Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide COM318
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristi Crow on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM318 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Bart Collins in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 319 views. For similar materials see Principles of Persuasion in Communication at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Kristi Crow COM 3 18 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5Attitude Behavior Relationship Functions of Attitudes I Theorists conclude that attitudes help people manage and cope with life 0 Main functions of attitudes include 0 Knowledge I Attitudes help people make sense of the world and explain baf ing events I Ex Relatives that had loved ones die in 911 find comfort in religious certainty of a hereafter 0 Utilitarian I Attitudes help people obtain rewards and avoid punishments I Ex When a course is hard student that has a positive mindset helps the situation 0 Social Adjustive I Attitudes help us adjust to reference groups I Ex During Vietnam War protest era political attitudes served social adjustive function for some students 0 Social Identity I People hold attitudes to communicate who they are and what that they aspire to be I Ex This is why people buy certain products they hope by displaying the product in their homes they will communicate something special about themselves I Ex When people get tattooed wear shirts use perfume o Valueexpressive I Another important reason people hold attitudes is to express core values and cherished beliefs 0 Egodefensive I Attitudes can serve as defense against unpleasant emotions people do not want to consciously acknowledge I People adopt attitudes to shield them from uncomfortable truths I Ex When girls break up with their boyfriends because of college Attitudes and Persuasion 0 A central principle of the functional theory is that the same attitudes can serve different functions for different people 0 Example Shopping Some people shop for utilitarian reasons while others shop for egodefensive reasons 0 Functional Theory suggests that a persuasive message is most likely to change an individual s attitude when the message is directed at the underlying function the attitude serves Messages that match the function served by an attitude should be more compelling than those that are not relevant to the function addressed by the attitude 0 An attitude can have negative or dysfunctional effects on the individual who holds the attitude as well as on others 0 Example When people are talking on the phone in public places and causing disturbance 0 Nuggets 0 People are deep and complicated creatures 0 We should extend tolerance to others 0 Persuaders must be acutely sensitive to the functions attitudes serve Attitudes and Behaviors 0 We can identify the factors that moderate the attitudebehavior relationship 0 Aspects of the situation 0 Characteristics of the person 0 Qualities of the attitude Situational Factors 0 Norm an individual s belief about the appropriate behavior in a situation Norms and Roles 0 Individuals may hold an attitude but choose not to express the attitude because it would violate a social norm 0 Roles also in uence attitudebehavior relationships 0 Script an organized bundle of expectations about an event sequence or an activity Characteristics of the Person 0 SelfMonitoring 0 Mark Snyder research divides people into two categories A first group consists of individuals who are concerned with displaying appropriate behavior in social situations The second group is less concerned with fitting into a situation or displaying socially correct behavior 0 High selfmonitors exhibit less attitude behavior consistency than do low selfmonitors 0 Direct Experience 0 Experience also moderates the attitudebehavior relationship 0 Attitudes formed through direct experience are more clearly defined held with greater certainty more stable over time and more resistant to counter in uence O Attitudes based on direct experience are more likely to predict behavior than those formed indirectly Characteristics of the Attitude I The nature of an attitude moderates the relationship between attitudes and behavior 0 General versus speci c attitudes 0 Ajzen and Fishbein 1977 distinguished between general and highly specific attitudes 0 General Attitude attitude toward the object is the global evaluation that cuts across different situations I Example religion this includes praying attending religious services holiday rituals donating money to religious causes 0 Specific Attitude attitude towards behavior is a evaluation of a single act or specific behavior that takes place in a particular context at a particular time I Example religion A PhD student who is deeply religious but may only attend a handful of religious services over the course of 6 months because he is immersed in doctoral comprehensive exams o Compatibility Principle I The ideas from the outgrowth of Ajzen and Fishbein I A strong relationship between attitude and behavior is possible only if the attitudinal predictor corresponds with the behavioral criteria 0 Attitude Strength I Another moderator of the attitudebehavior relationship 0 Strong attitudes are likely to forecast behavior 0 The Reasoned Action Model p135 0 Proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein 0 Offers the most systematic explanation in the field of the processes by which beliefs in uence behavior 0 Five components of the theory page 136142 0 Attitude toward a behavior is a highly specific attitude 0 Behavioral Beliefs 0 Outcome Evaluations 0 Accessibility Theory 0 The core notion of the accessibility Theory is that attitudes will predict behavior if they can be activated from memory at the time of the decision Chapter 6 Attitude Measurement 0 Attitude questionnaires date back to 1928 I 3 Standard attitude scales O Likert O Guttman 0 Semantic differential 0 Likert Scale 0 Renis Likert refined Thurston s procedures 0 A likert scale contains a series of opinion statements 0 Example On a five point scale strongly agree somewhat agree neutral somewhat disagree strongly agree and course evaluations 0 Guttman Scale 0 The scale progresses from items easiest to accept to those most difficult to endorse 0 Those who score the highest on a guttman scale agree with all items 0 Those with moderate attitudes agree with questions that are easy and moderately difficult to endorse 0 Those with mildly positive attitudes agree only with items that are easy to accept 0 Example useful in tapping things like abortion 0 Semantic Differential 0 Semantic is used because their instrument asks people to indicate feelings about an object on a pair of bipolar adjective scales 0 Differential comes from the fact that the scale assesses the different meanings people ascribe to a person or issue 0 Example Participants rate a concept using bipolar adjectives one adjective lies at one end of the scale its opposite is at the other end Pitfalls in Attitude Measurement 0 Inaccuracies result from such factors as 0 Respondent carelessness in answering the questions 0 People s desire to say the socially appropriate thing rather than what they truly believe 0 A tendency to agree with items regardless of their content 0 Two key survey design factors that can in uenceor biasattitude responses are survey context and wording 0 Focus group defined as a qualitative research method in which a trained moderator conducts a collective interview of a set of participants 0 Combining openended measures with traditional attitude scales increases the odds that researchers will tap attitudes accurately and completely Key indirect measures of attitudes O Unobtrusive Measures 0 Physiological Measurements O Implicit Association Test Chapter 11Cognitive Dissonance Theorv Kristi Crow ANSC 333 Quiz 3 Study Guide 0 What are the two things that GnRH is responsible for 0 Causes LH and FSH synthesis 0 Releases LH and FSH by anterior pituitary glanf 0 What is the function of hypothalamic nerve cells 0 To make GnRH 0 There are 600700 cell bodiesneurons that controls GnRH synthesis and approximately 75 need to be fired simultaneously to get enough GnRH to be released 0 Type of communication between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary via hypothalamo hypophyseal portal vessels HHPV is vascular 0 Neurophysin O Neurophysin is a carrier protein which transport the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin to the posterior pituitary from the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus O Neurophysins are secreted from the hypothalamus along with their passenger hormones 0 Vasopressin O The two primary functions of vasopressin is to retain water in the body and to constrict blood vessels 0 Synthesized from a prehormone precursor and most of it is stored in the posterior pituitary 0 Oxytocin O Produced in the hypothalamus more specifically the paraventricular nucleus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland 0 Functions in milk let down uteran contraction CL regulation
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