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SOC 100 Exam 3 Study Guide

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by: luke koppa

SOC 100 Exam 3 Study Guide SOC 100

luke koppa
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About this Document

Guide covering all material gone over in class, including all clicker questions. I will be updating it as we cover the last part of Chapter 8.
General Sociology
John Brouillette
Study Guide
SOC 100, sociology, deviance, social stratification
50 ?




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1 review
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"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and luke delivered. Shoutout luke, I won't forget!"
Oral Koepp Jr.

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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by luke koppa on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at Colorado State University taught by John Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 372 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Behavioral Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 04/06/16
Chapter 7 Deviance  Illegal drug use o Clicker­ more likely to be arrested for drug use if white or black?  Overwhelming response of more likely if the person in black o National consensus is that drug use in general is fairly equal across all races o Incarceration rate is not equal­ more African Americans incarcerated   Aurora and Newtown: Who’s to Blame? o Movies? TV? Video games? o Warped personalities/ mental illness? o Physiological disorders?  o School security systems? o Parents? Teachers? Politicians?  o Policies that give easy access to guns?   Deviance  o Deviating from what is normal o Statistical deviation= what is not common o In this class= behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms  in the society   Clicker­ How is crime different from Deviance? o 80% said crime is a violation of a norm enacted into law  Clicker­ have you cheated in past 4 years o Majority have   Clicker­ professor sees a student cheating, what should he do? o 95% said either warn/move (33%) or give student an F on the test (62%)  95% said something should at least be done   Clicker­ what would you do if you saw another student cheating in class o 86% said nothing  o Role strain of professors­ want to be a friend/helper but also have responsibility as a monitor/enforcer of rules  General paradigms of deviance o Biological  Some people are just more inclined to deviate due to their DNA  o Psychological  Mental cause of deviance  o Sociological  Deviance as a result of social factors   Sociological perspectives on deviance o Functionalist  Looks at society at a macro level   Look to discover why/where deviance occurs and seek to work together to  get rid of deviance  Merton’s Strain Theory  States that: Deviance is the result of a gap between a society’s  culturally defined goals & the means available to achieve them  Example: need to have an A in the course but professor only gives  out 2 A’s each semester o Inclination to deviate due to large gap between goal  (getting an A) and ability to achieve it (only 2 A’s  available)  Societal Solution: reduce gap by providing more opportunities for  people to reach goals  Individual Solution: change goals/status to reduce gap   Opportunity Theory   States that: strain plus illegitimate opportunity structures are  available  o Gap between goals and means to achieve them, and there is opportunity to achieve goals by deviant means  o Conflict o Clicker­ what is your opinion on marijuana   64% were in favor of current laws  28% support only medical use  8% said it should be illegal  Sociological perspectives on Deviance (continued) o Interactionist   Labeling theory  Acts are deviant or criminal because they have been labeled as  such  A norm violator will be labeled deviant depending on the social  characteristics of the: o Perpetrator  Some people more likely to be defined as deviant  than others   Ex: teen shoplifter vs. elderly shoplifter o Victim  Someone who deserves it vs. innocent   “miniskirt justifies rape”  “young man given shorter sentence due to victims  being homosexual and murderer having no criminal  record, being in college, and whose father is a  police officer” o People who do the labeling  Ex: characteristics of the jurors important o Judge  Clicker: what should be done about veterans committing crimes ? o 2/3 believe they should be punished for the crime but also  should be treated for PTSD  How we are labeled can affect us  Medicalization of deviance  Growing influence of psychiatry and medicine in the US has  influenced definitions of deviance  Medicalization of deviance= transformation of moral and legal  deviance into a medical condition  Differential association theory  Deviant behavior is learned in interaction with others  People we hang out with influence our behavior  Hirschi Control Theory  Deviance occurs when social bonds to conventional institutions,  such as family, school, or employer are weak  May need to use more than one theory when evaluating deviance  Which theory you use makes a difference in your outlook on  deviance o Clicker­ 2 year old is coming over so we better take all the glass vases off the  table­ which theory?  Opportunity theory  o Clicker­ “Beth, be sure to be home from the party by 9. You know what type of  people stay up until 10” ­ which theory?  Differential association   Recorded rate of crime is going down o Peaked in 80’s  o Currently a little higher than 1960 o US Homicide rate is very high compared to other post­industrialized countries o US has highest incarceration rate  Russia has 2 nd o Clicker­ should death penalty be abolished?  No majority  Conventional street crime o Violent­ force against others o Property­ robbery, larceny, motor vehicle theft o Moral­ victimless crimes (prostitution, drugs, illegal pornography) o White collar­ overlooked?  