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Notes from January 15th to January 29th

by: Anchy Sanan

Notes from January 15th to January 29th ENG 212

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Anchy Sanan
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Comprehensive notes of Prof. Hurtado's lecture. Includes all the missing points from the powerpoints, and more. Pretty much everything she has gone over.
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This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anchy Sanan on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENG 212 at University of Miami taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.

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Date Created: 02/02/15
PSY 230 01152015 Chapter 1 Introduction to Child and Adolescent Development Stability vs Plasticity Stability the degree to which children maintain their same rank order in comparison to other children with respect to some characteristic Plasticity can talk about it in terms of traits Plasticity of traits the ability to change as a result of experience Neuroplasticity brain plasticity 0 When it is subject to damage does it have the ability to recover o The ability to recover from damage 0 Ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways 0 Research shows that there are new areas where new brain cells are regenerated I If damage occurs to a particular area the brain has the ability to reorganize the neural pathway and new synapses are formed to recover from that damage I Someone with a stroke is able to recover because new synapses are formed U The brain is plastic and can recover from damage U The younger you are when the damage occurs the more plastic your brain is D It also depends on the age and time of the damage the severity and the duration of the damage and the type of damage Phenotype plasticity the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype o A genotype is what your genetic code says and a phenotype is what gets expressed 0 Anything that is specifically genetic and has no influence from the outside I Eye color not monogenetic 0 Nutrition and hair color can be affected by external factors I Hair color can be changed by exposure to chlorine age and environment U Example of something that has a high phenotype plasticity Intelligence has to be developed and realized How much of intelligence is inherited and how much is genetic When we say that it is stable we are implying that it is genetic There are outside influences like health and nutrition Child that is severely malnourished His brain will be affected and he will not be as intelligent as he could have been if he had gotten nourishment Intelligence is stable but there are also outside factors like social and cultural influences The opportunities that are presented to us Con nuous Propose quantitative changes Changes occur over time Non stage continuity theory An example is height 0 The older the child the taller they are Discontinuous Proposes that development proceeds in a step like fashion The stage theories are discontinuous Qualitative changes occur from one stage to the next ls child development continuous or discontinuous It s both Locomotion develops in a discontinuous way 0 Babies don t move at all and then they crawl and walk and then run Our teeth development are discontinuous 0 Babies are born and they get teeth which then fall out before new teeth come in Skeletal development is continuous 0 As children get older their bones get stronger Language is an example of continuous development Piaget is the most development psychologist of time He developed the theory of cognitive development Interested in how children think and he was the first one to look at their thinking as qualitatively different from that of adults One of his stages has to do with symbolic thinking 0 A young baby cannot think symbolically I It develops eventually and one of the ways they begin to understand that is through play U Role playpretending 0 As children get towards adolescent they re able to think abstractly and hypothetically I Quality of adolescent thinllting Nature vs Nurture The extremes are called empiricism and nativism Empiricism is 0 All nurture Total plasticity and an infinite ability to change our mind and our behavior Behaviorism is linked with empiricism We are born tabula rasa and everything we become is learnt Nativism is All nature Holds that behaviors is programmed into the brain and inherited Infant core knowledge and Chomsky s language theory are nativism Interactionism both nature and nurture interact to produce development Epigenisis talltes interaction a bit further Not only do they interact but our genetics changes based on our environment All development is the produce of epigensis DNA is the material where your genetic code is listed Located in your chromosomes in every single cell of your body The epigneome states there is more to it that just DNA and genetics The DNA is influenced by the environment Epigenetics Methyl groups are chemicals that tag FNA and they can dictate which genes are inactive and which ones get activated The DNA is wrapped around histones and those are the genes that are inac ve When it is loosely wrapped around genes those genes are activated Other molecules can attach to histone tails to unwind them The epigneome is flexible and can be influenced by the environment ExperienceExpectant vs ExperienceDependent Abilities Experience expectant processes are those that all members of a species will learn to do The brain is hardwired to expect certain stimuli in order for the skill to develop Your ability to see depends on your exposure to light When you are a baby you have to be exposed to light in order to see A different type of ability is experience dependent process All members of a species do not develop experience dependent abilities The development of abilities depends on experience Areas that are not used will wither and die 0 Ability to speak a language is experience dependent I Not everyone will learn it but those who are exposed to it will learn Sensitive and Critical Period A sensitive period is a bit longer than critical period The critical period for language development is during early childhood It becomes harder to learn languages as you grow older Prenatal development first trimester is when the embryo or fetus is most susceptible to toxins and environmental factors We re talking about a window of opportunity for growth The growth of an organism is most