and are less likely to get sick b Psychological Hardiness people who have a sense of commitment to something greater than themselves an internal locus of control and are problem focused are less stressed 2 Behavioral factors Aerobic exercise Lose weight Quit smoking Reduce salt and caffeine Learn and relax Meditation yoga selfhypnosis Biofeedback Journal writing apem no hmonom Health Psychology 1978 1 Psychoneuroimmunology PNI a Psychobiology b Biopsychology c Behavioral medicine Health psychology Behavioral neuroscience how injury in the brain affects behavior Physiological psychology Neuropsychology Neurobehaviorism 2 Health studies today a Psychologists are working on i Cancer ii Aids iii Heart disease iv Smoking control v Alcohol and drug addiction vi Stress management b Many great advances in the future of health will come from behavioral changes not just from new medicines i Diet ii Exercise iii Safe sexual practices iv Stress management v Preventative medicine vi Wellness approach c Psychologists are essential to the process Chapter 14 Notes Abnormal Psychology Approaches to Understanding Abnormal Behavior 1 Statistical Approach abnormal is far from average a Abnormal far from normal in either direction on a normal bell curve standard deviation b Normally look at abnormally dysfunctional compared to abnormally funcUonal 2 Sociological Approach pays more attention to culture that you live in a What39s normal in one culture may not be normal in another culture 3 Psychoanalytical Approach looks at early childhood experiences trauma partially those involving sexual development 4 Behavioral Approach using learning theory and assuming behavior was learned 5 Cognitive Approach look at way person thinks beliefs 6 Biological Approach abnormal personalities are caused by biological factors a Ex genetics diet 7 lnteractionist approach uses every approach disorders are caused by an interaction of all these factors a 2 or more of the factors are at work Diagnosing Psychological Disorders 1 DSMll Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders a Product of the American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association b The 5th version came out in the past year Class and textbook now based on DSM4 c Neurotic disorder a disorder characterized by excessive anxiety i Ex obsessive compulsive disorder ii If something is present their anxiety is overwhelming d Psychotic disorder you reality is not the same as other people39s reality i Often more severe than neurotic disorders ii People hallucinating andor delusional in some way 2 DSMIV a 5 axis system i Axis 1 clinical disorders other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention ii Axis 2 personality disorders mental retardation iii Axis 3 general medical condition 1 Don39t just diagnose somebody with a mental health score also give a physical health score 2 Big difference between being depressed and healthy rather than being depressed and having multiple diseases iv Axis 4 psychosocial and environmental problems v Axis 5 global assessment of functioning 1 Continuum 0100 2 100 lived life in home quotregular lifequot person had breakdown 3 0 person was homeless for 20 years and was never stable had a breakdown Some of the categories 1 Generalized anxiety disorder nonspeci c anxiety that persists for 6 months or more Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Dissociative disorders Psychosexual disorders Personality disorders Mood disorders Schizophrenic disorders Substance use disorders PWNQP PWF Anxiety Disorders 1 Generalized anxiety disorder nonspeci c anxiety that persists for 6 months or more 2 Panic disorder a Symptoms hyperventilation heart palpitations 3 Phobic disorder irrational fear a Agoraphobia fear of public places 4 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder a Obsession a thought that you can39t stop thinking b Compulsive want to alleviate the thoughtobsession c Movie As Good as it Gets d Axis 1 disorder e People start doing rituals compulsively 5 PostTraumatic Stress DisorderPTSD a Formerly ShellShock i Common in war for soldiers near in explosion but not injured in the explosion ii Solder has a lot of remorse b Then called Battle Fatigue Somatoform Disorders 1 Somatoform is not Psychosomatic the pain is in your mind i Original thought a psychological fact has caused real tissue damage to the body 2 Somatoform disorders unusual physical complaints a soma body 3 hypochondriasis a hypochondriac someone who is always obsessed with iHness a person always thinks that they are sick 4 conversion disorderformerly hysteria any unusual physical disorder brought on by some psychological trauma a glove anesthesia person couldn39t feel