Musc205, Study Guide Exam 2
Musc205, Study Guide Exam 2 MUSC205
Popular in History of Popular Music, 1950-Present
Popular in Music
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This 47 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSC205 at University of Maryland taught by Richard King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see History of Popular Music, 1950-Present in Music at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
2-29-2016 Soul Music What is Soul? - Sixties Motown - Emotion, heart, dancing - Southern - Black musicians- coined the phrase, authenticity - Addressed social issues, kind of like folk music, but this was black musicians talking about civil rights issues, not white - Difficult to define Ray Charles- - Most soul singers begin in churches o Influences so many different artists and music - Gospel-based R&B - Brings vocal technique and passion of gospel to R&B - Song writer, arranger, pianists, singer - Could do any style, a sort of music chameleon - Gets name from Soul though - Gospel influence: “It Must Be Jesus” leads to “I’ve Got a Woman” (1954) o Gospel to pop/R&B Just changes a few words to make it this With just a a couple of tweaks- it becomes R&B, this is called Soul o “Georgia on My Mind” Tin Pan Alley stye, but not makes it Soul Now the official state song of Georgia Sam Cooke (1931-1964) - Son of a preacher - Began as a gopel singer - “Were You There” - Dies at the peak of his career - “A Change is Gonna Come” o a personal Civil rights anthem o Inspired by “Blowin’ in the Wind” o Works from problems to hope o Draws from many inspirations o Takes imagery of a river from “Old Man River” (orchestrated piece for a musical) o In the song- every attempt at hell is taken back Help me from my knees/oppression, but gets knocked back down (personal) Brutality of life but also a sense of hope- “Its been a long time coming but I know a change is gonna come” Otis Redding (!941-67) - Recorded for Stax records in Memphis - Song of a Baptist minister- sung in father’s church - A grittier sound than Motown o At Stax- not everything is about prestine- they would record in one take sometimes, which is unusual for Motown o Less polished and more authentic/Black than Motown o Soul is a model of integration- Stax had both black and white musicians Would work together - “Sitting On The Dock of the Bay” o cam out after he died, even though he recorded 4 albums beforehand - Otis Redding wins the best male singer right before he dies- starting to become famous right beforehand - “I’ve Been Loving You” o white audience o Monterery Pop Festival o Preaches and involves the audience and band Aretha Frankling - Otis has a huge influence over her - Daughter of a preacher- sang in churches - Signed in Columbia records in 1960 saying that she is the best voice she has ever heard but cant figure out what to do with her- nothing is really focused and giving her so many different styles - Atlantic Records picks her up after the contract in Columbia expired o Brought her to Muscle Shoals in Alabama ton one of greatest studios o Magical story and recording sessions there o Incredible powerful voice, but reserved demeanor - “I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Loved You)” o simplicity of Muscle Shoals sound o takes a while for producer to make it- no one can agree o the guy who plays the organ organizes it he just played the very beginning of the song and then everything else just fell into place o Aretha’s first big hit Marvin Gaye - With Stevie Wonder, brings social music to Motown - Begins as a typical Motown artist - “Aint No Mountain High Enough” o soul duet- paired men and women to sing o Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell She faints on him on stage and is diagnosed with a massive brain tumor, so he takes a break o Fit perfectly into the Motown mold - “What’s Going On? (1971) o concept album of social issues o “Mercy Mercy Me”- all about Ecology, but wasn’t going to o “What’s Going On”- talking about Vietnam War sound that is not Motown but makes it Motown o “Let’s Get It On” (1973) turns from social issues to sexual ones 4 greatest beginning notes Psychedelic Rock 3-2-2016 Counterculture: Causes- - Disillusionment and anti establishment- no trust in government - Student movement- o Late teens were experiencing hard things in their life and looking for me o Baby bloomers are now in college, they feel like numbers, not actually people Feel like number in school and in draft - Assassinations- JFK, Martin Luther King Jr., Bobby Kennedy o Government cant even protect own president, so how can they protect us? - Vietnam War- nature of it was confusing, things that public didn’t understand, why were they fighting o So many troops were sent- 1963- 15000 men, but by 1968- 600,000 men were sent and were getting killed o Getting defeated by communists Living- - San Francisco usually- Height Ashbury neighborhood - Communal Living- College dropouts, groups of friends rent a house for cheap and live communally- spirit of counter culture Anti establishment, against the norms and parents Free love is possible- birth control - Summer of 1967- o LSD- lysergic Acid diethylamide Invited by government in WWII to use as weapon, but in 1966 it became illegal, but was still used Professor Leary from Harvard said- “turn on, tune in, drop out” Have to be good and drop out of traditional norms, you can tune in to yourself- what the counter culture is all about Affects sense of time, body awareness, and movement Coping mechanism with people who are experiencing disillusionment Monterey Pop Festival 1967 - Weekend of music: electric and anti establishment - 30000 fans; the first huge rock festival - no seating, audience can move around and interact as a community - embodies the “summer of love” - everyone experiences it differently because they are all on different drugs o different music Jefferson Airplane - San Francisco scene - Grace Slick- one of the first female rock stars o Last one to join and made them bigger - Visual psychedelia o Light shows- stimulates the senses, exciting when under influence of drugs - “White Rabbit” o 1967 o as song goes on, you feel the music as it goes