Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 1030
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
O RGANISMAL E XAM 3S TUDY G UIDE K INGDOM F UNGI I. Basic Characteristics a. Zygotic Meiosis i. Zygote undergoes meiosis (zygote is only diploid) ii. Haploid mitosis gametes plasmogamy n + n dikaryotic organism kayogamy zygote meiosis haploid organism iii.Plasmogamy: fusion of everything but nucleus iv. Karyogamy: fusion of nuclei. b. Yeast: single celled fungi that reproduce asexually by budding. c. Hypha (-ae): threadlike filament forming a mycelium d. Mycelium: vegetative part of fungi e. Spores: great variety II. Phylum Chytridiomycota a. Motile spores b. Aquatic c. Flagellated zoospores d. Some parasitic of amphibian skin III. Phylum Zygomycota a. Bread molds b. Aseptate hyphae c. Heterokaryotic d. Zygosporangium e. Thick walled, dormant zygospores IV. Phylum Glomeromycota a. Endomycorrhizae: symbiotic relationship with roots of a plant b. Live with higher plants to give more surface area to absorb water c. Arbuscular mycorrizae: penetrates the roots of the plant V. Phylum Ascomycota a. Sac fungi b. Ascocarp: fruiting body that contained ascospores c. Ascus (-i): a cylindrical sac where the spores develop d. Ascospore: 8 in a typical ascus e. Conidium: asexual, non-motile spores f. Conidiophore: contains the conidium g. Dikaryotic hyphae: delayed karyogamy; 2 nucelui h. Antheridium: male part i. Ascogonium: female sex part VI. Phylum Basidiomycota a. Club fungi b. Basidiocarp: fruiting body that contains basidiospores c. Cap: pileus d. Stipe: stem of fungus e. Gills: where hymenium layer is; syngamy f. Basidiospore: contain 1 haploid nucleus VII. Imperfect fungi a. No sexual stages b. Penicillium VIII.Lichens a. Composite organisms b. Photobiont: The photosynthetic symbiont in a lichen c. Mycobiont: the fungus component of a lichen d. Crutose: tightly bound to rocks, bark e. Foliose: leaf-like f. Fructose: hairy K INGDOM A NIMALIA I. General Characteristics a. Heterotrophic b. Multicellular c. Gametic meiosis d. Tissues, organs, organ systems e. Radial symmetry f. Bilateral symmetry g. Cephalization: the production of a head h. Embryological development i. Morula: wall of cells ii. Blastula: ring of cells iii. Gastrula: two layers are visible, blastocoel and blastopore is visible iv. GASTROLATION: the blastopore pushing in v. Diploblastic: 2 germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm) vi. Tripoblastic: 3 germ layers with a simple gut, only one opening. vii. Complete gut 1. Protostome: mouth was the first hole, anus second 2. Deuterostome: anus was the first hole, mouth second i. Aceolomate: without a body cavity j. Psuedocoelomate: fluid between gut and body wall k. Eucoelomate: a true body cavity i. Peritoneum: the complex lining of the body cavity l. Segmentation: metamerism i. Tagmosis: body regions are fused to form a body region S PONGES (P ARAZOA ) I. Phylum Porifera a. Basic Characteristics i. Cellular level of organization ii. Lack of symmetry iii. Sessile iv. Matrix structure of a mesohyl with cells and skeleton embedded v. 4 cell types: 1. Choanocyte: filter feed and control water flow 2. Archaeocytes: secrete mesohyl and skelton, pseudopods 3. Porocyte: (unique to sponges) holes in sponges; tube cells; water enters here 4. Pinacytes: flat and cover the surface of things vi. Spicules: 1. Calcareous 2. Silicious vii. Sponging fibers: make bath sponges soft viii. Body Types 1. simple ascon body: One osculum, water enters ostium at porocytes a. limited choanocyte number b. small 2. Intermediate sycon body: single osculum, more choanocytes, flagellated chambers, spongoceoul does not house choanocytes 3. Complex leucon body types: many oscula, excurrent canal and incurrent canal, complex and chambered canals 4. Osculum: water is expelled 5. Ostium: water comes in