Study Guide - First Exam
Study Guide - First Exam Nutrition 230
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Febo on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 230 at a university taught by Ronnenberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Study Guide Part I Digestion 8 Absorption What is digestion Process of breaking food into components 0 Small enough to be absorbed into the body What is absorption 0 Process of taking substances molecules into the interior of the body The gastrointestinal tract 0 Organization 0 Mouthanus o Accessory organs Salivary glands Liver Pancreas Gallbladder o FuncUons lngeonn Transport Secretion Digestion Absorption Elimination Overview 0 Physical movement Peristalsis and segmentation help to break up mix and move food through the GI tract 0 Rhythmic contraction of muscles around the esophagus and other organs of the digestive system that moves food along 0 Periodic muscle contractions at intervals along the GI tract that alternate forward and backward movement of contents This breaks apart chunks of the food mass and mixes in digestive juices 0 Chemical breakdown Enzymes Other secretions What happens in the Salivary glands produce saliva A mix of water Enzymes Begins digestion of carbohydrates Amylosestarch 0 Small amount of lingual lipase also beginning fat digestion Saliva also lubricates food Dissolving food molecules 0 Can be sensed by the tongue 0 Chewed ball of food with saliva is called a What happens in the o Funnelshaped opening that connects the nasal passages and the mouth to the respiratory passages and the esophagus upper throat o Valvelike ap that covers the air passages during swallowing 0 Connecting the mouth to the stomach Esophagus passes THROUGH the diaphragm o Muscular wall that separates the abdomen from the cavity where the lungs are located 0 Peristalsis o Rhythmic muscular contractions moving food along the esophagus 0 Muscle that regulates entry of food into the stomach o Helps prevent food and acid from moving back up into the esophagus What happens in the 0 Food mixes with 0 HCI and helps o Enzymes rennin and pepsinogen by 0 Begin as Enzymes often 0 Enzyme needing to be activated begins at o Partially digested food is called o large amounts of 39 MUCUSthe the o The stomach lining is complex 0 Mucosa Surface epithelium Gastric pit Parietal cells Mucous cells Chief cells 0 Connective tissue 0 Smooth muscle layers Diagonal muscle Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle o More connective tissue Only water alcohol and a few drugs aspirin are absorbed in the stomach Role of enzymes that the Without being changed themselves 0 Different enzymes breakdown different food components and for synthesis of body components Many enzymes end in quotasequot 0 Example 0 Lipase o Sucrose o Protease Small intestine the stimulates the of digestive hormones 0 Then triggering release of digestive enzymes and other substances Ex bicarbonate and bile Acidic enters the duodenum through Pyloric sphincter sphincter that closes off and slowly allows food from the stomach into the duodenum 0 IHOFmOhe by the o Triggers the release of bicarbonate by the pancreas 0 bythe ih o Emulsify fats in the chyme o Acts as detergent it makes the fat globs into more watermiscible globules 0 After emulsi cation of fat most bile is reabsorbed from intestine and sent back to liver 0 Bile contains cholesterol Too much cholesterol then medicine will stop some of the reabsorption of bile and excrete it o cholecystokinin hormone o Gallbladder squeezer Gets bile into the duodenum Jejunum lleum O Digestion Bicarbonate neutralizes HCI stomach acid Pancreatic and intestinal enzymes hydrolyze Carbohydrates 0 Fat 0 Protein Peristalsis continues to move digestion along Digestive enzymes and uids secreted by lining of the intestine to continue digestive process in O Once suf ciently digested nutrients from are into the Absorptive structures of the small intestine O O O O O O O Lacteal Capillary Artery Vein Lymph vessel Folds villi microvilli expand absorptive surface lMost Lymphatic System spaces between cells and cleanses them of disease causing organisms AlsoIandl o Carries these from the and later them back to the Other nutrients enter