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personality Study Guide for Exam 2_Fall 2014

by: Reesha Patel

personality Study Guide for Exam 2_Fall 2014

Marketplace > Purdue University > personality Study Guide for Exam 2_Fall 2014
Reesha Patel
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Reesha Patel on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at Purdue University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/15
Chapter 9 Knowledge 1 Know the types of approaches for categories and the strengths and weaknesses of each membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype that represents the category prototypes are typical members of a category family resemblance things in a category resemble each other in multiple ways typicality effect the ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly prototypical objects are named rst participants tend to list the most prototypical members of the category rst prototypical objects are more affected by more priming presentation of one stimulus affects responses to a stimulus that follow advantage works best for larger categories such as birds or automobiles involves determining whether an object is similar to a standard object exemplars are actual members of the category that a person has encountered in the past thus if a person has encountered sparrows robins and blue jays in the past each of these would be an exemplar for the category birds advantage By using real examples it can more easily take into account atypical cases such as ightless birds This ability to take into account individual cases means that the exemplar approach doesn t discard information that might be useful later also deals more easily with variable categories such as games works best for smaller categories it has been proposed that as we initially learn about a category we may average exemplars into a prototype then later in learning some of the exemplar information becomes stronger what s special about basic level categories three distinguished levels of categories the global level the basic level and the speci c level hierarchical categorization categorization in which larger more general categories are divided into smaller more speci c categories creating a number of levels of categories Rosch proposed that the basic level is psychologically special because going above it to global results in a large loss of information and going below it to speci c results in a little gain of information 2 Know the difference between rulebased eg classical view and similaritybased approaches rule based approach applying a rule to solve a mechanical reasoning problem contrasts with the approaches that involve mental imagery similaritybased approaches 3 What are semantic networks How are they related to the classical view semantic networks the networks consist of nodes that are connected by links each node represents a category or concept and concepts are placed in the network so that related concepts are connected semantic network approach approach to understanding how concepts are organized in the mind that proposes that concepts are arranged in networks it is the same as the classical view without some restrictive assumption 5 What is the typicality effect What is family resemblance typicality effect the ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly family resemblance is the idea that things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways 6 Be able to identify basic categories and describe them and why they are privileged the basic level is psychologically special because going above it to global results in a large loss of information and going below it to speci c results in a little gain of information be 7 Know what the prototype amp exemplar approaches are and how they have been tested participants judged objects on a scale of 1 to 7 High prototypicality means that a category member closely resembles the category prototype closer to 1 Low prototypicality means that the category member does not closely What is wrong with similaritybased approaches 8 Understand the basics behind connectionist models of knowledge and assessments of them connectionism is an approach to creating computer models for representing concepts and their properties based on characteristics of the brain these models are also called parallel distributed processing PDP units inspired by neurons in the brain lines connections that transfer information between units and roughly represent axons in the brain input units units activated by stimuli from the environment input units D hidden units D output units connection weights determines how signals sent from one unit either increase or decrease the activity of the next unit these weights correspond to what happens at a synapse that transmits signals from one neuron to another back propagation process by which error signals are sent back to the hidden and representation units to provide information about how the connection weights should changed to that the correct property units will be activated these results also support connectionism the operation of connectionist networks is not totally disrupted by damage graceful degradation disruption of performance occurs only gradually as parts of the system are damaged connectionist networks can explain generalization of learning because similar concepts have similar patterns training a system to recognize the properties of one concept also provides information about other related concepts 9 Be familiar with the reviewed neuroscienti c ndings in categorization two examples of areas for speci c categories are the fusiform face area FFA and the parahippocampal place area PPA that responds to houses rooms and places the IT cortex which distinguishes between dogs and cats during presentation of the stimuli appears to be responding to the features and shapes of the dog and cat stimuli the PF cortex which distinguishes between dogs and cats during the delay and while the monkey is making a decision appears to be responding to more abstract properties of the stimuli that are characteristics of dogs in general or of cats in general category speci c knowledge impairment patient has trouble recognizing objects in one category patients KC and EW had trouble categorizing animals but had no problem with living things 11 Know the differences between rulebased and informationintegration categorization tasks How are they learned differently according to COVIS Are they still processed differently after extended training Chapter 10 Visual Imagery 1 Know what visual imagery is and its history in the study of psychology visual imagery is seeing in the absence of a visual stimulus early ideas about imagery proposed that images were one of the three basic elements of consciousness along with sensation and feelings He also proposed that because images accompany thought studying images was a way of studying thinking this idea of a link between imagery and thinking gave rise to the imageless thought debate whether thought is possible in the absence of images Francis observed that people who had great dif culty forming visual images were still quite capable of thinking Watson viewed images as quotunproven amp mythological and therefore not worthy of study cognitive revolution showed that it was easier to remember concrete nouns that can be imaged than it is to remember abstract nouns The technique he used