Dr. Greene Exam 3 Study Guide
Dr. Greene Exam 3 Study Guide NTRI 2000-002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 Exam 3 Study Guide: Ch 6, 8, 9 Chapter 6: Proteins • Protein Structure= nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (make up amino acids) • Amino acids= building blocks of proteins • Essential amino acids= 9 of them • Nonessential amino acids= 11 of them • Conditionally essential amino acids= times like infancy or disease→ more amino acids necessary • Primary structure= sequence of amino acids SHAPE =FUNCTION • Peptide bonds= what connects amino acids together • Denaturation= unfolding of protein, loses its shape/function; happens from heat, strong acids/bases, and heavy metals • Transcription= amino acid sequence from DNA turned to messenger RNA • Translation= amino acids are put together in ribosome by transfer RNA • Central Dogma of Biology= DNA→RNA→protein • Silent Mutation= mutation in DNA sequence, but still codes for same amino acid so no problem • Sickle Cell Anemia= one amino acid change; affects red blood cells • Celiac Disease= cant break down gluten because sensitive to small peptides and amino acids found in it; genetic disease • Maramus= starvation resulting from not enough protein and not enough calories • Kwashiorkor= enough calories but not enough protein; edema occurs Ch 6 Concepts to Know: • Digestion of Proteins o Stomach § Gastrin→ releases pepsin and acid (HCl) which break denatures proteins and breaks peptide bonds o Pancreas § Releases CCK into small intestine which causes pH to go back down and causes other protein breaking enzymes to be released o Small Intestine § Primary absorption site § Amino acids absorbed into portal vein, taken to liver, then to bloodstream o Amino Acid Fate→ nitrogen disposed of in urine or urea • Functions of Proteins: o How much protein do you need? • 0.8 g per kg • 1kg= 2.2 lbs How do Veagans get enough protein? • Use complementary proteins= combine different types of foods to get all essential amino acids • Complete protein= animal products (have all essential amino acids) • Incomplete proteins= plant products (don’t have all essential amino acids) Food Allergies→ususally caused by sensitivity to a protein Chapter 8: Vitamins Overview: • Vitamin= 1) organic substances body needs in only small amounts 2) Essential 3) Nonncaloric • Megadose= huge dose of Vitamins (2-‐10 times RDA) ; risk for toxicity (especially in fat soluble Vitamins) • Vitamin preservation= more vitamins in riper foods • Fat soluble Vitamins= absorbed by chylomicrons; stored in liver; not easily excreted • Water soluble Vitamins= absorbed in blood; excess excreted through urine Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Functions Dietary Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms Other Sources Symptoms Vitamin -‐promotes Preformed: -‐Night Blindess Preformed: Consists of A vision: night -‐ liver Xerophthalmia= -‐ birth defects Retinols and color -‐ fortified drying of the -‐ liver toxicity (preformed) -‐Promotes milk eyes Carotenoids: and growth -‐cereals -‐Poor growth -‐no toxic effect Carotenoids -‐Prevents Carotenoids: -‐Dry Skin -‐ side effect is drying of skin -‐dark hypercarotenemia How to and eyes green/ which causes skin remember: -‐Supports yellow to turn orange Eyes and Immune vegetables skin function (cardiovascular disease, cancer Vitamin -‐ Increases -‐Fortified -‐Rickets= -‐Calcium deposits -‐Also D abruption of Milk softening of in soft tissue hormone Calcium -‐ Cerals bones in children -‐ which can cause -‐body can -‐ Regulates -‐Fatty fish -‐osteomalacia= kidney damage make it in Calcium in softening of -‐ cannot happen presence of bone and bones in adults from sun exposure sun excretion How to remember: Sun and bones Vitamin -‐ Antioxidant; -‐Plant -‐can cause cell -‐can interfere with How to E prevents oils(salad membranes to clotting remember: breakdown of dressing, break down -‐ can lead to Antioxidant, Vitamin A and mayo) -‐hemolysis= hemorrhage cell unsaturated -‐cereals RBC cant work membrane fatty acids -‐fruits and -‐nerve veggies degeneration Vitamin -‐ blood clotting -‐ leafy -‐hemorrhage No risk of toxicity How to K -‐ activates veggies -‐bone fractures remember: proteins for -‐liver Klotting and bone plant oils bones metabolism (Ca) Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Functions Dietary Deficiency Toxicity Other/Main Sources point Vitamin C -‐formation of Dietary form= None None fruits collagen/connective ascorbic acid tissue -‐citrus fruits -‐makes hormones -‐broccoli -‐antioxidant -‐greens Vitamin B-‐6 -‐Coenzyme -‐Animal -‐GI tract issues Tingling in Classic B-‐ -‐Amino acid protein -‐nervous extremeties Vitamin metabolism -‐leafy greens system issues characteristics -‐synthesis of -‐skin issues neurotransmitters -‐makes RBC Vitamin B-‐12 -‐coenzyme to folate Same as B Pernicious Same as B Must bind to -‐nerve function anemia= intrinsic (myelin sheaths) anemia factor (made leading to by stomach) in death; vegans order to at risk function -‐folates friend Folate -‐coenzyme for -‐leafy greens Megoblastic None likely Needs B-‐12 making of DNA and -‐ orange juice anemia= -‐anemia amino acids -‐sunflower immature RBC -‐ seeds produce nervous system problems Spina Bifida Thiamin (B1) -‐helps release -‐pork -‐Beriberi= None likely coenzyme energy from carbs -‐whole grains weakness of -‐ -‐cerals nervous system Riboflavin -‐help in energy -‐milk Nervous none coemzyme (B2) metabolism -‐grains system issues (coenzymes) Niacin (B3) -‐same as riboflavin Same Same none coenzyme Pantothenic -‐helps in energy Same None none coenzyme Acid metabolism (Coenzyme-‐A) Chapter 9: Water and Minerals: • Functions of water o 1.) solvent for chemical reactions o 2.) body temp regulation o 3.) Removes waste products o 4.) Cushions and lubricates • intracellular= water inside cell • extracellular= water outside cell • Ions/electrolytes= controls water movement in/out of cell; are minerals with a charge • Water loss o 1-‐2%: thirsty o 4%: muscles lose strength/endurance o 20%: coma or death • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)= released by pituitary gland to kidneys to conserve water • Alderstone= released from pituitary when blood volume decreases; to conserve water • Water intoxication= too much water in short period of time; dilutes body’s sodium • Major Minerals= >100 mg/day • Minor Minerals= <100 mg/day • Trace Minerals= can be toxic in excess • Bioavailability= how much our body can absorb from food sources o Animal sources→better bioav. than plant sources • Mineral Binders= oxylates and phytates Major Minerals Mineral Function Dietary Sources Deficiency Toxicicty Other Calcium (Ca) -‐ transport of -‐dairy Osteoporosis= -‐most ions across -‐breads/rolls decreased bone abundant membrane -‐leafy greens mass; fractures mineral in body -‐ maintains low -‐fortified easily -‐absorb 25% blood pressure products -‐decreased -‐muscle bone contractions density→can -‐Secretion of also be releated hormones/ to Vitamin D enzymes deficiency -‐helps blood clotting Sodium (Na) -‐fluid balance -‐table salt Rare Rare -‐absorb 100%; -‐nerve impulse -‐proccessed -‐same as water -‐some are most in bones conduction food toxicity sensitive -‐absorption of though→leads glucose to increased blood pressure Chloride (Cl) -‐major -‐salt None rare Negative ion of extracellular fluid -‐produces stomach acid (HCl) Potassium (K) -‐major Positve -‐spinach rare -‐can raise ion in squash blood pressure intracellular -‐legumes -‐kidney failure fluid milk -‐can even stop -‐fluid balance -‐meat heart -‐nerve (most impulses unprocessed foods) Trace Minerals Mineral Function Dietary Deficiency Toxicity Other Source Iron (Fe) -‐component of Heme iron= Anemia= Hemochromatosis= Absorb about hemoglobin found in most decreased genetic; reddening 18% (oxygen to meats oxygen in cells of skin from Types: cells) Non heme Pica= increased iron Heme iron= -‐immune iron= nuts, neurological absorption associated function eggs, raisins, dysfunction; -‐can cause organ with RBC and whole grains, makes you damage if not muscle(easier leafy greens want to eat treated to absorb) weird things Non-‐heme like dirt/clay iron= other types Zinc (Zn) -‐cofactor for High protein -‐rash Can interfere with Absorb 40% enzymes foods diarrhea Copper metabolism -‐growth -‐especially -‐reduced sense wound animal of taste healing sources and -‐immune seafood system -‐antioxidant Selenium -‐antioxidant -‐meat -‐muscle/heart -‐nausea, vomitting (Se) -‐protects cell -‐eggs problems membrane -‐fish -‐Se in soil -‐grains Iodide (I) -‐production of -‐iodized salt Cells of thyroid Can inhibit thyroid thyroid -‐white bread become synthesis hormone enlarged (goiter) Copper (Cu) -‐helps iron -‐liver -‐anemia Unlikely Absorption metabolism -‐legumes poor growth Wilson’s Disease= varies from -‐formation of -‐whole grains genetic; 12-‐75% (the connective -‐chocolate accumulation of Cu more you take tissue -‐kidney damage in, the less you -‐cofactor for absorb) antioxidant enzymes
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