the 0 Then to the Hepatic portal vein 0 Nutrient laden blood from gut transported to liver Food transported around the body 0 molecules Turns them into the forms needed by body 0 From to the via general o The heart through to the for Oxygenated from and to the again t0 the body Transport of nutrients across cell membranes Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Active transport Large intestine amlt1 the the o in large intestine to some of the o Often and small quantities of I and other vitamins are in being through the o Gastrointestinal ora abound o More than 500 bacterial species alone live in your GI tract Known as microbiome Ascending transverse and descending colon Regulation of GI activity Local system of nerves Central nervous system 0 involved in eating Offactory smell Trigeminal nerve somatosensory information touch pain from the face and head muscles for chewing Facial nerve taste somatosensory information from ear controls facial expression Glossopharyngeal nerve taste somatosensory information from tongue tonsil pharynx controls some muscles used in swallowing Glands o Digestion 0 Heart rate Hypoglossal nerve controls muscles of tongue system 0 0r GI How are from body 0 Waste molecules from back 0 from kidneys fr0m the paSSI the o unto they can be conveniently through Nutrition and GI disorders Constipation 0 Hard dry infrequent stools 0 Reduced by high ber uid intake exercise 0 Diarrhea 0 Loose watery frequent stools o Symptom of diseasesinfections 0 Can cause dehydration o Diverticulosis o Pouches along colon 0 High ber diet reduces formation Gastro esophageal re ux disease GERD 0 Reduced by smaller meals less fat 0 Irritable bowel syndrome IBS Colorectal cancer 0 Antioxidants may reduce risk 0 Gas Ulcers 0 Usually caused by bacteria Study Guide Part II Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates CHO o Literally meaning quotcarbon waterquot Composed of hydrogen carbon and oxygen 0 Ratio 121 Soluble in water and contain useable energy Manufactured by plants using energy from the sun 0 Photosynthesis o Monosaccharides o Simplest of CHO Found in food molecules C6H1206 Glucose most abundant Fructose and galactose Same makeup different compositions o lsomers o Disaccharides o Linked together Sucrose Glucose and fructose 0 Common table sugar 0 Abundant in some plants Sugarcane Sugar beets O O O O Lactose Glucose and galactose o Lactose found in milk Maltose Glucose and glucose 0 Found in germinating cereal grains and in malt and malt liquors Also the product of starch breakdown Condensann 0 Putting together 0 Dehydrating o Losing a water molecule in the process 0 Hydrolysis 0 Taking apart 0 Hydrating 0 Need water in order to pull apart these two molecules 0 Simple CHO are found in 0 Fruits 0 Milk products 0 Sucrose from Sugarcane Sugarbeet Syrup Maple Honey 0 Common sweeteners containing few nutrients and are empty calories Complex Carbohydrates o Oligosaccharides 0 310 sugar units 0 Usually glucose units Found in legumes Polysaccharides 0 gt10 sugar units 0 Usually glucose units 0 Long sometimes branching chains 0 Glucose polymers Glycogen 0 Long highly branched chains of glucose Storage form of CHO for animals Found in the liver and muscles 0 Liver glycogen 0 Used in regulating blood glucose levels 0 Muscle glycogen 0 Used in energy 0 Starch 0 Long chains of glucose units 0 ALPHA 14 LINKAGE Amylose 0 Straight chains Amylopectin o Branched chains 0 Found in grains vegetables legumes Cellulose O 0 Long unbranched chains of glucose BETA 14 LINKAGE Can t be digested by humans Primary structural molecules of plants 0 Complex CHO are found in various foods O 0000 O Starchy roots such as cassava and sweet potato Underground storage stems like potatoes Legumes such as beans and peas Starchy vegetables such as corn Cereal grains Fruits such as bananas Dietary ber Consists of various indigestible polysaccharides chie y cellulose and a minerallike substance called lignin Generally comes from plants where it forms supportive and protective tissues 0 2 main kinds of dietary ber 0 Soluble Found in and around plant cells and absorbs water or is dissolved in water Consists of polysaccharides such as Gum guar gum o Pectins Mucilage psyllium Some hemicelluloses o