MGMT 301 Exam 3 Notes
MGMT 301 Exam 3 Notes MGMT 301
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Thein on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 301 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Ronald Johnson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
MGMT 301 Exam 3 Chapter 8 Know that structure is everywhere o Ex: Google and Structure Staff meetings, quarterly agendas Good strategy but structure lacked Created MIS and financial systems About scale and strategy o Structure supports your strategy Organizing/Structure definition (3 elements) o Structure – anything composed of parts arranged together in some way o Organizing – arranging tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work (requires structure) Divide up work Arrange resources Coordinate activities Formal vs. informal o Informal The network of unofficial relationships among an organization’s members Pros – can help you do your job better by getting to know people outside your group; motivate and build social groups Cons – if you don’t understand it, it can turn out very bad for you Social network analysis o Formal Official structure of the organization, it aligns positions, people, and responsibilities in the best ways Organization Charts – know “elements” slide o Org chart shows where you belong in the structure o Provides: Division of work Chain of command Span of control Tall – narrow; big corporations; break up into sections so each manager has less people but you don’t communicate much with lower level. o Slower, bureaucracy and red tape Flat – new businesses; everyone reports to boss; as you get bigger its harder to manage o Flexible; broader; undifferentiated Communication flow Major units Staff vs. line Levels of mgmt Staff versus Line reporting o Line – responsible for business functions Developing, making, and selling products Ex: manufacturing manager, marketing employee, long haul trucker for Walmart o Staff – plays important support roles, but do not directly bring in revenue Ex: accounting, HR, EHS, legal, etc. Social Networking Analysis o One way of identifying the informal structures and their embedded social relationships that are active in an organization o Asks people to identify others whom they turn to for help most often, whom they communicate with regularly, and who energizes and de energizes them Five types of structure know all 5 o Functional Benefits – economies of scale, broad expertise, training for skill, functional career paths Easiest, most popular Structural issues: Silos and chimneys – when you’re competing against others and act in own self interest rather than what’s best for the company Works best in small organizations that produce only one or a few products or services in places that have relatively stable environments Downsides – when an organization is divided into functions it can be hard to pinpoint responsibilities for things such as cost containment, product or service quality, and innovation o Divisional Benefits – focused experts, better coordination, increase accountability, grow/shrink easier 3 ways: Product – centered around individual products or product formation Geographical – used when they need to focus attention on the unique product tastes or operating requirements of particular regions Customer based – organizing around a single customer or customer type o Ex: P&G could organize around Walmart Video – wall street money never sleeps Almost always see functional within divisional Ex: GE – focused expertise; Google and Alphabet; Lowe’s – divided into north, south, and west o Matrix Benefits – accountability to projects, better communication, teams solve issues, top mgmt. focus on Organize around projects Two managers – functional and project Crossfunctional teams – members come together from different functional departments to work on a common task Issues – two boss system can lead to power struggles o Team “Getting big by staying small” Benefits – improve communication, cooperation, decisions, stronger relationships, can boost morale Seen in every organization, but is the least used as an official structure Ex: Hunger Games o Network Benefits – lower costs, access to experts, grow/shrink with market conditions Organized with a small core number of employees and independent subcontractors who you call in to do projects with you Keep core costs low and expand when needed Ex: Oprah going to Australia Ron’s Bean Bag Company – know example Read section 8.3 – flat vs. tall, central vs. decentralized, delegation and empower o Flat vs. Tall Taller organizations are generally viewed as less efficient, less flexible, and less customer sensitive More levels; narrower spans of control Flatter – general trend towards these Fewer levels; wider spans of control o Central vs. Decentralized Centralized – when top management keeps the power to make most decisions Decentralization – when top management allows lower levels to make decisions on matters where they are best prepared or informed o Delegation and Empower Delegation – process of entrusting work to others by giving them the right to makes decisions and take action Assign responsibility – explains tasks and expectations to others Grant authority – allow others to act as needed to complete tasks Create accountability – require others to report back on the completed tasks When delegation is done well it leads to empowerment Process of giving people the freedom