on, feel apart of the performance and sound waves o strange lyrics- images you might experience while under LSD, they created it and sang it under LSD Janis Joplin - lead singer in the Big Brother and the Holding Company - Blues influence and inspiration o Grew up with it and wants to imitate them - Raspy voice - Improvisation- take music where she wants to go o Feeling the music - Contentious image (for the 1960s) o Different than what mainstream America was used to - “Ball and Chain”- 1967 o emotion and connection o blues influence - too much under the influence and died in 1970 from LSD overdose o part of the 27 club Grateful Dead - lived communally in Height- Ashbury - Public LSD parties- invited people with them - Music full of of slow, long jams - Focus on unique live performances - Devoted fan base: Deadheads o Wanted people to record it for themselves Built a fan base this way No stealing any record income because the records were so difference from live performance - free forms- because the old ones are not conducive to the long jams and everything - “Dark Star” 1968 The Doors - the darjer side of the counterculture - Heroin, not LSD o Permanantly messes you up and can truly die from it o Part of 27 club - Drug reference, dark lyrics - Disillusionment with government and society - “Riders on a Storm” 1971 o no one is there to help you and people are just trying to get you o influence of heroin and disillusionment Psychedelic Rock 3-2-2016 Counterculture: Causes- - Disillusionment and anti establishment- no trust in government - Student movement- o Late teens were experiencing hard things in their life and looking for me o Baby bloomers are now in college, they feel like numbers, not actually people Feel like number in school and in draft - Assassinations- JFK, Martin Luther King Jr., Bobby Kennedy o Government cant even protect own president, so how can they protect us? - Vietnam War- nature of it was confusing, things that public didn’t understand, why were they fighting o So many troops were sent- 1963- 15000 men, but by 1968- 600,000 men were sent and were getting killed o Getting defeated by communists Living- - San Francisco usually- Height Ashbury neighborhood - Communal Living- College dropouts, groups of friends rent a house for cheap and live communally- spirit of counter culture Anti establishment, against the norms and parents Free love is possible- birth control - Summer of 1967- o LSD- lysergic Acid diethylamide Invited by government in WWII to use as weapon, but in 1966 it became illegal, but was still used Professor Leary from Harvard said- “turn on, tune in, drop out” Have to be good and drop out of traditional norms, you can tune in to yourself- what the counter culture is all about Affects sense of time, body awareness, and movement Coping mechanism with people who are experiencing disillusionment Monterey Pop Festival 1967 - Weekend of music: electric and anti establishment - 30000 fans; the first huge rock festival - no seating, audience can move around and interact as a community - embodies the “summer of love” - everyone experiences it differently because they are all on different drugs o different music Jefferson Airplane - San Francisco scene - Grace Slick- one of the first female rock stars o Last one to join and made them bigger - Visual psychedelia o Light shows- stimulates the senses, exciting when under influence of drugs - “White Rabbit” o 1967 o as song goes on, you feel the music as it goes on, feel apart of the performance and sound waves o strange lyrics- images you might experience while under LSD, they created it and sang it under LSD Janis Joplin - lead singer in the Big Brother and the Holding Company - Blues influence and inspiration o Grew up with it and wants to imitate them - Raspy voice - Improvisation- take music where she wants to go o Feeling the music - Contentious image (for the 1960s) o Different than what mainstream America was used to - “Ball and Chain”- 1967 o emotion and connection o blues influence - too much under the influence and died in 1970 from LSD overdose o part of the 27 club Grateful Dead - lived communally in Height- Ashbury - Public LSD parties- invited people with them - Music full of of slow, long jams - Focus on unique live performances - Devoted fan base: Deadheads o Wanted people to record it for themselves Built a fan base this way No stealing any record income because the records were so difference from live performance - free forms- because the old ones are not conducive to the long jams and everything - “Dark Star” 1968 The Doors - the darjer side of the counterculture - Heroin, not LSD o Permanantly messes you up and can truly die from it o Part of 27 club - Drug reference, dark lyrics - Disillusionment with government and society - “Riders on a Storm” 1971 o no one is there to help you and people are just trying to get you o influence of heroin and disillusionment Blues Rock 3-7- 2016 British Blues - Like rock, the blues get forgotten about in America- it was born here and becomes big here and then England picks it up and starts playing it again - Mixes blues with rock and roll - Re-done - Sent back and re-embraced The Rolling Stones - Start as Chicago Blues cover band - A rough and tumble Beatles - Mick Jagger and Keith Richards- influential people - 1964- The Rolling Stones album- compilation of Blues songs o cover of Muddy Waters - “I Just Want To Make Love To You” - counter to Beatles- just wants to make love as opposed to hold your hand - makes Chicago Blues their own o The image- Cultivated by their own manager, Andrew Oldham Made them look like a bunch of thugs to counter Beatles “Would you want your daughter to go out with a Rolling Stone?”