Chapter 11 Study Guide
Chapter 11 Study Guide BIOL 1014
Arkansas Tech University
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Surani Notetaker on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1014 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Jacqueline Bowan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Sciences in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Chapter 11 Review Questions Answer Key 1. Homeostasis is the process by which an organism maintains constant internal conditions in the face of fluctuating external conditions. 2. The three components of a homeostatic system are (c) sensor, effector, controller. 3. See the following chart Component Function Sensor Measures the property being regulated Effector Either increases or decreases value of the system Controller Relays information between sensors and effectors 4. Negative feedback is keeping the organism at a constant set point, whenever the system deviates from that set point force is applied in the opposite direction. Small changes in the system are immediately corrected by applying a force in the opposite direction. 5. Your body senses temperature changes in two ways: core temperature sensors located deep in the brain in the hypothalamus sense blood temperature and skin temperature sensors which detects changes in temperature in the outside environment. 6. The basal metabolic rate is (a) the number of Calories you need to maintain your body’s processes when resting and fasting. 7. Your body can cool itself through convection (heat flows from you to moving outside air), evaporation (energy lost when sweat evaporates), radiation (heat transferred from reddened skin to outside air due to dilated blood vessels), and conduction (heat travels form warm solid to colder solid (like ice pack). Your body can warm itself through shivering (increases metabolic rate), constriction of blood vessels (reduces heat loss), goose bumps (don’t work for us any more you have to have fur), and insulation (fat). 8. Fever is an immune system response to an infection. The hypothalamus resets the set point to a higher temperature. In heat stroke the set point does not change but the temperature rises because the effectors can’t get rid of the heat quickly enough. 9. Convection, radiation, evaporation, and conduction are all methods of heat transfer. Fever (e) is not a method of heat transfer. 10. Method of Heat Definition Transfer Convection Heat flows from warmer solid to moving liquid or gas Evaporation Heat transfer as liquid changes to gas Radiation Heat transfer through infrared rays Conduction Heat flows from warmer solid to cooler solid 11.The part of the brain most involved in homeostatic control is (d) the hypothalamus. 12.Diffusion is a process by which molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Osmosis is a specific form of diffusion which only applies to water and must involve membranes. It is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane down a concentration gradient of water. This means from an area of low solute concentration (high water concentration) to an area of high solute concentration (low water concentration). 13.The three main regions of the kidney are the cortex, which contains the nephrons (primary filtering unit), the medulla which collects concentrated salty fluids, and the renal pelvis where the urine collects before it is sent to the bladder. Nephrons contain Bowman’s capsule, glomerulus, two convoluted tubules, and a loop of Henle. 14.Urine is a collection of urea and other waste products diluted with water. It is primarily made in the nephrons. 15. The three functions of the kidney are filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. The Bowman’s capsule filters out urea, water, and many small compounds. Much of the filtrate is reabsorbed as the first convoluted tubule passes through the cortex. The loop of Henle then passes through the salty medulla where more important compounds and water are reabsorbed as osmosis moves water into the tissue surrounding the loop. Reabsorption and secretion continue as the filtrate passes through the second convoluted tubule. Urine is then collected by the collecting tubule which connects to the renal pelvis. Initially filtering removes most of the fluid from the blood. Reabsorption moves useful compounds from the filtrate back into the blood, while secretion actively transports waste materials from the blood into the filtrate. 16.The hypothalamus releases ADH (Antidiuretic hormone), which is the water balance effector, when you become dehydrated. 17.ADH causes the collecting tubules in the kidney to open special pores. When the pores open water is reabsorbed into the kidney and the blood and the volume of urine decreases.
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