to contribute ideas, make decisions, show initiative, and do their jobs in the best possible ways Unlocks the full power of talent, experience, and intellect that people bring to their jobs Chapter 11 Leader/Manager list Manager Leader Administers Innovates Systems/structure Focus on people Maintains Develops Relies on control Inspires trust Shortrange view Longrange view Asks how and when Asks what and why Maintains status quo Challenges status quo Does things right Does the right thing Execution Strategy, vision o Leaders are made – training and experience 3 definitions leadership o Book – communicate vision, build enthusiasm, motivate commitment and hard work o Slides – when one individual influences a group to want to reach important (big) goals o 3 R’s Right experiences Right training Right attitude (ambition) Big 4 o Trait o Behavior o Contingency o Transform Power (position and personal – 5 types) o Managerial power = positional power + personal power Ex: mighty macs movie – Immaculata university o Position power Legitimate = the boss Reward = carrot Coercion = stick o Personal power Expert Referent Ex: The Power of the Social Network – Mark Zuckerberg comes in with expert power, but his referent power is low because he has a bad attitude Visionary overview – Jack Welch video o Shows great example of elements of strategic vision o Vision should be simple and repeated over and over (globalization, six sigma, new business) o Have to rally people Trait approach – Gardner’s list Leader Traits Physical vitality Intelligence Accept responsibility Task competence Understand others People skill Achievement need Motivate others Courage Trust worthy Decisive Selfconfidence Assertive Flexible NACE o Competency means trait o Degree is not on the list Leadership competencies o Leading self o Leading others o Leading the organization Behavior Style know 4 styles (clicker questions o Film industry – human relations o Tide pods – democratic o Call center – autocractic o Dillbert comic – laissez faire Contingency or situational (Fiedler –task, position Leader/member relation) o Ex: Remember the Titans Example of the contingency approach that combines leadership style with context o Fiedler Contingency Approach Step #1 determine leadership style: least preferred coworker (LPC) Task motivated (low LPC score) relationship motivated (high LPC score) Step #2 – match style with situation: “three contextual variables” Leader to member Good Poor relationship Task structure Structured Unstructured Position power Strong Weak Position power – hire, fire, promote Ex: Harry Potter Bank teller – production, structured environment Ex: Screen Actors Guild – relationship motivated Ex: PSU student org leader – relationship motivated Hersey/Blanchard know table 4 elements and axis o HB Example Style PepsiCo Job PSU students Telling – instruct New recruit co. intro Fresh/soph intro classes st Selling – explain 12 years, 1 Smeal major classes assignment Participating – share Starting role Graduate school – MBA supervision Delegating – turn over Seasoned manager Ph.D. Transformational 4 elements from Bass o Intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, idealized influence o Video – Facing the Giants: example of organizational and personal transformational leadership style – death crawl blindfolded Emotional Intelligence Approach o Emotional competencies Self aware Self mgmt. Social aware Relation mgmt. o Video – blazing saddles, punching horse o IQ + TQ < > EQ Read 3 other elements in book (moral, servant, int.) Chapter 12 Perception o The process where people receive and interpret information from their environment (filter) o Berlo’s SMCR Source – encodes Message – content, structure Channel – sight, sound, touch, smell, taste Receiver – decodes (filter and distortions) Filter based on previous knowledge, previous experience, bias towards issue/speaker Noise – anything that messes with the message o Video – what women want Filtering and distortions (stereo, halo, select, proj) o Stereotypes – generalization about a group o Halo – let your first impression be your impression always Key – give people space to grow o Selective – only take in information that interests you Confirmation bias Video – selective perception – example of how we tend to selectively look at many things visually as well as cognitively (21 changes) o Projection your thoughts, ideas, and view going out to other people Are you like me? Ex: generations in the US Attribution (selfserving, fundamental error) o Fundamental attribution error – it’s their fault They are performing poorly Them o Selfserving bias – it’s not my fault I am performing poorly You Impression MGMT – minor need to understand Personality o Individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving o Video – Big Bang Theory: rock, paper, scissors, lizard, spock Trait – and Big Five Positive Negative Extraversion Outgoing Reserved Agreeableness Good others Bad others Conscientiousness Works well Works poor Emotional stability Steady Anxious Openness to experience Open minded Close minded o Extraversion is the weakest of the big 5; 50% of CEO’s are introverts o Trait (personality) – measures how much of a characteristic you have Type and MBTI o Meyers Briggs Type Indicator (consistent across nations) Measures 4 dimensions of personality, each with 2 poles and you will clearly learn towards one All letter types are equal and possess strengths