- NO Bad boys of rock and roll - Jagger/Richards o “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction” 1965 o Richards guitar riff is THE draw o But you stay for the pure teenage aggression in the lyrics from Jagger o Fuzzbox- very apparent that it is new - Pretty much a one note band - Album- o Their Satanic Majesties Request Counter to the Pet Sounds and Sgt Peppers December 1967 “She’s A Rainbow” Psychedelic with an edge But there’s more here… o Sympathy For the Devil 1968 polyrhythmic opening first person story of all the atrocities, Devil’s crimes and the Devil is Mick Jagger - Stones in Summary o Brilliant business men o Define the big tour o Define blues rock The Yardbirds - At one point had… Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Jeff Beck, Robert Plant, John Paul Jones, John Bonham - Not, by themselves, the most influential band. Cream - The first true “supergroup” - Ginger Baker- Drums - Jack Bruce- Bass/Vocals - Eric Clapton- Guitar/Vocals - They meet at some point and non pf them are happy with where they are in life so they decide to form a band - “Sunshine of Your Love” -1967 o The instruments are better than lyrics and words - Long improvisatory jams - Legacy: o First of the power Trios o Virtuosity in rock o Loud, riff-based blues rock - They have pounding drums Jimi Hendrix - Was in the military and was honorably discharged - Headband laced with LSD?! – A myth - Launched his career at Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 o Monterey Pop Festival- one of the best ever (maybe better than Woodstock) - Constant experimentation with guitar sounds - Inspired by psychedelic - But often just blues - Jimi Hendrix does sing and has cool lyrics, but people come to concert to see what he does with his guitar. He would light guitar on fire, hump guitar.. - His constant experimentation is what sets him apart - Jimi Hendrix makes a lot of different pedals and boxes to change the sound of guitar - “Purple Haze” o Bizarre song with weird mythology o Opens with a tri-tone (diabolus in musica) o Explicit drug references o Frenzied solos o SHIFT IN POWER- guitar now more important than voice - Legacy: o Great live shows o The rock guitar God o Experimental composer “And the Gods Make Love” o Made Distortion and feedback part of pop Not an accident, actual part Led Zeppelin - The Yardbirds, reformed - The first heavy metal band? - First album, Led Zeppelin (1969) - Extended the blues of Cream and Hendrix - Riff-based songs- like Cream - EX. “When the Levee Breaks” (from Led Zeppelin IV) o Cover by Led Zeppelin sounds much different from original - Led Zeppelin II (1969) o “Whole lotta Love” o Prototypical hard rock song o Riff-based o It’s all about Page’s guitar and Plant’s vocals o Experimental middle Heavy Metal Led Zepplin and MYthoogly- - Many people think it is the first heavy metal band - “Immigran Song”- Vikings from Led Zepplin III - all about the guitar and high tenor singing - Inner sleeve used runes - Ultimate nerd- rock - Loved to put on a show through their music - Led Zepplin IV (Zoso) (1970) gave us “Stairway to Heaven” - Each member got a different symbol - White male audience usually- targeting - Legacy- o Break up in 1980 o Inspired countless metal and prog rock groups o Page’s remarkable productions o The Rock God lifestyle What is Heavy Metal - High pitched voices - Mythology - Theatricality - Album art - Loud - Distorted guitars Theatricality- Alice Cooper Black Sabbath - Birmingham, England- dark dreary area after WWII - Virtually defined heavy metal - Lyrics- the occult, Satanism, death and destruction - Music- extreme volume, catatonic tempos, gloom, and doom - “Black Sabbath” o depicts a black mass- celebrates Satin o thunder and rain, church bells; slow tempo suggests a procession o triton riff o many metal conventions seen here: much of the song is instrumental and riff based dramatic vocal style discrete sections, defined by shifts in tempo, riff, key, etc - “War Pigs” o Originally called “Walpurgis” o A feast for witches o Record company nixed tat o As a result: one of the great anti war songs Political statement- we’re pigs for going to war Demonstrates what the music can become once it leaves the hands of the composers - Sabbath is like Metal 101 - Also typical of metal is the fact that they got little airplay on the radio, and they earned their reputation by touring- did crazy things on stage - Paved way for 70s metal bands like Judas Priest, AC/DC, Aerosmith, etc - Along with 80s groups like Def Leopard Judas Priest - Also from Birmingham - Dual lead guitars - Not hugely popular at the time, but reputation has grown immensely - vocals influenced by Robert Plant, Little Richard, Janis Joplin - Rocka Rolla” 1974 - “Better by You, Better than Me” o 1978 o Involved in a 1990 lawsuit for subliminal messaging o plaintiffs claimed teens attempted suicide because of “Do It” message o Judas Priest won the lawsuit Heart - Pacfiic Northwest based band - Ann and Nancy Wilson - The keys of heavy metal are all here - Except the high voice isn’t falsetto o Now they are women singing - Mushroom records - “Barracuda” o written in response to reporter’s question and label’s stupidity that her and her sister were lovers- sexual object, but they aren’t! turned into this without their knowledge therefore, they write this song and cut relationships with Mushroom records after o points out some of the struggle Heart had to go through o galloping guitar riff o lyrics that’s are intentionally ambiguous Funk and Reggae 3-21-2016 Why are these two together? - Stylistic similarities - Both foundational in the 70s - Black music, in a very political sense, - What they inspired Early Funk James Brown - Few chord changes - Not the catchiest melodies - Rhythm is king - Rhythm over melody - “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag” - “Say it Loud- I’m Black and I’m Proud” o 1968 o Signals a shift to a closer alliance between funk and black power o All of the hallmarks of Brown’s earlier sound o But a different message o Funk becomes alive with this music Does not get stolen with the white wash- stays black Similar to African music Sly and The Family Stone - Sly Stone was the leader of a diverse group - Lyrics of tolerance “Different strokes for different folks” - “Everyday people” Innovation and nostalgia - Ex “Thank you (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Again)” – 1969 - Larry Graham: slap bass innovator - Layers of riffs George Clinton Parliament, Funkadelic - Funk, mixed with rock—rhythm based - Or funk on acid - Or funk from outer space - Or glitter funk - Funk manifesto- free your mind, and your ass will follow - Big sound, layers of riff, heavy