Conflict theorist says that white collar crime receives less attention  because it is committed by the ones making the rules  Ford Pinto Case o Ford was aware of a design flaw from the beginning o Cost benefit analysis internal memo: cost to fix problem vs. cost of lawsuits for  death, injury, and vehicle burnouts o Cost to fix= $137 million ($11 per vehicle) o Cost of lawsuits= $ 49.5 million ($200,000 per death, $67,000 per injury, $700  per vehicle burnout) o Ford calculated that they saved $87.5 million  Chevrolet – ignition issues o Ignition shut off randomly o GM knew of problem earlier, but never issued recall o 13 people died  o Finally recalled   Deviance and Inequality: Socio­Conflict Analysis o Clicker­ have the wealthiest earned it?  Moderately agree that they have earned it justifiably  o Titanic­   76% of 3  class passengers drowned st  Only 40% of the 1  class drowned  o Deviance reflects social inequality o Conflict theorist perspective  o People who we commonly consider deviants share the trait of powerlessness o Norms of any society generally reflect the interests of the rich and powerful o People who threaten the wealthy are defined as thieves or radicals  Conflict Perspectives o Deviance and Power Relations  Lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are often  defined as illegal  Sometimes powerless act out on unfairness  “social dynamite” – rioters  “social Junk” – homeless, poor people o Deviance and Capitalism  Laws and criminal justice system protect the power and privilege of  capitalist class  Capitalism based on private control of wealth  Capitalism depends on productive labor   If not productive = deviant  Capitalism depends on respect for authority  If not = deviant   Anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo is likely to be  defined as deviant   Vice versa­ support capitalism and won’t be declared deviant o Ex: taking to streets for Super Bowl win vs. to protest Wall  Street  o Feminist Approaches  Liberal – women’s deviance arises from gender discrimination   Radical – focuses on patriarchy  Socialistic­ emphasizes the effects of capitalism and patriarchy on  women’s deviance   Less sexism in socialistic countries   Crimes against consumers  Scams  Fraud   Tax evasion  Clicker­ you’re most likely to be a victim of fraud if you belong to which demographic  group? o *Right answer is people older than 50 years old*  Clicker ­ Which types of scam lures the most victims? o Credit Related Scams  Crimes Against the Public o Waste management  Crimes against employees o Wage violations o Health and safety violations  Crimes against employers o Embezzlement o Business credit fraud  White Collar Crime o Specific crimes not important o Much more harmful in general than street crime  Get less attention o Ex: Doug Hughes  Flew a helicopter onto the white house lawn as a demonstration against  political corruption Chapter 8 Social Stratification   Definition: system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy  American Dream o Belief that if people work hard and play by the rules, they will have a chance to  get ahead o Based on assumption that people in the US have equality of opportunity  regardless of race, creed, color, national origin, sex or religion  Clicker­ do you believe that if you work hard you can achieve your goals in America o 60% agree  Global System of Stratification o Slavery: some people owned by others o Caste System: people’s status is determined at birth (ascription) o Class System: people’s status is based on the ownership & control of resources  and on the type of work they do (achievement)  Life Chances o Probabilities of benefiting or suffering from the opportunities or disadvantages  one’s society offers o Life expectancy o Principle cause of death  Cancer, workplace hazard, etc…  o Physical health o Mental health o Justice system o Economic well being  Clicker­ everyone who needs a heart transplant should be able to obtain it even if they  cant afford it o 62% agree  Functional Perspective o Davis Moore Thesis  Inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the smooth  functioning of society  o All societies have certain positions that must be filled  o Some positions are more important than others o Most important positions must be filled by most qualified people o Positions that are most important and require scarce talent, extensive training, or  both must be most highly rewarded o Most highly rewarded positions should be those that are functionally unique (no  other position can perform the same function)  Conflict perspective o Inequality is result of conflict o Differences in resources serve the interests of some and harm others o Inequality is useful only to some people; it is not inevitable o Values and beliefs tend to be ideological ; they reflect the interests of the more  powerful members of society  Critical Evaluation of functionalism o If functional importance really explains high reward that people enjoy, how do  you measure functional importance o Functionalists exaggerate social stratification role in developing individual talent o By contending that social strat. Benefits all of society, the functionalists ignore  how social inequality promotes conflict and sometimes outright revolution   Critical evaluation of conflict theory o Doesn’t motivating people to perform various social roles require some system of  unequal rewards?  Clicker­ social inequality is greatest in _ societies? o 49% ­ Post­industrial (today) o Correct Answer = Agrarian   Global difference between rich and poor o Europe and North Africa tends to be moderate  Not necessarily good  N Africa – everyone is poor o US, South America, China – severe o Among post­industrial countries – US gap between rich and poor is highest  Clicker – income differences in US are too large? o Pretty split o 41% agreed  US Class Structure o Upper class 5%  Upper­upper (<1%)  Most do not have jobs (don’t need them)  So insulated by wealth, so they are not very considered with what  goes on in US.   