susceptible to harm Timing is Everything Liclltliter 1990 looked at bobwhite quail hatchlings A fetus can hear and that ability develops prenatally Vision does not develop till after birth Quails imprint on their mothers is by the sound of the voice and they recognize them right away 0 One of the theories for recognition is that they heard it before they hatched o Liclltliter wanted to know what would happen if you exposed hatchlings to visual stimulation before they were born I He removed part of the eggshell of the experimental group and exposed them to light The other part wasn39t exposed to light I He found that the chicks that had been given visual stimulation could see much better than the other group but they couldn t recognize the voice of their mother I Implies that during development is when there is a certain time for some things to develop and the reason why we don t develop vision prenatally is because we need to develop heanng I By exposing the hatchlings to visual stimulation their auditory development was hampered Lesson to learn is that earlier experience is not always important How can this be applied to the development of children That earlier experience isn t always important Children who are doing certain types of activities can actually damage or hurt their environment and can stunt their growth A childbaby won t do something before they are ready How can this process be applied to cognitive development Some parents think they are helping their child by pushing their child to learn certain skills before they are ready Earlier is not necessarily better 0 Keeping a child home when he should be out playing and you try to teach him how to read you may be hurting their development The First Years Fallacy In the 1980 s there was research that looked at the brain development They determined that critical period for brain development is age 0 3 You need to expose your baby to as much stimulation as possible if you want them to do well Recommendations were made Early literacy letter lltnowledge word recognition Early math numbers and operations Written expression Motivation to read They put rats in stimulating vs non stimulating environments They found that stimulation made a difference in brain development The research was applied to kids We know that the brain continues to develop through life and that the window is not closed One of the claims made was that by the time a child is ten his brain is fried 0 Not true Some of the research led to the head start program where they put kids in pre nursery pre llt programs and the early thinllting behind these programs was that these kids needed to be stimulated The window does not close The Importance of Play Children need to play It is theirjob and how they learn It s where they develop social skills and how to behave around others They learn to become more independent and how to role play They learn things like gender roles and different interests They learn co ordination o By playing with objects and learning how to manipulate them they learn how the world works and how objects behave 0 They learn muscle co ordination and body movements I Co ordination of body movements is also linked to thoughts U Both are in the cerebellum They learn to play independently and more about self awareness and how to get their needs met Play is important for development They need to be given time to play and toys to play with Normative versus Idiographic Normative focuses on normal development Research looks at what all children have in common The idiographic looks at abnormal child development and atypical development What makes this child different from this child One of the main sources is cultural differences SocioCultural Influences You have to look at the family environment heritage ethnicity language customs etc All of these things influence development What might be adaptive in one culture might be maladaptive in another culture Cross cultural research is geared towards understanding what are the things that are true for all children regardless of the culture that they live in Huge body of research that focuses specifically on this issue Resilience vs maladaptive development How can a child that is brought up in a bad environment do well 0 Relationship is a protective factor 0 A child would need a solid relationship and stable factor Severe Adversity in Early Childhood There is a lot of research that says that even children that are brought up in bad environments when they are brought into good homes they do really well There is other research that is unclear and indicates that the damage is irreversible Children brought up in severe environments develop mental retardation So what is the difference between the environments and how the children do It depends on o The timing of deprivation the age of the child The type of maltreatment of abuse sexual neglect The duration The severity The Childs individual factors and subjective interpretation Opportunities and resources provided to the child 000000 The specific outcomes PSY 230 01202015 Chapter 2 Theories and Contexts of Development Behaviorism The classic behaviorists are Skinner Pavlov and Watson Behavior theory believes that everything that a child becomes is learnt from the environment Very little focus on genetics and cognition and what39s going on behind the scenes The focus was on observable and observable behavior There are two different theories Classical Conditioning stimulus and response 0 Pavlov s Dog I Pavlov believed that our behavioral responses are learnt I Unconditioned stimulus and food I Pavlov paired a conditioned stimulus ringing of bell and unconditioned stimulus food and used it on dogs 0 Little Albert I Whenever Little Albert was shown an animal and a loud noise was sounded the boy learnt how to be scared I Unethical study Watson had every intention of deconditioning Little Albert but he moved away and never got the opportunity Radical Behaviorism Operant Conditioning the theory developed by Skinner 0 Did the most influential work and is called a radical behaviorist o Believed that all behavior is learnt and that you should be able to observe o Focuses on reward and punishment I Negative or positive reinforcement I You are increasing the behavior I You are decreasing the behavior by positive reinforcement I Negative reinforcement is when you increase the behavior by taking something away I Skinner believed that reinforcement worked way better than punishment B One of the main reasons is that when you punish a child the