bass, verbal mottoes (we want the funk) - “Give of the Funk” Political Mythology Created their own funk mythology But Why? This is, admittedly, hilarious Pride in Africa The Mothership The climax of a Parliament concert Slowly descends to the stage “Swing down sweet chariot” gets chanted o Sung by slaves A return from space, to home…a return to Africa Reggae Music of Jamaica Began in the late ‘60s A fusion of ska (instrumental music uses a lot of riff based things), rock steady (, and soul Examples: “Street Corner”-The Skatalites “Hold me Tight”-Johnny Nash Reggae Proper Jimmy Cliff – “The Harder They Come” A perfect demonstration of the mixed influences 1972 Rastafari Created in the ‘30s by Haile Selassie (emperor of Ethiopia) Pushes for a connection to Africa Marijuana as sacrament Theater and Glam Rock 3/23/16 The Decline of the 1960s Counterculture Stabbing during the Rolling Stones’ 1969 performance at Altamont 1970 shooting of Vietnam student protestors at Kent State University Deaths of Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison Breakup of the Beatles Disenchantment with hippie ideals What is Glam Rock? London music scene that lasted from 1971-1975 Musical simplicity that hearkened back to early rock and roll Spectacle becomes the most important element of the show Over-the-top costumes, choreographed performances, artificial stage performances Marc Bolan and T. Rex The first glam rocker Born Mark Feld, first performed in an acoustic duo called Tyranasoreus Rex In 1970, traded his acoustic guitar for an electric and was joined by artist Mickey Finn to become T. Rex T. Rex Electric Warrior (1971) Outer space inspired songs such as “Cosmic Dancer” “Planet Queen” and “Ballrooms of Mars” Androgynous persona “Children of the Revolution” (1972) Most commercially successful group since the Beatles Continued to release albums until 1977 David Bowie The king (queen) of glam Brought the genre to its fullest theatrical potential Born David Jones, performed in obscurity through most of the sixties Inspired by Andy Warhol and the New York drag scene In the early 1970s shows become increasingly theatrical Ziggy Stardust The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (1972) A concept album: the story of an alien who came ot Earth with his band to become a rock star Sci fi Sgt. Peppers Performed as Ziggy and his band from 1972-1973 Alienation vs. authenticity Ziggy’s ambiguous gender and bisexuality Performer vs. persona “Time” from Ziggy Stardust the motion picture (1973) David Bowie In 1973, killed Ziggy onstage and abandoned the persona The ultimate rock chameleon “Rebel Rebel” Continue to release albums until his death Second wave of rock banders emerge Suzi Quatro A second generation glam rocker Was part of the London glam scene Bassist and lead singer Originally from Detroit Also embraced androgyny “I Wanna Be Your Man” The most well-known female bassist of her time Queen Formed in London in 1970 by Brian May, Roger Taylor, John Deacon, and Freddie Mercury Released debut album Queen in 1973 Mercury known for his vocal ability and flamboyant performance style Did not embrace musical simplicity “Bohemian Rhapsody” (1975) Glam’s Legacy Faded away in the mid 1970s, but influence was there to stay Elton John, singer-songwriter who adopted glam aesthetic Co-wrote with lyricist Bernie Taupin Other metal or blues-based bands incorporated glam elements Hair metal and glam metal in the 1980s Alice Cooper: American glam artist Disco 3-28- 2016 - Funk with a bow tie= funk in a club atmosphere Musical Features - Funk based dance music - Prominent four- on- the floor beat - Offbeat high hates - Extended songs - Communal dance ecstasy - “Boogie Wonderland” – Earth, Wind, and Fire Origins - Begins in early 1970s - Comes out of gay NYC club culture o Hard to get a band for gay clubs o Reflects origins - DJs creating smooth mixes of dance music - Mixed especially for club play - DJs become the heroes The Loft - First disco club, which was David Mancuso’s loft in his apartment - Exclusive, by invitation only - Legal groundwork for future clubs o Didn’t have any alcohol sold there - Perhaps the birthplace of disco Disco Underground - Originally very little airplay - Partially due to gay scene origins - Scenes within scenes o Latino gay people stayed with Latinos, and so on The Village People - Six gay men in costumes - Inside jokes - Like the name of the band… - Very much a manufactured product - Full of masculine stereotypes - “Macho Man” o clearly gay, but somehow it passed - Gave gay people an ability to Gloria Gaynor- - Never Can Say Goodbye- 1975 album o Strings that give you the ability to just want to dance o Disco diva - First side had three songs with no breaks - A 19 minute dance marathon - Instrumental in making disco popular 1976- the year disco hits - 1975- only 1 top disco song o but it was barely even disco - 1976- 5 out of the top 10 were disco songs - 10,000 discos in the US Studio 54 - the Loft, writ large - exclusive, gimmicky - like the four tons of glitter - or the long waits for 100 people - shut down for tax evasion, and blow Saturday Night Fever - a movie, but also a huge album with two #1 hits before the film opened - The Bee Gees make a name for themselves - John Travolta makes disco even cooler Disco Sucks! - Reaction against disco - Espectally by metal fans - Disco demolition nights - Backlash against the gay culture that births it Disco’s Decline - It gets too big - AIDS takes it toll o People who made music started disappearing Punk Rock 3-30- 2016 What is punk? - DIY or “Do it yourself” attitudes - Musical elements of pop and stuff music - Simple chords, instrumentation - Faster tempos o Might be angry- but angry about something - Vocal timbre - Politically and socially conscious New York City- - Birthplace of Punk - CBGBs and OMFUG o Country, Bluegrass, Blues o Other Music for Uplifting Gormandizers - The Ramones - Patti Smith - Blondie - Joan Jett and the Black Hearts - Talking Heads - Television - Symbolic- started the career Patti Smith- - Musician, visual artists, poet - Godmother of Punk - “Gloria: In Excelsis Deo” from Horses o started as poem and then evolved - Sounds punk? - Rejected