b. Class Calcarea c. Class Hexactinellida d. Class Demospongiae R ADIATES ; LOWER B ILATERIA II. Phylum Ctenophora a. Ctenes: tentacles that have colloblasts on them; like fishing b. Colloblasts: adhesive cells c. Ctenes are used for locomotion and feeding (8 rows of fused cilia) d. Mostly planktonic III. Phlym Cnidaria—RADIATA a. Jellyfish, hydras, anemones, corals b. Diploblastic i. Mesoglea: layer between tissues; mainly full of proteins and jellylike vs. the mesohyl in sponges which is a matrix. c. Egg larva polyp medusa d. Gastrovascular cavity: performs many functions: i. Digestive ii. Circulation of nutrients iii. Dispersal of materials iv. Skeleton e. Medusa: hasa bell shape and a manubrium(hanging down bit)with a thick mesoglea and tentacles f. Polyp: has a pedal disc, mostly sessile, has a hypostome below mouth and a thin mesoglea g. Cnidocyte: stinging cells with nematocytes: the weapon used to sting, eversible h. Can be monoecious or dioecious. Mostly reproduce by budding but sexual reproduction results in a planula larva, which is ciliated and free swimming. i. Class Hydrozoa: i. Life cycle: polyp only or polyp and medusa ii. Colonial polyps such as the portugese man-o-war, blue button, by the wind sailor 1. Axial Polyp: very modified polyp; all others are attached 2. Gastrozooids: feeding polyp 3. Goonozooids: reproductive polyp 4. Dactylozooids: stinging polyps iii. Obelia life cycle: zygote --> planula larva asexual budding medusa buds medusa sperm zygote iv. Coenosaic: All the polyps eat the same thing: whater the gastrozooids catch. v. Freshwater jellyfish j. Class Scyphozoa—true jellyfish i. Life cycle: medusa gametes planula scyphistoma (feeding polyp ) young strobili strobili young medusa ephyra medusa ii. Oral arms: around the mouth and hold the stinging cells iii. Scyphistoma: feeding polyp iv. Ephrya: mature to the next generation k. Class Cubozoa: i. Box jellyfish ii. Sea wasp iii. Medusas l. Class Anthozoa i. Acontia threads: the flowy thread like things attached; defesen or paralyze prey ii. Septum: armed with cnidocytes; run longitudinal from mount to pedal disc iii. Zoochlorellae: marine plants iv. Coral reef: stony corals; habitat for 95% of ocean v. CaCo3 skeleton: in solitary corals, corrallite vi. Polyp only. B ILATERIA PROTOSTOMA L OPHOTROCHOZOA P LATYZOA — ACOELOMATE BILATERIA I. Phylum Plathelminthes—flat worms a. Triploblastic b. Orgnas and organ systems c. Lophophore: feeding structure with tentacles for filter feeding d. Trochophore: distinct larval stage e. Flat to minimize distance nutrients have to travel f. Locomotion: gliding in water or mucus trail i. Circular and longitudinal muscle contraction g. Digestive system i. Gastrovascular cavity ii. Pharynx: food pump h. Excretory system (osmoregulation) i. Simple ii. Purpose: get rid of toxins/waste iii. Protonephiridum: flame cells: move water i. Nervous system: i. Ganglia: cluster of nerve cells ii. Sensory structures 1. Ocellus: eye spots 2. Auricles: look like ears function like a nose; chemosensory j. Regeneration: i. Totipotent cells: specialize ii. Neoblasts aggregate at wound spot k. Reproductive system: i. Male: 1. Testes 2. Vas deferens 3. Capulatery structures a. Penis, cirrus ii. Female 1. Ovary 2. Oviduct 3. Genital pore l. Parenchyma: cellular tissue lying between the body wall and the organs of inverts lacking a coelom m. Turbellaria: planarians, free-living n. Trematoda: flukes, parasites o. Cestoda: tapeworms, parasitic i. Scolex: head part ii. Proglottid: tail part iii. Strobili: section of proglottids iv. Immature: near scolex v. Mature: middle of proglottids vi. Gravid: mature, end and holding eggs vii. Microtiches: specialized microvilli; hair like filaments p. Primary host: where sexual reproduction occurs q. Secondary: where it doesn’t
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