idea is for the child to learn U Providing reinforcement gives rewards and motivations for that behavior U Using punishment shows how to avoid the punishment They learn how to avoid not the intended lesson U The Skinner box had a lever that could be pressed and delivered a reward For animals mainly rat Rat learnt how to press the level to get a reward Measured their response rate 0 Some boxes gave punishment for wrong things Skinner Influence Developed a teaching device that would ask questions and reward the right answer He also observed how children are active learners and in what environments do children learn best Children are not passive learners they learn best by participation and being ac ve Believed that children needed to be motivated to learn by providing them with rewards o Opportunity to move on to the next lesson There are a few reasons that teachers fail They use aversive techniques Rely on telling and explaining Failing to adapt learning tasks to the students learning level Failing to provide positive reinforcement Applied Behavior Analysis It s a relatively new techniqueapproach primarily used for treating children with forms of autism and behavioral problems It teaches them new responses and elimination of negative problems The analysis part of it is the teachersprofessionals that are trained in ABA Constantly charting and plotting the techniques and successfailure Specific and individualized for each child Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Social learning and cognitive theory As his social theory developed he added a cognitive theory on top of that Bobo doll experiments The children in his experiments viewed either an aggressive or a non aggressive role model same or different sex Non aggressive role model was interaction with the doll while the aggressive role model was hitting and punching Children were put in room and their behavior was observed 0 Were children who had the aggressive role model picking up to be aggressive as well Children need conditioning for behavior He noted that when the children had the aggressive role model they were aggressive 0 He also noted that the male children were more aggressive than the females 0 Children of both sexes were more likely to imitate a male role model I Women are supposed to be more nurturing and not as aggressive more of a time period thing I It was much more common for the father to be the disciplinarian I Males are taller bigger and stronger and have deeper voices Therefore a male looks and sounds more like an authority figure than a female U Explains why the children imitated that behavior 0 The children picked up on their environment and subconsciously picked up on that ldea that children learn through observation and that no reinforcement is needed We can learn from observance Transference of learning Children imitated the behavior that they saw and learnt more novel ways of being aggressive Information Processing Theories These are different theories than the learning theories Looks at cognition and what39s going on behind the scenes Asks questions like what behavior children are engaging in and how do children learn to think on their own How does thinking develop and our ability to process develop The mind and the computer The only way that humans receive information are through 0 The five senses Theory says that information comes in the person processes it and then the information is either stored or discarded Stored information can be accessed at a later time Automatic vs effortful processing Some of our processing doesn t involve any effort comes naturally Effortful processing takes a lot of control and a lot of effort Things fall in between the spectrum of effortful and automatic Something that is effortful can become automatic 0 Learning how to drive a car Serial vs parallel processing Use the analogy of a computer Things are processed one at a time Parallel processing means that things can be processed at the same time 0 Being able to drive and interact with someone at the same time or being able to drive and text Serial processing means that things are processed one at a time Limited Capacity No matter how good you get at something there is a point where you can no longer process something or use any more effort than you are using Think about the concept of multitasking 0 You re not really doing more than one thing at the same time Standard Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin s came up with sensory memory STM and LTM Sensory memory refers to information that comes in and is stored for a fraction of a second If you pay attention to it it becomes a part of your STM STM is where your memory is and where your thoughts are at that time Sometimes things move from STM to your LTM 0 Not everything in STM gets stored there The things that are stored in LTM might or might not be accessible in the future Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Interested in how children thinllt Looked at the children themselves How children lltnew stuff and how they knew it o How was their thinking uniquedifferent from that of adults Children lltnow fewer things than adults and also know it in a different way His theory evolved from his researchwork which had his own children as subjects Observed the thinking processes of his own kids His theories were stage theories and he discovered four different stages of cognitive development Sensory motor stage birth to age 2 the infant s intelligence is limited to their sensory and motor experiences 0 Receive information from senses and react with environment Preoperational 2 6 years old children develop language and use it to express intelligence and themselves 0 Intelligence is symbolic as is language 0 Words are used to stand for things and objects and concepts 0 Children in this stage start to use objects as pretend I Le a broom is a guitar Symbolism U Developing their cognitive ability in being able to use symbolism Concrete operations 6 11 years old intelligence is logical o A child is going to start understanding logic 0 Filling different shapes with the same amount of liquid and asking which one is more Formal operations 11 16 years is when children learn how to think in the abstract and hypothetically 0 It s not just logical but it s also what could be Piaget believed that there was an underlying continuity Freud39s Psychosexual Development Freud claimed that children have repressed sexual desire for their parents of the opposite sex and have resentment towards the parent of the same sex