feminist ideas and her past - Punk attitude Ramones - Iconic punk band - Heavily pop and surf rock influenced - Successful in New York, and traveled to England in 1976 o Transatlantic musical exchange - Simple form and chord - Leather jacket and ripped jeans - Have political influences The Clash - “London Calling”- album - Signed with CBS - Album cover - Later hits “Rock the Casbash” and “Should I Stay or Should I Go” Sex Pistols - Johnny Rotten- Frontman Sid Vicious- Bass - Originally short lived - Infamously know for antics - “God Save the Queen” o people were riled up because of this title- cant bash the queen o Outcry and popularity Vivienne Westwood - Woice of London Punk Fashion - Work with Sex Pistols - Punk Fashion Elements o Tartan- type of plaid o Leather o Chains and safety pins o BDSM wear- dog collars, there to provoke o Amazing hair Evolution of Punk - Hardcore o Stylistically harsher, louder o Started on west coast of US o The Dead Kennedys “Holiday in Cambodia” o Riot GRRRL Bands Primarily US Northwest Feminist Zines Bikini Kill Bratmobile The Third Sex o HarDCore DC is a major place for punk Dischord Records Cofounded by Ian MacKAye and Jeff Nelson Example of DIY Bands such as Fugazi, Minor Threat, The Teen Idles, Government Issue, Rites of Spring, State of Alert o Straight Edge Don’t drink, don’t smoke, don’t do drugs X, XXX, sXe’DC origins, Minor Threat Song Off shoot gangs “Waiting Room”- Fugazi - New wave/post punk o Experimentation with sounds o Added instruments o Also influenced by glam rock Would take on different personas o Siouxsie and Banshees o Adam and the Ants o Blondie - Pop punk o Hey-day in the late 1990s Early 2000s o Most commercial success o Green Day, Blink-182, Sum 41, The Offspring, Rancid Soft Rock and The Singer Songwriter 4-4-2016 Pop Music 1970 - 1960s Rock o bands break up- Beatles break up o deaths of artists as a result of drugs and alcohol o association with violence- Rolling Stones concert - Other developing genres o Inauthentic images- glam- openly created by artists o Emphasis on power/noise/rebellion Baby Boomers Grow Up - Facing adult realities o Rising divorce rate o Search for self - Desire for authenticity and sincerity o Artists’ involvement in song writing process becomes important o Looking for music that talks to them o Singer songwriters- singing about something that means something to them Soft Rock Singer Songwriters - Rock relaxes o Acoutstic instruments- o Slower tempos o Voice/lyrics are central o Music tells a story o Music expresses reality Lyrical Themes - Personal experiences - Realistic people - Acceptance of change - Nostalgia for the past The Troubadour - In LA - Launches careers of many singer-songwriters - Development of songwriting community Carole King - Former Brill Building songwriter - Writes music, husband Gerry Goffin writes lyrics- Shirelles “Will You Still Love Me Tom” - 1968- divorces Goffin and begins career - 1971- Tapestry o #1 album for 15 weeks o Features James Taylor and Joni Mitchell o “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” o “It’s Too Late” co-written with Toni Stern Lyrics- acceptance of end of relationship Music- soft rock Largely acoustic sounds Vocals foregrounded- voices first Complex harmonies Instrumental interlude (jazz influenced) o Type of music you hear in coffee shop o music sounds more mature and intimate o uses piano, not keyboard Joni Mitchell- - also started at Troubadour - multiple styles: soft rock, folk, jazz - critic of music industry- music was a business instead of art, so she is sole person in her songs - painter and poet- eloquent, metaphorical lyrics - “Chelsea Morning” o 1969- Clouds o lyrics- inspired by apartment in Chelsea in NYC o flush of first love o symbolism o music- acoustic guitar and voice is central James Taylor - Troubadour - Introspective, autobiographical lyrics - Music often reflects on psychiatric disorders - 1968- “Carolina in MY Mind” o didn’t do so well because of personal struggle even though so many people helped o about homesickness, escapism - 1970- “Fire and Rain” o suicide, depression, addiction, the road to fame- realistic things that we can relate to o acoustic guitar o audience does not sing along, but they are engaged- he is saying his life Harry Chapin “Cats in the Cradle” - co written with Sandra Chapin - father- son relationship - story in first person - nostalgia, regret Billy Joel “Piano Man” - 1973 - about experiences he met while playing in bars- real story, music as comfort - music: beyond soft rock o piano, harmonica, accordion, mandolin, guitars, drum o louder, fuller vocal timbre Elton John “Rocket Man” - 1972 - co-written with Bernie Taupin - Glam theme and imagery - Acoustic piano and electric guitar, synth, drums - Lyrics: personal, realistic, storylike Revisiting Country Again 4-6- 2016 The Country Split - In the late 60s, country splits in 4 ways: o Traditional Fans of traditional country represent the silent majority Believe in the traditional values: God, family, country Merle Haggard- “Mama Tried”- 1968 Conway Twitty- Conrad Birdie- got inspired by Bye Bye Birdie, 40 year long career, had #1 hit as R&B singer, had 55 #1 hits Early success as R&B/Rock Turns to country 40 #1 Country hits hits big in 1970 with “Hello Darlin’” o simple- speaks to things that people can relate to o Pop-orientated country Might as well be singer-songwriter country References the country and looks like country- but does not necessarily sound country Dolly Parton Most honored woman in country music 25 number one hits empowerment is key message 1 of 12 kids in a one room cottage, but still a great human being “Coat of Many Colors” o dolly as a singer-songwriter o reads as a rags-to-riches story- looks at positive side, all about perspective o but also as a woman fighting against the patriarchy o biblical reference o Dolly’s life story John Denver 1943-1997 realeased 300 songs, and wrote almost 200 of them songs that glorify the country life “Take Me Home, Country Road” o all about the lyrics o timbre is like singer-song writer sentimentalist- o could write a sentimental love song with the best of them o “Annie’s Song” o Taps into James Taylor style o Tammy Wynette