Busy, not much family time/connection  Nannies are common   Kids go to prestigious private schools for “gracious living”  purposes o Get education, not to learn a vocation/job  Religious – because they’re gracious livers   Lower­upper (4%)  Rich in regard to income, not necessarily wealth  “new rich”  Go to prestigious colleges for careers   Often lots of pressure on kids from parents to succeed   Conservative in regard to sexuality + politics o Husband= moneymaker o Females go to college to find husband  o Not outspoken about politics, but can heavily influence  through money   Religious – help career (societally appropriate thing to do) o Middle class – (45­50%)  Upper­middle 15%  Career oriented o Worked hard to get where they are  Likely to be in debt from education expenses  Conservative politically   Very similar to lower­upper class apart from income level o Want to emulate them  Average­middle 30­35%  Focus on respectability   Go to church – for being good citizens, spirituality, but NOT  career  Mostly white collar, work hard for children  “legitimators” – often hold jobs interacting with youth   Will go into debt to give children education   “credit card class” – don’t have money, but still have goals o Working class 33%  Focus on getting by  Slightly favor liberal, but not by much  Targeted by political candidates due to variability   Value social life, education is necessary evil o Lower class 20%  Living on the edge or apathy   Stays pretty consistent percentage­wise  2008 grew to 25%  Religion – if there is one in the neighborhood they go, if not they don’t  New Class Society o Upper class is 20%  Upper, small diamond shape o Lower/middle is 80%  Lower, large diamond shape o Illustrates distribution better   Does not correspond to wealth distribution  Clicker­ what class did you grow up in? o Overwhelmingly middle class  Clicker – where will you be in 20 years? o Overwhelmingly middle class, and some upper  Who Gets Ahead – Christopher Jencks o Education *  Years of certain levels of education o Who your parents are *  How many children  Father’s career o Luck o Race o Sex o Hard work o * education and parents are most important)  Functionalist see it as acceptable­ education requires hard work  Conflict – we don’t choose our parents, so it’s not fair  Income has been rising steadily since 1950 o However, distribution does not show change as equal among classes  Highest 20% income has risen greatly  But as you go down the classes, income has remained almost the same  From 1940’s – 1980 the increase in income was relatively equally  distributed  Now­ only the upper classes are seeing a rise in income   Clicker – will you be better off fincancially than your parents o 40% yes o 30% no or uncertain  More billionaires than ever o 2003­ 262 billionaires o 2016 – 1810 billionaires o Riches – Bill Gates $75 billion o Richest women ­ $36.1 billion o Oprah – 3 billion o Pat Striker 2.3 billion  From Fort Collins  Likely the “anonymous” donator that donated 25 million for stadium o U.S has 8 of the top 10 billionaires   National study – “Differences in income in US are too large” o Class figures – 61% agree, 10% disagree o National study­ 65% agree, 14% disagree  Some billionaires agree  The Giving Pledge – billionaires donating half of their wealth  Reasons for lower class mobility in US o Rise of the money culture   Making money > content/enjoyment of life o Bank deregulation in 1980’s and 1990’s  Harmful to majority of US, beneficial to super wealthy  o Technology – jobs done by machines o Rise of emerging markets, especially in China and India  Clicker­ Emily and Mark are high school teachers, volunteer every weekend, and are very religious­ what class are they in? o Correct answer= Average Middle Class  Poverty o Relative poverty: poorer in relation to others with more money o Absolute poverty: deprivation of resources that is life­threatening or inability to  afford minimum standards of food, clothing, shelter, and health o Most poverty in US is relative poverty   Who is responsible for poverty o Blame the poor: the poor are mostly responsible for their own poverty  (functionalist) o Blame Society: society is primarily responsible for poverty (conflict)  National study­ who’s responsible for helping the poor o 27% government o 24% people should take care of themselves o 46% combination of both   What is major cause of Poverty? o US, Japan, Australia – lack of individual effort o Mexico, Sweden, Germany­ societal injustice   Poverty rate in US o Normally assume a family of 4 with 2 kids under 18  o Current­ 47 million  14.5% US population   $24,250/year  o 55% more than current poverty rate = 73 million, 22.5% US population  $37,588 / year  o Lifestyle of those at 155% of poverty rate  Never go out to eat, to movies, entertainment, don’t take vacations, hire  babysitters, buy anything in excess  Who are the poor o Age:   19.9% of children under 18  9.5% of elderly 65 and above o Race/Ethnicity  28% of Native Americans   27% of African Americans  23.5% of Hispanic Americans  10.5% Asian Americans  9.6% white o Sex/gender  31% of female head of household  16% male head of household o Workers  14% of the poor work full­time  45% of the poor work at least part­time  To reach 155% of poverty, you need to make $18.07/hour   Well over minimum wage  Hidden Costs of Class o Judgement from others o Feelings of hopelessness  o Acceptance of symbols of inability o Loss of dignity and a sense of accomplishment   Homelessness o 25­40% work o 37% are families with children o 25% are children o 25­30% are mentally disabled o 30% are veterans o 40% drug and alcohol dependent  Cure for poverty? o Answer depends on whom you blame  Clicker­ Welfare vs. Wealthfare­ what does government spend most money on? o 64% said health care for richest 10% of elderly Medicare Beneficiaries  Correct answer   Clicker – government housing subsidies end up going to ­? o More to the middle class than the poor   Welfare distribution o Distributed unequally in a manner that is deemed best o Everyone gets some sort of entitlement   How are we doing? o US is one of richest nations and has one of highest standards of living o Some members of our society are benefitting handsomely while others are not o “Rich getting richer, poor are getting poorer, so it all averages out” 


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