The boy will want to avoid his father and obtainmarry his mother Oedipus complex ID drives superego logical and morality and ego reason Freud is the father of psychoanalysis Said that people repress things which show up later on in life Before Freud mentally ill people were basically put in strait jackets and were put in ice water and were given lobotomies He was the first one to approach the problem in a human way Developed psychoanalysis which stated that people were mentally ill because they were repressing traumatic thoughts Most of our therapy techniques have evolved from Freud and his techniques He is also responsible for the defense mechanisms 12 persons coping technique and also for dreams our dreams are our unconscious worllting things out He was overly focused on sexuality and was also addicted to many things He apparently didn t understand women and called them the Dark Continent Claimed women were envious of men because they didn t have penises He didn t like to be challenged and was stubborn He also developed the five stages of child development All sexual Oral Anal Phallic Latency and Genital He focused on sex as the source of pleasure Oral phase birth to 18 months the child is focused on oral pleasure ie sucking o If children weren t given the appropriate amount would get an oral fixation of having something in their mouth I Smoking eating nail biting Anal phase 1 8 months to three years the phase where the child becomes potty trained and the focus of pleasure is on eliminating and retaining feces 0 Children need to learn this ability Freud saw it as a source of pleasure 0 Children could become anal retentive and anal expulsive I e Anal retentive for people who are picllty and OCD like and anal expulsive for messy and disorganized people Phallic three to six years pleasure zone is focused in the genitals Oedipus and Electra complex Latency six to puberty sexual urges quieted down and it became a time for social development Genital puberty on sexual urges return and we become interested in people of the opposite sex Erikson39s Psychosocial Theory His theory of development took everything a step further His focus was on psychosocial development and not the sexual focus His focus was on the person s identity and their role in society Personality develops through a lifetime His theory looks into adulthood He had eight stages and he believed that in each stage we have a particular crisis to overcome Some people get stuck in an age and the earlier you get stuck in an age the worse off you are You can go back later and go back and fix the crisis and the mistake made Refer to the ppt for the different stages In infancy the baby is born and it relies completely on someone else to keep it alive and warm Learns by either having its needs met or not met The next stage is autonomy vs shame and doubt which refers to things like potty training and self maintenance Getting stuck in that age leads to the child becoming shameful During adolescence is when identity comes into play ie who am I What do I want to become And so forth Vygotsky CulturalHistorical Psychology Russian psychologist that did some important work He was interested in how the child is shaped by social forces His theory is called cultural historical How does the society influence child How do adults and teachers shape how the child develops He looked at the child in context and in school and he said that teaching and learning is tied to what is valued in the culture Will learn what to think about based on the culture in which they are raised The way that a child develops in one culture is different from the way he would develop in another culture Culture shapes a child39s thinking Zone of proximal development A child alone inside circle is what the child can develop by themselves The larger circle is the zone which is what the child can accomplish with help from someone If you go outside the zone or are too far away from what the children can accomplish alone you are working beyond the child The idea is to know what the child can do without help and where the zone is The concept of scaffolding is similar and is giving help to the child as they are learning and then bacllting off as they become adept at it Think of it kind of like a puzzle 0 You do it with them ie developing strategies before you back off Brofenbrenner39s Ecological System Theory He said that development is the result of continuous and progressive interaction between an active and changing child and environment Microsystem interacts directly with the child family school and neighborhood children Mesosystem microsystems interact with each other the child39s friends interact with the child39s family the family interacts with the school Exosystem interacts with the microsystems extended family mass media social services worlltplace influence is indirect Eg how the parent s worlltplace influences the child Macrosystem broader culture government ethnicity SES Chronosystem says that everything changes over time ie the systems change over time which affects the child PSY 230 01222015 Human Evolution Evolution the process of change in gene frequencies within populations over many generations Adaptation and natural selection Assumes more members of a species are born than will survive and reproduce Conditions in the environment cause some members to survive others not Inherited traits of survivors are passed on Over time produces new species It is likely that in a million years another species will evolve from humans that is more intelligent and more adaptable Why are we talking about evolution Because we talk about how traits are evolving Just like traits behavior also evolves as does intelligence What makes us human and how is it that we are able to think 0 We refer to evolution to help us look at that process In the other theories that we ve talked about we ve talked about the how The evolutionary theory answers the how and the why o It improves our chances of survival or our chances of reproductions Evolutionary psychology helps us understand how our genetics interact with our environment and how our species has evolved over time Example the ability to think symbolically is necessary to learn about language which is a unique quality in humans How is language adaptive o It allows us to communicate and increases our chances of survival and reproduction Chapter 3 Genetics I Mendelian Inheritance Mendel studied pea plants and recorded their traits Looked at the different traits ie height and color and observed that