Positions herself as a strong woman in country music “Stand By Your Man” o Comes under criticism from feminists o Has to defend herself and says “he’s just a man”- making the choice to stand with him Huge sales o Country rock Bob Dylan led the way for rockers to explore country roots The Band- Backed Bob Dyland from 1965 Canadian group Songs from the American frontier Connected to American traditions, yet original “The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down” o Civil war from point of view of Southerners- still all about the show 1976 film, The Last Waltz “The Weight”- o biblical song, yet rock groove The Eagles- One of the most popular bands of all time Over 150 million albums sold Epitome of Country Rock Country side o The band would sometimes play up their country side o “Desperado” is an archetypical Wild Wet song o “Hotel California” is the new West- urbanization- modernizes the West Chill side o Put a premium on a music about relaxing o Chill west o Progressive country (The Outlaws) The Outlaws Led by Willie Nelson Made Austin, TX a country music capital Brought sex, drugs, and rock and roll to country “Willie Nelson”- “I Gotta Get Drunk” Discussion 3-4-2016 Soul- - Non religious gospel music - White people didn’t even recognize its roots - Real social issues - Otis Redding - Ray Charles - Aretha Franklin - Sam Cook, Marvin Gaye - Record Companies o Stax in Memphis o Fame in Muscle Shoales, Alabama o Motown in 60s is producing Soul music Motown is highly produced and polished (takes a while), while other studios is more of a raw feeling (cuts a record that day, whatever happens, more authentic) Motown- Berry Gordon wants it to be a black production, as opposed to Stax and Fame has a high level of integration, the performers were black, but the bands they played with weren’t- this is in the middle of the Civil Rights Movement The series of assassinations start to end the integration Article - White people are taking black music, but black people are taking white music as well - Sharing - Integration is happening - Unique perspective, not used to seeing Psychedelic Rock - Involves social movements - Anti establishment - Improvisation- made it up on spot - Drugs- the fact that people were doing drugs effected the way the music sounded and how it was heard - Start lower and then louder- building sense - Sinestasia- senses get blurred together- hear a note and see a color - San Francisco (“Think” Aretha Franklin - Soul - Iconic voice - Gritty - Gospel- strong powerful vocals, call and response (background) - Producer- Jerry Wexler - She co-wrote the song with Teddy White (were married and - Piano at the beg, and then drums, and then at end, more horn type instruments) “White Rabbit”- Jefferson Airplane - Grace Slick is main singer and song writer - Psychedelics Rock- starts of simple and then gets more complex and loud= crescendo - No chorus, simple verse, but really about the progression - Alice and Wonderland, drug emphasis 3-25-2016 “Eight Miles High” by Robert Palmer pg. 35 psychedelic drugs had a huge influence on music LSD, acid; “psychedelic” “mind manifesting” substance introduced thanks to CIA “controlled experiments” testing on Allen Ginsberg and Ken Kesey they paid about 100 people experients were called off, and the guniea pigs revolted Kesey and friends began throwing LSD “parties” in San Fran The Grateful Dead always played at them San Fran sixties rockers Jerry Garcia & Bob Weir played folk music and bluegrass all their members came from different backgrounds, very diverse diversity helped them prepare for different audiences LSD came free with admission at “Trips Festivals”; it was not illegal Diverse bands became the rule in sixties rock LSD gave artists a love for the unexpected Drugs and music making have a long history, but specific musical developments have not been connected to drugs Louis Armstrong: loved marijuana, though it may have attributed to his musical creations, none considers him a “pothead” Heroin may have something to do with jazzmen LSD is a special case: a trip can shake a human to their core, results can be personally empowering LSD provides alternative sensory input LSD slows passage of time: gives the listener time to appreciate the musical sound and examine a song careful “sonic bath” immersion rock n roll: emboldened by LSD experience, encouraged by audience who craved experimentation, new generation of rock psychedelia = cultural movement and process of musical innovation Teax’s 13 Floor Eleators saxophonist John Coltrane: opened up a world of possibilities, improvised variations “Eight Miles High” the Byrds. First psychedelic rock hit influenced by Coltrane same month as “Tomorrow Never Knows” the Beatles both songs exemplify the musical impact of the psychedelic experience on rock and roll before dictated by media Sgt. Pepper album; Beatles created the psychedelic sound in the studio, didn’t have to worry about how it sounds in person San Fran bands (like the Dead) weren’t comfortable in the studio, but live many musicians return back to their folk/country roots “The Blues Changes from Day to Day” Southern soul gained prominence alongside Motown Otis Redding from Macon, Georgia only soul artist to appear at th Monterey Pop Festival ’67 greatest triumph: ”sitting on the dock of the bay” died in a plane crash in 1967 Otis Redding Interview: by Jim Delehant even in Paris they sang along to his songs in his language Recorded album with Carla Thomas; took three days to make it covered artists like Marvin Gaye Wrote the song “Respect”: took one day to write and 20 minutes to arrange Stax Records he used to be a well driller He drove Johnny Jenkins to do a recording session; he had the last 30 minutes and he did the song he wrote “These Arms of Mine” this song sold 800,000 copies Muddy Wters & Jimmy reed: big influences loves harmonica, but writes songs with his guitar he plays 8 instruments: 2 true,pets, 2 tenors, guitar, bass, drums, and organ Producer and manager for Arthur Conley people think that all songs by colored ppl are R&B, but this isn’t true Motown: overdubbing, mechanical Stax: whatever you feel, you play Blues changes from day to day big fan of Hank