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Study Guide Exam 1

by: Fatima Ahmed

Study Guide Exam 1 SOP 3932

Fatima Ahmed
GPA 3.75
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry

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About this Document

In-depth review of material thats going to be on the exam.
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fatima Ahmed on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOP 3932 at Florida International University taught by William Berry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 561 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Drugs and Addiction in Psychlogy at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 02/02/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Related to substances is the creation of the blood brain barrier Blood Brain Barrier a barrier that separates the blood and the uid that surrounds the brain The barrier is semipermeable which allows some NOT ALL chemicals to enter the brain The Nervous System The Limbic System Involved in emotion memory for location and level of physical activity Hypothalamus Small structure neat the base of the brain involved in hormonal output Involved in Feeding Drinking Temp Regulation Sexual Behavior Neurons Responsible for analyzing and transmitting information 4 parts of a Neuron Cell body nucleus plus other parts important to sustain a neuron Dendrites treelike features come out of the cell and contains receptors Axonconducts electrical signal from cell body to presynaptic terminals Presynaptic terminals bulb like structures at the end of the axon where Neurotransmitters are stored Neurotransmission communication from one neuron to another Psychoactive Drugs Either a drug alters the availability of neurotransmitters at the synapse Which blocks the reception of Neurotransmitters creating more of the chemical in the synapse By directly interacting with a neurotransmitter receptor Resulting in more of the chemical being available for release each time the neuron fires Neurotransmitter Lifecycle Uptake of the precursor Synthesis of the transmitter Storage in the vesicle s Released into the synapse Interaction with the receptor Reuptake into the releasing neuron Metabolism of the enzymes Dopamine related to Parkinson s disease psychotic behavior and with the system mesolimbic that is associated with the reward of substances Acetylcholine associated with the initiation of REM sleep too little of this associated with Alzheimer s Norepinephrine responsible for alertness and wakefulness stimulant drugs Serotonin weight regulation food intake impulsive aggressiveness and occurrence of suicide GABA fond in most areas of the brain exerts generalized inhibitory functions Glutamate found throughout the brain makes cells more excitable Endorphins endogenous substances that produce effects similar to morphine and other opioids Too little activity in monoamines norepinephrine dopamine serotonin can cause depression and too much can cause an excited mood mania Drugs that affect these Neurotransmitters alter mood states This theory accounts for many of the basic drug effects on mood Most drugs are derived from plants 1 Stimulants a Cocaine b Amphetamine c Caffeine 2 Hallucinogens a Mescaline b LSD c PCP 3 Marijuana 4 Nicotine 5 Depressants a Alcohol b Barbiturates c Sedatives d Inhalants 6 Opioids a Morphine b Oxycontine c Heroin d Codeine e Methadone 7 Psychotherapeutics a Prozac b Haldol c Zoloft If a drug were given you would need to know which category it belongs to Nonspecific effects are those that derive form the users unique background and particular perception Also called set and settingquot Someone given fake drug but they still feel the effects Specific e ects are those that derive from a certain concentration of the drug being the target tissue 1 Inhalation 2 Injection Popular early ways included snuff and chewing The use of cigars was a mid point between chewing and smoking Education is correlated with decreased smoking 20 of all deaths in US related to tobacco currently 85 of all deaths related to lung cancer 30 of all deaths from cancer due to smoking 30 of cardio vascular deaths related to smoking 8080 of deaths resulting from chronic obstructive lung disease Enough nicotine in one cigar to kill two humans Inhalation is the most effective drug delivery system Nicotine causes the release of adrenaline 0 Increase in coronary blood ow 0 Increase in heart rate and blood pressure 0 Smokers need more oxygen Nicotine is a reinforcing substance in humans Headache Caffeine Decreases fertility in women Increases risk of spontaneous abortion Lower birth weight in babies Higher chances of coronary heart disease Anything that is intended for use in diagnosis cure mitigation treatment or prevention of disease in humans is regulated a drug Categories of over the counter drugs Stimulants Caffeine only active ingredient allow Weight loss Sedatives and Sleep aids No longer is this category an OTC Anesthetics reduce all types of sensation Analgesics without pain opioids not OTC and internal analgesics Tylenol Motrin Advil Cold and allergy Allergy and sinus medications About 1 in 10 teens report using cough medicines to get high Most of the kids abusing DXM were between 15 and 16 years old Symptoms lead to a diagnosis Once the diagnosis or disease is identified the cause can be better ascertained Once a cause is understood a cure can be suggested ECT Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Considered the most effective treatment for severely depressed patients More rapid than antidepressants Studies find it to be at least as effective as antidepressants and some studies show it being more effective Double blind studies are ineffective because those receiving steroids consistently are able to determine they are getting the drug rather than placebo by the psychological effect Two main topics related to studies on steroids Are they effective We don t know 15 from the text Pathological behavioral patterns Each disorder is organized into groupings with set criteria The criteria for the diagnosis of a substance use disorder varies by substance but there are 11 general criteria Impaired control a continued desire to cut down or control use Social Impairment failure to fulfill major duties at work school or home Risky use recurrent use of the substance when it is physically hazardous Pharmacological criteria tolerance and withdrawal Examples from second book berry Internal is the realization a behavior is detrimental to your life goals or incongruent with your values a decision to stop results from this realization External consists of environmental reasons to seek help or to stop substance use Outcomes are equal for both types of motivated people both have lots of failure 6 stages The most difficult stage to overcome is the first stage Precontemplation 1 Precontemplation 2 Contemplation 3 Preparation 4 Action 5 Maintenance 6 Relapse ideally no one relapses ut in reality most people go through stages 15 before they are completely abstained from substance dependence Impulsivity Highrisk behavior Narcissist rage Emotional instability Chronic feelings of emptiness Detoxification giving patient a type of medication allowing them to safely come off the drugs Inpatient more medically monitored and usually safer Psychiatrist onsite MF Residential not as medically monitored Nurse usually comes once a day for a few hours Patients in both stay 24 hours a day Partial Hospitalization treatment is daily during The client spends a large part of the day 68 hours at the facility receiving various forms of therapy group individual recreational Intensive Outpatient At least 9 hours of therapy weekly Treatment usually consists of 3 3hour groups weekly Educational psychotherapy groups Individual therapy Traditional Output Less than 9 hours of therapy weekly Can consist of as little as a onehour individual session monthly Social Learning Theory American culture Immediate gratification Escape of Physical or emotional discomfort Accepting these premises leads to the conclusion many may be susceptible to abusing substances Disease Concept Also known as medical model No blood tests for mental illness The root of addiction is biological Heredity Pedigree studies Advanced research and substance of choice Childhood or adolescent trauma may result in addiction Adult trauma may also result in addiction These can result in lowered feelings of self worth or to substances being used to cope with what are often unmanageable feelings


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