when you breed a yellow pea with a green pea the offspring was always yellow Breeding of the yellow pea with other yellow peas led to the development of green peas Came up with the concept of dominant and recessive Described two laws Law of segregation for each trait there are two elements of heredity one from maternal plant one from paternal plant accurate Law of independent assortment believed all traits are inherited independently not exactly accurate 0 Most of our traits are polygenetic Punnett Square A way of visually representing the probability of genetics in offspring Genetics DNA double helix is this material that is found in the chromosomes of every cell in ourbody The same set of code is found in the nucleus of every single cell in our body It contains the genetic code which is a combination of four bases Adenosine Thiamine Guanine and Cytosine The code determines who we are and what we look like The code is made up of combinations of these bases A chromosome is where the DNA is located We have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs in all of our cells 22 pairs are autosomes chromosomes that make up our body and 1 pair of sex chromosomes XX or XY Genes are basically segments of DNA Some of them are very long while some are very short segments It tells the body what kind of protein to make 0 Proteins are the building blocks of growth and development I Skin hair etc The genetic code is telling the body what kind of proteins to make and when and where and how Human Genome Project An effort that came to in the 1990 s The purpose of this project is to Analyze the function of genes and proteins To determine differences in the genetic makeup of individuals For gene therapy and genetic research to cure disease The findings are still unclear and our human genome has 32 billion base pairs and 20500 genes We have non coding DNA Genes make up only 2 of the genome The rest of it is junk DNA 0 Composed of things that we no longer have and ancient viruses that we were exposed to vestigial organs that we no longer use I We have the genetic code for gills and so forth 0 Hox genes and gap genes I Basically instruction genes that tell other genes when to turn on and where to turn on Genotype and Phenotype Genotype is basically the genetic code For blue eyes the genetic code is bb For blue eyes B is dominant and any pair with a B in it will have brown eyes Co dominant Refers to blood type ie A B AB and O Polygenetic inheritance Most traits are multi genetic If you have genes in addition to other genes you have the trait eg hair color eye color skin color Epigenetic Most traits are multifactorial Influenced by genetics and the environment Heritability The extent to which differences in any trait are attributable to inheritance Most traits are not only influenced by genetics Family studies were used to determine correlations e twins raised together raised apart siblings raised together etc A formula is used to calculate heritability Factor ranges from O to 1 Correlation of identical twins is taken and the correlation of non identical traits is taken and subtracted and then multiplied by 2 H r identical twins r non identical twins x 2 Heritability is a population statistic Genetic Disorders Genetic disorders a disease caused by a change in the normal DNA sequence or a mutation Monogenetic disorders Involve the inheritance of a mutated disease causing gene Dominant such as Huntington s disease requires inheritance from only one parent Recessive such as sickle cell disease cystic fibrosis and Tay Sachs disease requires inheritance from both parents Multifactorial inheritance disorders A combination of inherited variations in genes often acting together with environmental factors Heart disease diabetes and most cancers SickleCell Anemia Sickle cell anemia monogenetic recessive inheritance Sickle cell anemia need to have it from both parents to have the disease Sickle cell trait Sickle cell anemia is a co dominant genetic disorder o If you have the mutation from one parent and the gene for a normal RBC from another parent you have a combination 0 Le you have the trait but not a full blown disorder Co dominance both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition Carriers have both round and sickle shaped cells The disease have a survival advantage Sickle cells are protective against malaria Occurs most commonly in tropical and sub Saharan populations where malaria is common SexLinked Inheritance Sex linked inheritance Traits that are inherited through the sex chromosomes Usually inherited on the X chromosome Can be dominant or recessive usually recessive X inlted inheritance Phenotype more common in males Women must inherit two recessive genes to be affected Men who inherit one recessive gene are affected Examples color blind hemophilia If the dad is color blind then a girl can be colorblind A father cannot pass coor blindness to his son Much more common in males than it is in females Chromosomal Abnormalities The most common chromosomal abnormality is Down syndrome Extra chromosome on the 21st pair 0 Also known as trisomy 21 They have distinctive facial features and intellectual impairments The risk increases with the age of the mother Autosomal Abnormalities Prader Willi can occur in males and females Chromosome 15 from the father Some of the genes don t work Distinctive facial features narrow temples elongated face thin upper lip prominent nose Other features cognitive impairment short stature incomplete sexual development small hands and feet problem behavior aways hungry XChromosomal Abnormalities Turner syndrome is an XO which means that there is only one X chromosome and the other is either partially there or missing Distinctive features neclt webbing short stature droopy eyes low hairlines no puberty specific cognitive impairment in spatial and math associated health problems The most common feature is webbing of the neck Fragile X can occur in boys and girls Caused by a repeat in a genetic sequence on the X chromosome Distinctive features intellectual impairment behavioral problems some physical features large ears autistic behaviors lillte stereotypic movement and social anxiety One of the known genetic causes of autism 15 50 of fragile X get diagnosed with autism YChromosomal Abnormalities Klinefelter s which is XXY Pretty common in males These individuals are considered genetically male 0 Phenotype is female or intersex With intersex the sex is ambiguous 0 Some parts that are male ad some parts that are female Lot of