Foundinfoods o Oats o Barley o Apples 0 Beans 0 Sweet potatoes These bers may increase slow down intestinal transit time 0 Can be used to treat diarrhea o Kaopectate o Insoluble Comes from thickened supportive cell walls in plants particularly in the bran around cereal grains Consists mostly cellulose lignin o NotCHO Some hemicelluloses Reduces intestinal transit time 0 Important to preventing constipation Overview of CHO digestion and absorption Carbohydrates 0 Broken down into monosaccharides by enzyme in saliva and the small intestine o Monosaccharides are absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the blood 0 In the liver fructose and galactose are converted into glucose Mouth 0 Salivary amylase Digests 5 of starch Stomach 0 Little action HCI inactivates the salivary amylase Small intestine o Pancreatic amylase digests starch l maltose 0 Brush border disaccharides Lactase Maltase Sucrose 0 End products Glucose Fructose Galactose 0 ber is not digested or absorbed Microvilli Carbohydrates in the body 0 the end products of CHO digestion are absorbed into bloodstream sent to the liver 0 glucose is used 0 as energy source brain red blood cells 0 to spare body protein o to prevent ketosis o to form glycogen storage form of glucose most cells can metabolize glucose to carbon dioxide and water 0 releasing ATP energy glucose is preferred energy sources for 0 brain 0 central nervous system without adequate glucose muscle protein must be broken down to provide glucose for the brain 0 process called gluconeogenesis liver makes new glucose from nonCHO substrates glucose is metabolized through cellular respiration resulting in ATP C02 and water glycolysis is the splitting of glucose into 2 3Carbon molecules pyruvate o generates 2 molecules of ATP 0 produces reduced coenzymes can be quotcashed inquot for ATP in subsequent reactions acetylCoA 0 formed as one molecules of C02 removed from pyruvate citric acid cycle 0 acetylCoA 2C condenses with oxaloacetate 4C producing citrate 6C 0 as citrate moves through the citric acid cycle 2 more C atoms are removed as C02 0 some ATP is produced directly along with reduced conenzymes o in electron transport chain ATP is formed from the highenergy electrons in the reduced conenzymes Ketone Body Production 0 When inadequate glucose is available for cells 0 Must break down fat for energy 0 But if glucose is NOT present fat is not completely broken down 0 Substances called Ketone bodies are produced 0 Ketones can build up in the blood 0 Causing acidity o Ketosis o Ketoacidosis Can be used for energy 0 Need about 100 grams of CHOday to prevent ketosis Ketones suppress appetite Glycogen Storage form of glucose for humans 0 13 of the body s glycogen is in the liver Maintains blood glucose 0 23 of glycogen is in muscle Energy sources for muscle 0 Because the molecule is highly branched enzymes that remove glucose units have more sites to attack Glycogen can be quickly broken down to supply energy for muscles and glucose for the bloodstream Regulation of Blood Glucose c When blood glucose levels rise Hormone insulin 0 Released from beta cells of the pancreas o lnsulin triggers glucose uptake by muscle fat and liver 0 Not all cells require insulin for glucose uptake Brain and rbc are insulin independent 0 lnsulin receptors and glucose transport 0 lnsulin produces effects by binding to insulin receptors Present on virtually all cell surfaces 0 Binding of insulin to its receptor sends a signal inside the cell Causes vesicles containing glucose transporter molecules GLUT Migrate to the cell surface and release GLUT o Integrates into the cell membrane Heart adipose and skeletal muscle the GLUT4 transporter protein becomes imbedded in the membrane where it facilitates glucose uptake Decrease in blood glucose stimulates the release of glucagon 0 Released by the alpha cells in the pancreas 0 Causes cells in the LIVER to hydrolyze LIVER GLYCOGEN Liver glycogenolysis And release glucose back into the blood 0 Epinephrine and growth hormone also promote glycogenolysis and glucocorticoids promote gluconeogenesis o Glucagon stimulates liver cells to make glucose 0 From amino acids in a process called Gluconeogenesis 0 Making glucose from a nonglucose substance