All types have blind spots Big issue: different not wrong Component #1 Extraversion and Introversion o Where do you get your energy o Extraverts energized by people, places Blind spot – listen more o Introverts figure things out inside Blind spot – share more Component #2 Sensing and iNtuition o Information o Sensing Facts Applied Present Practical o Intuition Concepts Theory Relation Hunches Sensing – concrete stuff; past and present applied; o Great at specifics and then they make general conclusions Intuition – start with general and then goes to specific if needed Component #3 Thinking and Feeling o Decisions o Thinking – problem first, people second o Feeling – people first, problem second Component #4 Judging and Perceiving o Life/work style o Judging – structure and organization To do list o Perceiving – flexibility and spontaneity Constantly rotating and reprioritizing Stress check out (constructive and destructive) o Stress – tension (physical and mental) from heavy demands, constraints and opportunities Constructive stress and Destructive stress – based on context Attitude and Emotion intelligence (formula) o Attitude – predisposition to act in a certain way (positive or negative) based on a decided mental state Locus of control know & 3 other elements (Mach) o Locus of control In terms of how we are wired and our experiences Internal – its on me, internally driven External – someone else drives my behavior, trouble taking credit when they’re successful or when they fail o Authoritarianism o Machiavellianism High mac Low mac o SelfMonitoring Goleman video Chapter 13 Video of Jordan Romero o Climbed highest mountain on each continent o Climbed Mt Everest at age 13 o Example of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation combined to create ability and performance 2 equations (ability and performance) o P = f(A x M) Performance = f(ability x motivation) Lots of people have talent, but they don’t succeed because they don’t want to work on their craft o A = f(A x (T+E)) Ability = f(aptitude x (training and experience)) Aptitude is never enough, you need training and experience Motivation (theoretically): attempts to explain what drives our behavior o Motivation results in ability development and performance results o Internal and external drivers Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland – Needs o Maslow o sel sfl act ual iza tio ne esteemedeed s social need safety need physiological need Deficit – once you’ve met a need it doesn’t motivate you anymore Progression – satisfy 1 need then move up Need and motivation go hand in hand o Alderfer – ERG Needs Theory Existence Relatedness Growth Maslow condensed with a twist – all 3 exist at the same time, no progression or deficit principle o McClelland – Acquired Needs Achievement Power – personal/social Affiliation Ex – Cancer recovery motivation game – example of McClelland’s achievement, power, and affiliation need approach to motivation Herzberg – KITA (video), hygiene and satisfice o Video Hygiene needs – mans relationship to environment How you’re treated at work, salary, supervision, conditions Don’t motivate you Motivators – want to be something more than you were before what do you let me do at work, am I advancing, is what I do meaningful/significant o Satisfier Factor Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Job content – motivates us People who want to do something want to be allowed to do it o Hygiene Factor Working conditions Coworkers Wages and benefits Quality supervisor Policies and rules Job Context – does not motivate us A lack in these can be demotivaters Ex – tech companies take great care to satisfy hygiene needs to allow the satisfier factors to flourish Equity – know diagram – 2 issues (input/output and comparison to referent) o Idea of fairness really factors in Compare ourselves to others o In workplace and in school Salary and perks Projects Workload Supervision Outcome Expectancy – expectancy, instrumentality and Valence o Expectancy – do you believe you can do it Example – do you believe that you have the ability complete a PSU degree? o Instrumentality – confidence, you can do it, performance required Example – when you think of the performance required to get this degree what is your level of confidence that you will hit this performance level? o Valence – do you value it Example – completing the degree will provide value to you – how much value do you put on this? Effort performance reward (Expectancy) (Instrumentality) (Valence) M = (E x I x V) If you’re low in any of these, your motivation will be zero o Video – woman who graduated PSU after being a teen mom Goals know 5 elements o Clarity o Challenge o Commitment o Feedback o Task company o SMART Protocols Specific Measureable Attainable Realistic Time bound Reinforcement & Law of Effect o Reinforcement – pain and pleasure Vid – big bang theory – gives Penny chocolate for not talking o The law of effect – good behavior is rewarded so you continue to act that way and receive rewards Started with cat puzzle boxes – learned to open door to get food Skinner and operant conditioning o Condition the operator Ways to positive and punish reinforcement o Video – Richard Branson – example of positive reinforcement in industry Important that they genuinely care about the people they’re managing Make sure everything works right for your employees
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