things that cause intersex XYY Syndrome The phenotype is normal Most people do not know they have it They may have accelerated growth and may be taller than average Chapter 3 Prenatal Development Fertilization Sperm Created by the tests and carries genetic code from the father Smallest cell in the human body Created by the ovaries and carries the genetic code from the mother Largest cell in the human body Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes One sperm fertilizes one ovum Germinal phase begins Zygote Single cell joined sperm and egg Begins travel to uterus Prenatal Development There are three stages of prenatal development Germinal Period 1 2 weeks Embryonic Period 2 8 weeks Fetal Period 2 9 months 9 38 weeks Twins Monozygotic twins 0 Early in cell division 0 Separates into two unique clusters 0 100 genetically similar Dizygotic twins 0 Two eggs are fertilized by two sperms 0 50 genetically similar PSY 230 01272015 Germinal Period Days 1 14 In looking at the sex of the baby the sperm determines the sex It has either an X or a Y Cell differentiation occurs on day 4 Every single cell has the same set of genes In some cells the genes get activated to become other cells 0 What helps a single celled organism turn into a baby Blastocyst is when the cells move to the outside and a hollow sphere is made The blastocyst hatches out of its membrane and this is reminiscent of hatching The membrane protecting it is hatched and the outer membrane is soft and ready for implantation Part of the cells of the blastocyst will become the placenta 0 Will integrate with the lining of the uterus I Placenta made up of mom s cells and the baby s cells Blastocyst Phase In the blastocyst phase the zygote forms into a hollow sphere and the inner cells become an embryo and the outer cells become the placenta The phase ends at implantation Organogenesis The embryonic stage is from weellts three to eight The germinal period is from fertilization to implantation The main thing that happens is the generation of the organs organogenesis The outer layer of the blastocyst becomes the ears the nervous system the eyes and the skin Embryonic Period Weeks 3 8 Refer to the ppt for the breakdown At the end of the embryonic period the embryo is now called a fetus There is also a yolk sac provides nutrients that dries up leaving the fetus dependent on the placenta Placenta Fetomaternal organ The fetal placenta develops from the blastocyst The maternal placenta that developed from the uterus Func ons Provide nutrients Waste elimination Gas exchange It also filters against infections toxins some can get through 0 Also allows the passage of the mother s antibodies so that it has immunities once it is born It also produces hormones to support the pregnancy Fetal Periods Weeks 9 38 Primary focus is growth and sensory development All the organ systems have already been created by week 12 fetal period You can differentiate between the male and female genitals Week 16 is when sex differences are definitive even then a mistake can be made A specific gene called SRY triggers the development of male sex organs Absence of the gene leads to the development of female sex organs Quickening is when the baby moves Week 22 24 is the age of viability It means that the baby can survive if it was born at that time While the baby might survive being born at that time period there are developmental risks and cognitive problems that may be encountered Weeks 24 38 are when the fetus is growing Everything has been made The only things that are left to develop are the lungs o The lungs aren t developed in a premature birth and it can be difficult for the baby to breathe I Means there isn t enough oxygen circulating which can cause brain damage About 24 weeks the fetus can hear and taste They hiccup yawn and suck their thumbs gns of Labor The fetus releases hormones that signal birth When the lungs are mature production of progesterone decreases The placenta releases oxytocin which stimulates contractions which is what gets the labor going Braxton hicks contractions indicate false labor True labor is indicated by contractions that are more frequent and closer together Having your water break can also indicate labor The amniotic sac breaks and the water come out o Kind of like a slow trickle After the sac breaks labor is sped up The other thing that can happen that is an indication of labor is the loss of a mucus plug The cervix has a little opening into the womb and there is mucus thick coating that protects the womb and keeps stuff from going in and contaminating When it separates and comes out it s a thick and bloody mask 0 That the cervix is starting to thin and efface Birthing options are natural and cesarean Sometimes a C section has to be performed for medical reasons There are benefits to having a natural birth Once the baby is born they need to take their first breaths When they take their first breath the lungs are filled with air instead of fluid One of the most common reasons for a C section is placenta previa which is that the placenta is in the way of the cervix keeping the baby from being born Lying down is not the best position Lot of women sit and squat and use gravity to help the baby be born Water birth is somewhat debatable as to whether or not it is beneficial to give birth in a pooloratub It s supposed to be less traumatic for the baby 0 Go into the water breathe in water and then take their first breath The argument is that breathing in water that isn t amniotic fluid can introduce germs that will affect the baby s birth Women who have water births are more likely to birth at home If there are any medical complications you can t be rushed off to the OR 0 Higher risk There are assistances to help out with birth A midwife someone who has experience with births or a doula similar to a midwife but more of a coach they re there for support throughout the labor process The use of anesthesia in he form of an epidural Some women chose to not have any anesthesia Labor Stage 1 Labor is divided into three stages The first stage has three phases Latent phase the contractions are increasing and gaining regularity o The cervix effaces and opens up dilate o It can last from a couple of hours to days Active phase 0 The cervix does most of the dilation 8 9 cm 0 Baby is delivered at 10cm 0 Lasts a few hours Transition phase is full dilation 0 Baby moves into the birth canal Delivery The second stage is when the baby crowns and is delivered It can take several cycles of push and rest before