hand felt like they had a glove on b hysterical deafness c hysterical blindness Dissociative Disorders 1 Dissociative disorders group of disorders in which the thoughts and feelings that generate anxiety are separated or dissociated from conscious awareness by memory loss or change in identity 2 Psychogenic Dissociative Amnesia someone has a stressful event and the person has a mental break and a person doesn39t know who they are a Memory loss not attributable to disease or brain injury b fugue state if the person moves and starts over again 3 dissociative identity disorder this person s personality broke into very simplistic pieces a a person39s 1 identity dissociated b was Multiple Personality Disorder 2 or more distinct personality c very often these people are not concerned with not remembering their past 4 The Corruption ofReaity a uni ed theory of religion hypnosis and psychopathology a every mental illness is dissociate to some extent b book by Schumaker 1995 c religion and hypnosis can help us cope and not get mental disorders Psychosexual Disorder 1 sex not only for reproduction but also a natural mechanism to create bonds and draw people into relationships 2 Sexual dysfunction person so obsessed with sex that it is interfering with their life not functional 3 Paraphilias nonnormal love a Fetishism a sexual obsession with objects b Transvestite Someone who wants to wear the clothing of the opposite sex i Crossdresser c Exhibitionism Voyeurism i Exhibitionism showing off ii Voyeurism Someone who is doing something that is crossing bounda es d Sadism Masochism i Sadist someone who enjoys hurting or humiliating another person ii Masochist some who enjoys being hurt or humiliated e Pedophilia people who have sex with children or fantasize about having sex with children f Zoophilia Bestiality having sex with animals 4 Gender identity disorders transsexual a Kids born with different gender on outside than inside b Normally kids get raised wrong 10005 of kids per year born with no gender c Transsexual person is born with body parts of 1 gender but identi es more with the other Personality Disorders axis 2 disorder 1 Odd or eccentric a Paranoid suspiciousness and distrust of others i Often seem cold and aloof humorless and lacking in tender warm feelings b Schizoid loaners i Hermits they are withdrawn don39t want meaningful social relationships c Schizotypal oddities of thought perception speech and behavior including magical thinking i Ex fortune tellers astrology tea leave and taro card readers ii Ideas of reference that random events around them are meaningful 2 Dramatic or Emotional a Histrionic personality disorder overly dramatic amboyant given to exaggeration i While charming and entertaining on rst acquaintance they often drive people away with selfcentered demands for attention b Narcissistic Personality Disorder grandiose sense of selfimportance i Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success ii They need constant attention and admiration iii Little regard for the feelings of others iv Ex Leona Helmsley the queen of mean c Antisocial personality disorder formerly Sociopath Psychopath or Morally Insane chronic antisocial behavior which violates the rights of others i This includes many mass murderers and most conmen and women and many other criminals ii See warning signs in kids when they don39t seem to care about others d Borderline Personality Disorder instability of behavior mood and self image i Relationships with others start our intensely but ii Ex Marilyn Manson 3 Anxious or Fearful a Avoidant personality disorder want close intimate relationships they repeatedly withdraw from relationships to avoid rejection shame or humiliation i Not to be confused with Schizoid b Dependent personality disorder overly dependent on other people c Obsessivecompulsive personality disorder OCPD excessively preoccupied with order rules details and trivia Mood Affective Disorders 1 Major depression characterized by deep and persistent depression a SSRI39s selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors i Ex Prozac 2 Bipolar Disorder Formerly ManicDepression characterized by intermittent episodes of both depression and mania a Medication ex lithium b Where mood swings from very deep depression into a manic stage where a person is extremely happy c Flat affect no mood swings at all person doesn39t have uctuating mood feel nothing 3 Seasonal affective disorderSAD people are seasonay sad caused by shortness of the daylight a The sun makes us happy b Can sometimes be cured by light therapyamp 4 Suicide a For a period don39t see a quotlight at the end of the tunnelquot and think things will never get better Schizophrenic