was called pairedassociate learning he proposed the conceptualpeg hypothesis concrete nouns create images that other words can quothang on toquot proposed mental chronometry determining the amount of time needed to carry out various cognitive tasks 2 Be familiar with experiments that demonstrate the relationship between imagery and perception including theories of spatial vs propositional representations the correspondence is supported by a number of experiments by involving a task called mental scanning participants create a mental images and then scan them in their minds early experiment 1 asked participants to memorize a picture of an object such as a boat and then to create an image of that object in their mind and to focus on one part of the boat such as the anchor 2 They were than asked to look for another part of the boat such as the motor and press the true button when they found this part of the boat or the false button when they couldn t nd it the results of this experiment veri ed that it should take longer for participants to nd parts of the boat that are located farther from the initial point of focus proposed that as participants scanned they may have encountered other interesting parts and this distraction may have increased their reaction time second scanning experiment 1 Asked participants to scan between two places on a map 2scan between palces on the map of an island that contained 7 different locations just as in the boat experiment it took longer to scan between greater distances on the image proposed another explanation which started what has been called the imagery debate a debate whether imagery is based on spatial mechanisms or is based on mechanisms related to language 3 Speci cally know about mental rotation experiments and mental scanning Mental rotation experiments and asked participants to identify as quickly as possible if two objects were of the same objects or two different objects 4 Know the similarities and the differences between perception and imagery and how the two can be compared there is spatial correspondence between imagery and perception We act as if our mental images are physical entities 5 Understand why imagery neurons are thought to exist and what studies support their existence in an experiment by he found that neurons responded to some objects but not to others ie baseballs but not faces what s especially signi cant about these neurons is that they respond both to perceiving on object and to imagining it 6 Know what transcranial magnetic stimulation studies tell us about imagery in the brain along with evidence from neuropsychological case studies brain activation that occurs in response to imagery is not an epiphenomenon a phenomenon that accompanies a mechanism but is not actually part of the mechanism and that the brain activity in the visual cortex plays a casual role in both perception and imagery removing part of the visual cortex decreases image size patient MGS was about 15 feet from an imaginary horse before its image over owed after her right occipital lobe has been removed and she repeated the task the distance increased to 35 feet this occurred because removing part of the visual cortex reduced the size of her eld of view so the horse lled up the eld when she was farther away perceptual problems are accompanied by problems with imagery damage to the parietal lobes can cause a condition called unilateral neglect the participant ignores objects in one half of the visual eld even to the extent of shaving just one side of his face or eating only the food on one side of the plate results show that mental imagery and perception share physiological mechanisms dissociations between imagerv and perception CK was able to draw images from memory in rich detail as task that depends on imagery Interestingly when he was shown his own drawings after enough time had passed do he had forgotten the actual drawing experience he was unable to identify the objects he had drawn making sense of neuropsychological results the mechanisms of perception and imagery overlap only partially 7 Be familiar with how imagery is used to improve memory and what speci c techniques are used to improve it placing images at locations tied to its ability to created organized locations upon which memories for speci c items can be placed method of loci a method in which things to be remembered are placed at different locations in a mental image of a spatial layout associating images with words the pegword technique involves imagery by associating items with concrete words Chapter 12 Problem Solving 1 What is a problem and what is the difference between a wellde ned problem and an illde ned problem a problem occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle wellde ned problem have a correct answer certain procedures when applied correctly will lead to a solution illde ned problem do not necessarily have one correct answer and the path to their solution if often unclear 2 Know what restructuring and insight are in regard to problemsolving What are insight and noninsight problems and what is the difference between them What experiments show this restructuring the process of changing a problem s representation according to the psychologists restructuring is the key mechanism of problem solving insight the sudden realization of a problem s solution suddenly discovering a crucial element that leads to the solution insight problems experience problem solving as an quotAhaquot experience at one point they don t have the answer and the next minute they have solved the problem noninsight problems involves a more methodical process to test their hypothesis and gave participants insight problems and non insight problems and asked them to make warmth judgments every 15 seconds as they were working on the problems For the insight problems warmth ratings remain low at 2 or 3 just until the problem is solved for noninsight problems the ratings gradually increased until the problem was solved D insight problem solutions do in fact occur suddenly 3 What are examples of insight and noninsight problems When is insight most likely to occur Insight moving dots around on a triangle Noninsight connecting pieces of a chain together opening a chain costs 2 cents and closing the chain costs 3 cents you have 15 cents can you do it 4 What are xation and functional xedness What is a mental set What do they imply about problemsolving xation people s tendency to focus on a speci c characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution functional xedness restricting the use of an object to its familiar functions candle problem asked participants to use various objects to complete a task mount a candle on the chalkboard so that the candle will not drip wax onto the oor the solution occurs when the person realizes that the matchbox can be used as a support rather than as a container mental set preconceived notion about how to approach a problem There are some obstacles to problem solving 5 Be able to describe Newell and Simon s approach to problem solving and the terms they use to talk about problem solving including initial state goal state operators intermediate state problem space meansend analysis and subgoals and s approach to problem solving saw problems in terms of an initial state conditions at the beginning of a problem and a goal state the solution of the problem operators actions that