the baby is born The third stage is the passage or the expulsion of the placenta The placenta is still inside and the umbilical cord is still attached The placenta gets passed around half an hour later The vernix caseosa acts as a moisturizer and protects the baby Fontanelles is the soft spot on the head of the baby The skull is made up of five bony plates These plates are not fused together yet and part of the reason is that the head needs to fit through the canal o The head gets smushed 0 There are spaces between the plates to allow for the pushing The brain grows rapidly after the baby is born and the fontanelles allows the brain to grow rapidly without reaching the limit of the skull Around 18 months the plates have fused together and there is no more soft spot The largest soft spot is in the front and is shaped like a diamond o If there is a depression it could mean that the baby is sick or dehydrated o Encephalitis swelling of the brain and meningitis will cause the fontanelles to protrude PSY 230 01292015 Chapter 3 The Neonate Ill Trimesters Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters The first trimester is the highest risk in terms of miscarriage exposure to teratogens Also the time when the mom is going to have pregnancymorning sickness One of the reasons she gets queasy is the risk to the developing embryo 0 May have aversion to certain foods and drinks The second trimester is the easiest trimmest She starts to show and feels the baby move No longer sick The last three months is when the baby is doing the most growing and it can get uncomfortable for the mother If you look at the baby s perspective pregnancy lasts 38 days The mother starts counting from the day of her last period The beginning of her last period and conception Maternal Risk Factors Age is a risk factor for things like pre term labor and so forth If the mother is under 20 she is also at risk for low birth weight increased risk for miscarriage Lack of social support Things that affect the lifestyle of the baby are Nutrition and stress In areas where there was a famine there was a higher risk of low birth weight pre term delivery and other risks associated with malnutrition The risk factor for low birth weight carries on to the next generation If you were a pre term baby you are more likely to have a pre term baby Stress is linked to all sorts of health outcomes Pre eclampsia is a condition in which the mother has high blood pressure which can cause the death of the mother and the baby o If the blood pressure cannot be managed they will induce labor because if they don t the mother will die It can also cause problems with nutrition and weaken the moms and the baby s immune system Prenatal care is extremely important A woman who gets prenatal care lowers her risk Prenatal vitamins are very high in folic acid Teratogens Includes a whole host of things that are toxic to the fetus lillte bleach ammonia and alcohol Any kind of infection or disease that can affect the outcome of the pregnancy Over the counter medicine and prescription medicine Birth defects occur in 3 5 of all births 10 of the birth defects are caused by teratogens Due to environmental exposures Outcomes are Premature delivery and low birth weight Congenital malformation Cognitive impairment and mental retardation 0 Slow growth and development Cleft lip and cleft palate Fetal alcohol syndromeeffects Death Cleft palate occurs in I in every 750 births and it is highly treatable Rh Factor Incompatibility Rh positive means that there is a protein added to your blood type When the mother is Rh positive the fetus can be wither Rh positive or negative If the mother is positive and the baby isn t the proteins pass through the placenta and the mother s immune system don t recognize the baby and will form antibodies to attack the fetus There aren t enough antibodies to attack the fetus in the first pregnancy A second pregnancy can be at risk if the same thing happens After the first baby is born the woman is given a shot to kill the antibody and make the next pregnancy safer Gestational Diabetes The pregnancy is recognized by the woman s body as a foreign substance and a foreign body Her body will reject something like that The fetus has developed ways to protect itself One of the things it does is it produces a hormone that prevents the mother from aborting the fetus It also sends out through the placenta out arteries into the placenta that don t allow the mothers arteries to constrict One of the ways the mother s body would try to abort the baby is by restricting blood supply The fetus gets what it needs If the mother isn t getting enough nutrition the fetus will get what it needs and the mother s body will suffer Once the fetus controls blood flow it creates a hormone that decreases the effectiveness of insulin in the mother s blood Human placental lactogen Makes glucose more readily available for itself The excess sugar in her body can cause her to develop gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes can cause the baby to be over weight Prevents natural delivery The baby can also have low blood sugar jaundice and even seizures and stillbirth Once the baby is born the gestational diabetes goes away In some cases she might be at higher risk for diabetes Ultrasound Almost everyone who is pregnant gets an ultrasound Sound waves are used to take images of the baby Mostly used for diagnostic purposes measuring the size of the baby birth defects measuring the due date etc Sometimes the ultrasound can detect the sex of the baby Not totally reliable There are also 3 d and 4 d ultrasounds Alphafetoprotein A blood test that is conducted to see the level of this protein Too much protein could lead to defects lillte Spinal bifida It is a screening test not a diagnostic test t screens people who are at higher risk for having a neural tube defect A positive result doesn t mean your baby has a neural tube defect Spina bifida is also not that uncommon 1750 It is caused by the neural tube somewhere along the spinal column There is an opening in the tube that doesn t close 0 Whole range of severities from completely undetectable to extremely severe part of the spinal column actually comes out The defect itself is treatable however the neural tube needs to be intact for the development of muscles and nerves in the feet and the arms They can fix the actual opening but they can t repair the damage done during development Folic acid can help prevent spina bifida o Deficiency is linked to this defect They are