Disorders Psychotic 1 Psychotic there is a break with reality people are not perceiving reality in the way the others do 2 Hallucinations sense of perception is off seeing and hearing things not there a Auditory tactile visual olfactory 3 Delusions of a In uence a belief that others are in uencing you by means of wires TV and so one making one do things against one s will b Grandeur the belief that one is in actuality some great world or historical gure such as Napoleon Queen Victoria or president of the United States c Persecution the belief that one is being persecuted hunted or interfered with by certain individuals or organized groups d Reference people think events around them are in reference to them e Control believe they are being controlled by something someone else 4 Four types a Catatonic schizophrenia a person who is unconscious out of it i Rigid person is not shapeable can39t change the position of the person ii waxy exible you can shape the person in any position you want iii ex Movie with Robin Williams quotThe Awakeningquot b Paranoid person who thinks others are out to get them i May be dangerous to others ii May have delusions of persecution c Disorganized person has marked disorganization and regression in thinking and behavioral patterns accompanied by sudden mood swings and often hallucinations d Undifferentiated person does not manifest speci c symptoms of disorganized catatonic or paranoid schizophrenia Substance Use Disorders alcoholism drug addiction 1 Warning signs Daily use Using to cope Using when alone or secret use Impaired social or occupational functioning Blackouts Physical dependence including fear of withdrawal 2 Genetics component a It may involve the ability to get pleasure for ordinary events like a sunset ThrDQDO39QJ Chapter 15 Notes Psychotherapy 1 Psychotherapy any method of working with an individual to improve their functioning 2 Techniques a Talking can be therapeutic talking to someone who is listening b Listening c Interpreting therapist interprets problem and tries to get patient to understand that point d Suggestion therapist say quotwhy don39t you try thisquot e Sex therapy the therapist is there for the bene t of the patient i Ex movie quotThe Sessionquot Helen Hunt f Role playing therapist will pretend to be in situation with patient act out g Journal writing similar to talking but can be very therapeutic Psychoanalytic Psychodynamic Therapies 1 Psychoanalytic Freud s idea that your unconscious mind and early childhood problems are causing the disorders a When a con ict arises from the unconscious mind and the conscious mind doesn39t agree with it it causes a problem in the system Therapy is to release the problem in the system 2 Unresolved con icts a For therapy made assumption that disordered behavior results from unconscious con icts and repressed urges most of which are rooted in childhood experiences 3 Free Association and Dream Analysis a Free association psychoanalytic technique developed by Sigmund Freud in which patients relax and say whatever comes to their mind b Dream analysis psychoanalytic technique involving the interpretation of dreams to learn about hidden aspects of personality 4 Transference the patient relates to the therapist in a way that reproduces and important past relationship 5 Resistance an all out effort by the patient to prevent the therapist from understanding and uncovering the true source of the problem 6 Catharsis a sudden release of tension from releasing feelings about a tragic event a Takes the pressure out the system by reliving an experience Humanistic Therapies 1 Encourage selfexamination and growth 2 Focus on conscious thoughts and thoughts of your present and future 3 ClientCentered therapy Carl Rogers a Unconditional positive regard the idea that the therapist needs to accept the patient for who they are unconditionally b Realself and idealself therapist might ask you who your idealself is and they will ask you where you are now There is a gap between real and ideal The goal of therapy is to take steps to move in the ideal direction c Therapist must show empathy acceptance and genuineness i Have to be able to empathize with them accept them for who they are and genuinely care d Active listening important 4 Gestalt Therapy Fritz Perls a More directive and confrontational b Still places responsibility for change c More likely to tell you to take a hard look at yourself instead of blindly support you 5 Transaction Analysis l39m OK You39re OK Harris 1967 a Good people can disagree on important issues and still be good people b Often a couples therapy c We a have an inner i Child the whining selfcentered spoiled bratchild in all of us ii Parent talking