Williams if you want to be a singer, concentrate on it 24 hours a day. You need to focus on one thing. Concentrate and practice. Also write your own songs “Aretha Franklin Earns Respect” Phyl Garland Franklin: one of the first solo female stars in the genre; has a huge impact: tremendous range, gospel technique contract with Atlantic records released 3 consecutive millionselling singles i Never Love a Man The Way I Love You: million selling album Arteha Arrives: Second album RESPECT: negro natinal anthem signed at Columbia records with John Hammond (who discovered Billie Holiday) her music lies in the history of her background: born in Memphis; one of three daughters and 2 songs of a Baptist minister father musically gifted mother died when she was a child they moved north, but the south influenced her her father hired her a piano teacher, but she hated it James Cleveland, gospel singer, came to live with the family; he helped Aretha and her sisters start a gospel group this is where she got her first experience as a singer/performer Aretha grew up meeting artists bc they all stayed at her house Sam Cooke, James Cleveland, Cara Ward Art Tatum: blind jazz pianist influenced her tremendously her father was the greatest artistic influence on her: he gave her timing which is most important toured with her youth choir she just wanted to be a housewife when she was 19, convinced her she could be famous; she attended classic in NY to polish Jerry Weller: atlantic records; signed her again she doesn’t have to try: soul is embedded in her; she deeply identifies with all different people she likes quiet; she’s a homebody always does what’s real to her biggest scandal: went on stage 8 months pregnant, secretly married manager Ted White ————————————————————— 3/25 George Clinton: Ultimate Liberator of Constipated Notions by WA Brower George Clinton: dresses up like its halloween the whole yer Head of Funk; “the Dr.” wizard of finance and big reality in the record business P. Funk Earth Tour: 30 million dollars in 2 years album: One Nation Under A Groove went platinum dilemma: how to outflank his last show (Apollo mothership 1/4million$) the antitour, smaller tour, no props, just the real fans fun to talk to used to own a New Jersey barbershop; only thing left standing during the ’67 riots from North Carolina, spend his early years in Virginia plenty of feet in the bass drums and thumping ostinatos in the bass guitars, sock cymbal; funk is rhythmic rawest r&b happening today ascends from sounds from: papa James Brown, Sly Stone, Hendrix the antithesis of DISCO 1. Parliament: the #1 selling funk, draws heavily from the James Brown style 2. Funkadelic: a guitar band bordering black rock with its own cultlike following; heavy metal in tradition of hendrix Clinton is a master of layering five female singers playing various characters and popping in and out of the ParliamentFunkadelic show on stage, Clinton leavesmmost singing to the five ladies “rhythm and business” rather than exploring sex, he defetishes and satirizes “I Have No Message Whatever” by Cameron Crowe Interview with David Bowie David Bowie: glam artist; campiness and androgyny ; glitterati Interview with Bowie: he is bisexual and uses it to his advantage he exploited bisexuality because America forces him into it; he started this movement he wasn’t the first one to dress like this and wear makeup: James Dean did posed in drag for his album cover keeps himself from getting bored, doesn’t know which direction he’s going in references cocaine “David Jones” “Ziggy Stardust” he always wanted to be a film director made a lot of concept albums; he needs to make things he enjoys, they must be visual he said he finds rock depressing and sterile, even evil disco music is endless numb beat he had the biggest disco hit “Fame” and “Golden Years” he loves disco became a rock n roller because he was broke; it was an enjoyable way of making money and taking years to puzzle out his next move; he was a painter before that don’t be scared of art its important to make mistakes ————————————————————————————— “The Myth of Staggerlee” Sly Stone played important role in development in funk: the role of the bass expanded as Larry Graham of Sly and the Family Stone created an innovative thumbpopping technique the music is like a vacuum “racial contradictions” were worked out connection between music and American myths ————————————————— CLASS 3/25: Jimmy Page (Led Zeppelin) Led Zeppelin: Blues Rock about power, taking blues songs and making them your own Jimmy Hendrix- - Pushes boundaries of guitar - Someone who does overly sexual things with the guitar - Guitar is a sex symbol- power and control Black Sabbath- - Cross- ironic o All about Satin and evil, but cross is in picture - Music is intense - Fan base are all the same - Instense Parliament, George Clinton’s group- - Spaceship David Bowie/ nick Romsen- - Not sure what they are doing on stage- purposeful - Did a lot of drugs - Creating to be a character and then becomes the character Sly in the Family Stone - Starts as a sole group o Has funk elements, but still is sole like and very optimimstic o Multi racial, mixed gender group - Riot- album o Pessimistic album o Undeniably funk music- shift in style o Changes in the civil rights movement- Martin Luther King assassinated Increase in violence - Idea of staggerlee Myth o Murder that occurs un 1985 bwtween Billy Lyons and Stage Lee Shelton- Lyons stole Lee’s hat, so Lee shot him. Lee was black and becomes a folk story and he becomes known as a symbol of a big black scary guy. o White artists would take this and add it to their songs in order to emphasize their fear o blacks o Sly takes on this image George Clinton article- - Music that people can dance to - Message- appeal to the audience and you o Trying to help the black people get out of the ghetto o Music should help them o Freedom from oppression or poverty- to go somewhere else APMR: Bangs, "In which yet another pompous blowhard...," p. 61-63 - Bangs based his writing off rock and roll; he writes with passion - punk means rock in its most basic form - been around from the beginning - punk rock = r&r in its most basic form; it has existed throughout