trying to identify the defects during pregnancy Doing surgery on the developing fetus to fix the defect in utero Physical disabilities and paralysis are the most common outcomes Amniocentesis A small needle is stuck in the abdomen Amniotic fluid is extracted which contains some of the fetuses DNA It allows them to see genetic defects and study the DNA Slight risk of miscarriage 05 Women who are over 35 are advised to have this test Chorionic Villi Sampling They do a chromosomal and genetic study on the baby Benefit is that it can be done earlier than an amniocentesis There is a higher risk for a miscarriage with this kind of a test Fetoscopy A small camera is put at the end of the needle and is used to detect problems like birth defect and to pull out some of the amniotic fluid for a genetic study Done after the 18th week of pregnancy Has been used to do intrauterine surgery and to do biopsies Much higher risk of miscarriage 3 5 Newborn Assessment The newborn should be crying There are certain things that they look for to determine the general health of the baby but also to see if the newborn needs medical attention Is it in distress Is it not breathing well The infant should be crying should be pink in color should be irritable and they should have an active muscle tone flexed and not flaccid The Apgar test was developed by Dr Virginia Apgar to study the effects of obstetric anesthesia on babies Version of the test s used in in the delivery room one minute after the baby is born and then five minutes APGAR It has been turned into an acronym as a way to remember the different things being measured A for appearance P for pulse G for grimace A for activity R for respiration The baby is given either a O or a 2 on each activity Refer to the chart in the ppt They add up the score and obtain a total 3 or less critical condition and needs immediate medical assistance 4 6 points kind of a medium score and an indication to keep an eye on things 0 Certain interventions like clearing the lungs 7 or more the baby is fine Birth weight Low birth weight LBW under 55 pounds Very low birth weight VLBW under 3 pounds 5 ounces Extremely low birth weight ELBW under 2 pounds 3 ounces The number keeps getting lower and lower as technology is improving We re able to save more and more babies and a lot of them are developing normally The consequences of LBW Development delays Visual and hearing impairment Cognitive difficulties Behavioral problems Gestational Age A term pregnancy is categorized into weeks Based on the 40 week mark Early term 37 weeks 38 weeks 6 days Full term 39 weeks 40 weeks 6 days Late term 41 weeks 41 weeks 6 days Post term Between 42 weeks 0 days and beyond Post term can be serious because the baby can get too big Cannot be delivered naturally Amniotic fluid gets low which can affect the organ systems They operate to get the baby out Pre term delivery is highly associated with LBW Their lunges aren t developed and breathing is a big problem for them Babies that are born 3 weeks before their due date are considered to be preterm 0 They will be small Risks are troubled breathing more prone to infections cognitive development cerebral palsy SGA Small for gestational age The baby can be full term but still be LBW If a baby is full term if they are too small then they are considered SGA Babies that are SGA are usually a result of malnutrition drug use smoking etc Fathers They make a difference in both the outcome and the pregnancy but also in the outcome of the baby 40 of women are unmarried 42 of the unmarried births are to parents that aren t living together The longitudinal study was conducted to see if the fathers name was listed on the birth certificate If the father was out of the picture the fathers name was rarely put on the birth certificate They co related that with all sorts of outcomes Couvade Some fathers experience symptoms of pregnancy and birth Weigh gain indigestion cravings swollen breasts and insomnia It is experienced to varying degrees Kangaroo Care n Columbia the parents would hold the babies skin to skin for several hours during the day They started noticing that the babies were stabilizing Research shows that this type of interaction makes a difference in the outcome of the baby It also helps the parents cope and bond with the baby Improves the maternal experience ie they produce more milk PostPartum Depression Feelings of inadequacy and sadness About 50 of women will experience maternity blues They report experiencing difficulty and inadequate feelings The hormones are going crazy and trying to adjust and her body is trying to get to the way it was In 10 of the women the condition gets diagnosed to clinical depression Women who are clinically depressed need to get the health and the treatment that they need Having someone there to help with the baby is important Newborn Reflexes Reflexes are important for our survival A lot of them disappear after the first 4 months There are reflexes that do not go away 0 Hiccups shivering coughing sneezing etc A baby spitting up is also a reflex The Moro reflex and the startle reflex are seen together If you touch a baby s cheek they will turn their head in whichever direction they are being touched Rooting reflex For breast feeding o The breast will touch he face and the baby will turn looking for the breast If you hold a newborn baby up and you put their feet down they will move their feet in a pattern like walking Step reflex Crying The average new born cries around two three hours a day Is the only form of communication for a newborn Babies that cry a lot have colic It is up to the parents to figure out why the baby is crying Hungry tired hot cold wet over stimulated pain Parents go through a checklist to see what s wrong When a baby is angry the cry is different sounding from the cry of a baby who is hungry Cries of Newborns Baby s cries are different depending on the language that they speak It is the earliest development of language You can determine the language based on the pitch and the frequency of the sound of the baby crying Sleep They spend half of their sleep in REM sleep which means they wake up more easily We go through stages 1 4 of sleep The mind is very active in REM sleep which makes babies very light sleepers The quality of sleep is affected by birth weight and their social environment If there are a lot of kids running around and there is a lot of activity that will affect how the baby sleeps PSY 230 02032015


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