down onto someone iii Adult want interactions to be adultadult interactions Behavioral Therapies Behavior Modi cation 1 Behavior therapy therapy based on the assumption that maladaptive behavior has been learned and can therefore be unlearned d Classical conditioning i Systematic desensitization behavior therapy using a classical conditioning technique that pairs the slow systematic exposure to anxietyinducingsituations with relaxation training ii Aversive conditioning treatment for bad habits e Operant condition using rewards and punishments i Token economy ii Extinction and punishment iii Time out f Modeling cognitive behavior therapy i Social learning and Albert BanderaBobo doll study 1 Developed cognitive behavior therapy encourages positive selftalk We learn but know not to do certain things Some people learn but don39t know not to do it ii Encourage constructive quotselftalkquot and selfefficacy 1 Selfef cacy you believe that you have the ability to learn a If you believe that you can get better you are more likely to get better Cognitive Therapies 1 Think that thoughts are the main source of abnormal behavior negative thoughts contribute 2 Often used to help treat depression 3 RationalEmotive Therapy invented by Albert Ellis a Teaching people to recognize irrational and selfdefeating beliefs i quotl have nothing to be thankful forquot 4 Cognitive Therapy invented by Aaron Beck a Teaches to identify distorted quotselflabelsquot b Problems more selforiented quotI m no goodquot Biomedical Therapies 1 AntiAnxiety drugsAnxiolytics a Ex Librium Zanax Valium 2 AntiPsychotic Drugs a Blockinterfere with dopamine in some way b Can stop seizures c Thorazine brand name i lnvents in 19605 drug that was made famous ii At one point everyone in mental health wards were getting this drugs 3 Antidepressant drugs a Prozac Zoloft Paxil all block serotonin reuptake b Patient will try different ones until they nd one that works c For people with depression d Lithium carbonate to treat bipolar disorder 4 Electro Convulsive Treatment ECT a Shock therapy b Side effects i memory loss ii memory holes of varying sizes iii may not be a permanent cure have to get multiple treatments c Created by Italian physiologist i Thought there was a continuum between seizures and hallucinations ii If a person was having hallucinations and you shocked them into having a seizure then you could bring them to balance d Now can be used for severe depression when antidepressants don39t work 5 Psychosurgery a something is affecting psychological functioning called psychosurgery i Ex tumor in the brain b Split brain surgery cut corpus callosum to stop signal between left and right brain and stop seizures c Lobotomy people used to use this to cure everything i Now used to stop psychotic episodes ii When people are out of control because they are in a psychotic manic stage iii Lobotomy would stop them from being insanely aggressive iv Cut connection between frontal lobe and the aggressionaction center of the brain v Surgery was done through the eyes Group Therapies 1 Not different kind of therapy different delivery system 2 Less expensive 3 You39re not alone 4 What works for others 5 Seek quali ed leaders a Go to clergy people b Go to family doctor c Check their credentials 6 Invented in 19605 largely as an economic measure Miscellaneous Points 1 Deinstitutionalization term used to describe the fact that once Thorazine was invented and other new medicines came out people thought that they could close metal hospitals a Money was saved but no one was watching these people b A lot of people stopped taking medication c Big national problem we have been mislead i lt39s wrong that we don39t fund mental health or treatment systems since more drugs came out ii There was supposed to be a community mental health center for each neighborhood never opened enough 1 Only a few were created d Mentally ill people put in jail after issues such as being homeless e Mentally ill people are the fastest growing subpopulation in Florida pnsons f Problem in Florida we don39t have a state income text i We want tourists to pay for taxes ii Don t have enough to fund mental health centers 2 Which approach is best a Studies have found that it39s not the therapy that matters but the therapist b A good therapist could have good results with almost any method of therapy c Some are nding that some methods might work better for certain mental illnesses but mostly therapist 3 False memory syndrome a memories being created by therapists term used for therapy b Recovered memories from therapy that are false c May have memories of things that never really happened
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