the history of r&r - in the 50s, people couldn’t “play instruments” or “didn’t know how to sing” but now we still listen to those songs - R&R is an art form - anyone can do it, doesn’t matter if you have talent or not - to perform, all you need is NERVE; it’s an attitude, it’s about believing - passion is what it’s all about - “Louie Louie” by the Kinsmen is a prime example of punk rock: it was crude, rude, anyone could play it - just because it’s so simple doesn’t make it worse - The Dolls - r&r is about breaking the form APMR: Frere-Jones, "1979," 65-67. -The Clash: “London Calling” album - punk rock had become their responsibility - they had more music and faith in punk than anyone else - their lyrics talk about riots, American imperialism, etc. - Writter Mark Perry said “punk died the day the Clash signed CBS” - The Clash worked hard to be magical - reggae permits a lot of it - punk has offshoots How Disco Changed Music Forever - It was a four-on-the-four bassline, euphoric strings, fierce cowbells and a soaring vocal straight out of the church and on to the dancefloor. More importantly it created a place – or rather it soundtracked a space – outside the mainstream. A place where black, Hispanic, gay and any combination thereof could come together and dance, love and just be without fear. - Helped the gay movement o Became more acceptible o Helped make the first gay pop star- Sylvester - Basis of many songs called for unity - Many of the songs were meant for gay people, but it was masked - Disco Demolition Night at Comiskey Park in Chicago in the summer of 1979- wanted disco to stop- mostly homophobic o Did not kill disco- it has such a huge influence nowadays and the messages were still there o Disco just evolved over time- nothing died- it changed into the music we hear today and still is present in some beats “Four on the Floor”- - Hitting bass drum with every beat, Funk and Disco Terms- - Riff based - Rhythmic - Horns - Dico comes from funk- more polished Disco- - Helped with diversity - Racially diverse- just based on sexual orientation - Being gay in NY is not easy, so it becomes more accepting - Becomes popular because of Saturday Night fever movie o John Travolta is heterosexual and makes it cool to listen to disco and incorporates disco - Death of disco o AIDS epidemic takes its toll on artists o Disco Demolition at baseball o Homophobic backlash- really about gay people- not just the music Punk- Lester Bangs article- - All about passion and attitude - All inclusive- anyone can do it- you should do it yourself - Know three chords and can be a punker o Reminds us of blues and early rock and roll o Punk has been around forever All about rebellion and can do it Just a new name - “I want to be sedated”- Ramones o Heavy guitar o Drums o Simplistic, repetitive, riff based o Fast tempo- a lot of energy o Not too annunciated o About drugs Because he is disillutioned bby everything around him Angry about something - The Clash is different o From London o More musically polished o Outwardly rebellious and anti establishment o More compex o Reggae influence Short riffs and position of them Emphasis on horns Genre Identifiers: (The full chart doesn't fit here, so write it out) *Note: It’s been heavily hinted at that being able to identify genre and explain our reasoning will be on the test Genre: Blues Rock o Time: Late 60’s o Image and Influence: Power Guitar god image o Melody: Riff Based o Rhythm: Riff Based o Harmony: 12-bar blues o Timbre: Loud Distortion o Instrumentation: Guitar is most important o Form: 12-bar blues Genre: Psychedelic Rock o Time: Late 60’s o Image and Influence: Anti-Establishment Drugs (LSD) Folk, blues o Melody: Slow o Rhythm: Sometimes it can be rather simple. But in cases of the Grateful Dead “Dark Star” it can be really all over the place. They don’t even have drums in this portion to let the rhythm go freely and let the people feel it. o Harmony: Blues scale Pentatonic scales o Timbre: Reverb o Instrumentation: Guitar is most important o Form: Long Improv jams Genre: Soul o Time: Late 60’s o Image and Influence: Civil rights o Melody: Call and response o Rhythm: Simple rhythm, a lot of songs have drums and hi-hats that usually have a swingy jazz beat (ta-ta ta- ta ta-ta ta) o Harmony: o Timbre: Emotional Powerful Singing with a purpose in their voice o Instrumentation: Horn-instruments, basically they took over the choir parts in church music from which Soul originated o Form: Genre: Funk o Time: Late 60s/1970s o Image and Influence: Theatrical Performances (ex: parliament and their spaceship) Black Pride Soul and gospel influence o Melody: Rhythmic Riffs o Rhythm: Interlocking rhythms o Harmony: N/A o Timbre: Slap Bass Heavy and loud o Instrumentation: Bass Horn Section o Form: Genre: Reggae o Time: Late 60s/1970s o Image and Influence: Ska, Rocksteady and soul influence Rastafari o Melody: riff based o Rhythm: Off-beats o Harmony: o Timbre: Soft o Instrumentation: Vocals Horn section Caribbean instruments o Form: Genre: Heavy Metal o Time: 1970s o Image and Influence: Very masculine, “tough’ Big, long hair Theatrical performances (ex: alice cooper sacrificing a baby, being beheaded, and coming back to life on stage) Mythology (Satanism) o Melody: Slow tempo High pitched and piercing sound o Rhythm: Riff based High pitched o Harmony: Tritone o Timbre: High pitched vocals Falsetto Distorted and grinding sound o Instrumentation: Drums Bass Vocals guitar o Form: Genre: Glam rock o Time: 1970’s o Image and Influence: Person v. persona (ex: david bowie v. ziggy stardust) Theatricality o Melody: o Rhythm: Danceable (catchy) o Harmony: o Timbre: Performance on stage is really the main point o Instrumentation: Vocals are main focus o Form: Genre: Disco o Time: 1970s o Image and Influence: Dance, originated in gay clubs. o Melody: o Rhythm: 4 on the floor o Harmony: o Timbre: o Instrumentation: Usually a good amount of horns. Consistent drum beats. Chorus in the background that completes the group. o Form: Genre: Punk o Time: Late 1970s/1980’s o Image and Influence: Anti-establishment, originates from CBGB in NYC. DIY Influences of pop and surf
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