Abnormal Blood Glucose Regulation 0 Diabetes Mellitus 0 Disease condition where blood glucose levels rise Hyperglycemia 0 Low blood glucose and can be caused by a variety of conditions 0 Frequently an excess production of insulin 0 Due to lack of insulin TYPE 1 0 Or to cells that are unresponsive to insulin TYPE 2 0 Blood glucose levels are used to diagnose diabetes and pre diabetes General symptoms 0 Hyperglycemia o Hyperlipidemia 0 LDL and total cholesterol Polydipsia thirst Polyphagia hunger Polyuria frequent urination 0 Visual changes 0 Unexplained non deliberate weight loss Vaginal yeast infections in women 39 Types of DM 0 Type 1 o Formerly called juvenile onset or insulin dependent IDDM Onset usually between 6 months to 23 years About 1 per 400600 childrenadolescents Accounts for 510 of all DM Autoimmune disease with autoantibodies to pancreatic islet cells ICA 0 Risk factors Genech Environmental toxins 0 Must be treated with exogenous insulin Injection Pump New routes of delivery 0 Type 2 o Formerly called adult onset or noninsulin dependent NIDDM o Usual onset after age 35 Is occurring at younger and younger ages 0 Affects 17 million in US Many undiagnosed 0 9095 ofall BM in US 0 Develops gradually as insulin resistance or prediabetes progresses 0 Risk factors Age Family history of DM or personal history of gestational DM Obesity Abdominal obesity Sedentary lifestyle Impaired glucose metabolism 0 Insulin resistance Raceethnicity o Prediabetes Many overweightobese persons OOOO Insulin is secreted 0 But cells are resistant to its actions Insulin resistance underlies the increased risk for CVD o HTN o T2DM o In obese persons 0 Estimated 25 of US population is insulin resistant 0 Longterm consequences Cardiovascular disease 0 BP elevated in 73 of adults with DM 0 DM contributes to dyslipidemia 0 Elevated triglycerides and VLDL 0 Elevated LDL 0 Elevated ApoB component of LDL o Decreased HDL and ApoAl 0 DM increases the risk for stroke by 24 fold Gestational DM 0 DM that develops during pregnancy Monitoring diabetes control 0 Blood glucose testing 0 Uses capillary blood grom a nger stick and a glucometer 0 Normal FBS lt 100 mgdL Goal with DM 0 Preprandial Postprandial Hemoglobin Alc 0 Measures average blood glucose over the previous 90 120 days Pre and DM HbAlc level is elevated Levels can range from lt6 to as high as 25 if DM is poorly controlled for a long time Goal for DM is lt7 0 Should be used in conjunction with daily blood glucose monitoring Recommended CHO intake 4565 of calories DV 2000 cal diet 300 grams 60 of kcal Variety of grains fruits and vegetables Moderate sugar intake no more than 10 of daily kcals 2538 gram of dietary ber High sugar intake Low nutrient content Contributes to tooth decay lf excess kcal contributes to obesity New evidence suggests that sugars may quotburn outquot the pancreas contributing to DM High ber intake 0 Better control of blood glucose 0 Possible reduced cancer risk 0 Reduced risk of heart disease Healthier gastrointestinal functioning Carbohydrates in the diet Moderating sugar intake 0 Use less added sugar 0 Limit soft drinks sugary cereals candy 0 Choose fresh fruits or those canned in water or juice Nutritive sweeteners 0 Natural vs re ned Sugar alcohols o Sorbitol o Manntol o Xylitol Less risk of caries Can cause gas and diarrhea with excess use Arti cial sweeteners Sacchann Aspartame Acesulfame K Sucralose Whole grains Include the germ and bran as well as the starchy endosperm Glycemic index Indicates how much a food or meal will raise blood glucose compared to a standard 0 Which produces a response 100 High glycemic index food or meal causes sharp rise in blood glucose Low glycemic index food or meal causes a more modest increase in blood glucose Advantages of a diet with foods in low GI Reduces risk of type 2 diabetes Helps to control blood glucose levels Reduces risk of heart disease Can aid in weight loss May reduce risk of colon cancer Resistant Starch o Resistant starch functions in the body like watersoluble ber 0 Type 1 Found in grains seeds and legumes and resists digestion because it s bound within the brous cell walls 0 Type 2 Found in some starchy foods including raw potatoes and green unripe bananas 0 Type 3 Formed when