take the problem from one state to another usually governed by rules intermediate state conditions after each step is made toward solving a problem problem space all possible states that could occur when solving a problem meansend analysis a way of solving a problem in which the goal is to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states subgoals small goals that help create intermediate states that are closer to the goal 6 How can the way a problem is phrased affect its difficulty Be able to describe how the acrobat problem the reverse acrobat problem and the mutilated checkerboard problem re ect this Acrobat problem took 563 minutes participants took a longer time to solve the reverse acrobat problem because a change in the directions made the problem more difficult because it was phrased differently 951 minutes mutilated checkerboard problem varied the board between blank colored black and pink and bread and butter participants in the bread and butter group solved the problem twice as fast as those in the blank group and required fewer hints 7 What does the thinkaloud protocol show us about what is happening during a person s problem solving think aloud protocol by recording people s thought processes as they are solving the problem the think aloud protocol reveals a shift in how the person perceived elements of the problem very similar to restructuring we could say that the person creates a representation of the problem that makes it easier to solve 8 Know what analogical transfer is and when it occurs Know the terms related to analogical transfer Analogical transfer transferring experience from solving one problem to solving another similar problem this transfer occurs when participants who are trying to solve a target problem are presented with a problem or story called the source problemstory Surface features speci c elements that make up the problem tumor ray Structural features the underlying principle that governs the solution weak rays are used Analogical encoding participants compare two cases that illustrate a principle Analogical paradox participants in psychological experiments tend to focus on surface features in analogy problems whereas people in the real world frequently use deeper more structural features 9 What does the way experts solve problems tell us about the way knowledge is differentially organized between experts and novices Does expertise spread to other areas Experts possess more knowledge about their elds the expert s mind contains lots oh knowledge but what s important is that this knowledge is organized so it can be accessed when needed to work on a problem ie chess master vs a novice chess player Experts knowledge is organized differently from novices novices categorize problems based on their surface features experts categorize them based on their deep structure ie physics problems Experts spend more time analyzing problems it appears that these differences between experts and novices hold only when problems are within an experts eld 10 Know how divergent and convergent thinking relate to problemsolving and which are typical of which types of problems divergent thinking thinking that s open ended involving a large number of potential solutions amp no correct answer creativity is often associated with this type of thinking illde ned problems convergent thinking thinking that works towards nding a solution to a speci c problem that usually has a correct answer associated with wellde ned problems 11 Know the three determinants of highlevel cognition as it relates to problem solving and what each contributes 12 Be able to describe the difference between an algorithm and a heuristic and when each type of problemsolving strategy is used and the pros and cons of each 13 What is the travelling salesman problem Why is this problem interesting 14 Know Wallas fourstage decomposition of creative problem solving 15 In addition to Wallas decomposition of creative problem solving what theories attempt to explain creative problem solving systematically How do these theories differ and how are they similar 16 Be able to describe the ExplicitImplicit Interaction Ell theory and how it integrates other theories of incubation and problemsolving Chapter 13 Reasoning and Decision Making 2 What is deductive reasoning sequences of statements known as syllogisms from which we can logically conclude something we can make de nite conclusions from deductive reasoning 3 What is inductive reasoning we arrive at conclusions on what is probably true based on evidence make probably conclusions from inductive reasoning 4 Understand categorical syllogisms using some examples Understand the concepts of Universal Negative Universal Affirmative Particular Negative and Particular Positive categorical syllogisms where the premises and conclusion describe the relation between two categories by using statements that being with quotall no or somequot the form of the syllogisms need to be the same so quotall birds are animals and quotall animals have four legs the two premises both start with all 5 Understand the difference between validity and truth Does truth affects participants performance when evaluating syllogisms Validity refers to a syllogism that is valid when its conclusion follows logically from its two premises validity depends on the FORM of the syllogism which determines whether the conclusion follows from the two syllogisms Truth refers to the content of the premises which have to be evaluated to determine whether they are consistent with the facts so saying quotall animals have four legs would not be true 6 What is an algorithm What is a heuristic Know the common heuristics and their examples related to deductive reasoning 7 Understand conditional reasoning using some examples Know the valid and invalid inferences in conditional reasoning Be familiar with the Wason card selection task Wason 4Card Problem four cards are shown and each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other side your task is to indicate which cards you would need to turn over to test the following rule if there is a vowel on one side then there is an even number on the other side 53 of participants indicate that E needs to be turned over which is true only 4 of participants came up with the right answer that the second card that needs to be turned over is the 7 because revealing a vowel would discon rm the rule falsi cation principle to test a rule it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule only two cards needed to be turned over to test the rule for the wason card problem 8 What is the con rmation bias tendency to look for info that con rms our hypothesis and overlook the information that argues against it 9 Know the common heuristics and their examples availability representativeness availability heuristic events that are more easily rememberd are judged as being more probable than events that are less easily remembered representativeness heuristic probability that A is a member of class B can be determined by how well the properties of A resembles the proerties we usually associate with class B 10 Know the most common biases resulting from the heuristics eg baserate neglect conjunction fallacy anchoring effect focusing illusion etc illusory correlation correlation appears to exist between two events but there really is no correlation


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