certain starchy foods potatoes and rice are cooked and then cooled Cooling turns some of the digestible starches into resistant starches via process 0 Retrogradation 0 Type 4 Manmade and formed via a chemical process Resistant starch is fermented by good bacteria in the gut 0 Appears to improve insulin sensitivity Study Guide Part III Lipids Lipids Group of organic compounds 0 Most DO NOT dissolve in water 0 Lipids in diet and human body 0 Fatty acids 0 Glycerides fatty acids glycerol acylglycerols o Phospholipids both hydrophilic and hydrophobic o lsterols ring structures In the body 0 Chief form of stored energy Emergency fuel supply Protects internal organs Insulation Cell membrane component Used to synthesize hormones and other compounds In food 0 Source of essential fatty acids 0 Carrier of fatsoluble vitamins Sensory qualities 0 Flavor 0 Mouth 0 Feel Provides satiety o Stays in stomach longer Only slowly secretes by pyloric sphincter into the duodenum Fatty acids 0 Organic molecules 0 Made up of chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms 0 Acid group at 1 end COOH and a methyl group CH3 at the opposite end 0 Variation of fatty acids 0 Chain length 424 carbons 0 Degree of saturation Saturation 0 Referring to the degree at which every possible position on the carbon chain is occupied by hydrogen atoms 0 Omega 3 0 Counting from the omega end CH3 the 3ml C4th C has a double bond 0 Omega 6 0 Counting from the omega end CH3 the 6th C7th C has a double bond 0 Omega 9 0 Same except between carbons 9 and 10 0 Degree of saturation o Unsaturated points Where hydrogen atoms are missing and replaced by double bonds 0 Saturated fatty acid SFA Fully occupied by hydrogen atoms 0 NoCC 0 Monounsaturated fatty acid Only has 1 double bond 0 Polyunsaturated fatty acid 2 or more double bonds 0 Unsaturated o Tend to be more liquid at room temp o The more unsaturated the more the liquid will stay liquid at cooler temps 0 Generally come from plants Olive oil Canola oil Peanut oil Sesame seed oil Cornsoybean oil Saf ower oil 0 Saturated vs Unsaturated fatty acids 0 Saturated fatty acids Generally more solid at room temp Tend to come from animal products 0 Butter 0 Lard o Tallow Tropical plants are also high in saturated fats Coconut 0 Palm 0 Palm kernel Hydrogenation of oils 0 Process of adding hydrogens to where there are carbon double bonds 0 Makes oils less prone to rancidity and makes them remain solid at higher temps Used primarily in making margarine 0 Partial hydrogenation also increases shelf life of veggie oils and improves baking qualities 0 This also produces trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids 0 When a double bond occurs in a fatty acid the hydrogen atoms 0 Can either be on the Same side Cis 0 Molecule has a bend to it Different sides 0 Trans 0 Molecule is straight 0 Most naturally occurring is CIS 0 Why is hydrogenation bad 0 Leads to more trans fatty acids 0 Raise blood levels of bad LDL cholesterol 0 Elevated cholesterol is linked to heart disease 0 Also have been linked to cancer 2 important kinds of PUFAs polyunsaturated fatty acids 0 2 types are the speci c precursors to important regulatory molecules 0 Known as eicosanoids We CAN T synthesize them so they are 0 ESSENTIAL in the diet Essential Fatty Acids EFAs Need 2 of calories as essential fatty acids 0 Lack of essential omega6 linoleic fatty acid 0 Scaly dry skin 0 Poor growth Sources of omega6 Vegetable oils 0 Nuts and seeds 0 ANocado 0 Lack of omega3 alphalinoleic fatty acid 0 Liver abnormalities 0 Poor healing of wounds 0 Impaired vision and hearing 0 Neuropathy Sources of omega3 Oils 0 Walnuts Salmon Triglycerides Fatty acids in food are packaged as triglycerides o Consists of 3 fatty acids The 3 fatty acids may all be the same or all different 0 Molecule of glycerol backbone 0 Food triglycerides contain various fatty acids 0 Monounsaturated fatty acids ln olive Peanut Canola oils 0 Omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids Saf ower Corn Sun ower oils 0 Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Seafood Tuna Salmon Mackerel 0 Saturated fatty acids Meats Butter Regular dairy products Tropical and palm oils
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