Fams 205 Exam 1 Study Guide
Fams 205 Exam 1 Study Guide FAMS 205
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shpresa Mati on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAMS 205 at SUNY Oneonta taught by Rambo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Marriage and Family Relationships in Sociology at SUNY Oneonta.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
FAMS 205 Exam 1 study guide Chapter 1 Definitions of family – a group of two people or more related by birth, marriage or adoption residing together. Types of family: 1. fictive kin – relationships they develop to survive 2. affiliated kin – unrelated individuals who feel and are treated as if they were relatives Ex: neighbors, family friends 3. nuclear family – consisting of a mother father and children 4. family of origin/orientation – family we grow up in 5. family of procreation – family of choice we make through childbearing 6. traditional family – a mostly middle class version of the nuclear family in which women’s primary roles are wife, mother, and men's primary roles are husband and breadwinner Functions of family: 1. assignment of social roles and status. 2. socialization of children. 3. acting as a unit of economic cooperation and consumption. 4. Procreation Types of relationship in families: 1. Conjugal – related by marriage 2. Consanguineous – related by blood The changes in family structures Views about the family changes: 1. Conservatives – traditional family, it is wrong to be a single parent, mother must be a stay at home mom, stereotypes father is the breadwinner, no same sex marriage, cultural values have shifted from individual sacrifice toward personal selffulfillment 2. Liberal – all acceptable, changes are just changes not signs of familial denial 3. Centrists – share aspects of both, they believe some familial changes have negative consequences, emphasis on cultural values more than liberals 4. Acceptors – see trends as making no differences to society or good to society 5. Skeptics – who share relatively tolerant views of the acceptors, but do express concern about potential impact of trends 6. Rejecters – changes are bad for society Chapter 2 Forms of marriage: 1. Polygamy – two or more spouses 2. Monogamy – one spouse at a time 3. Polyandry – having two or more husbands, rare 4. Serial monogamy – may have several spouses in a lifetime, not more than one at any given time 5. Polygyny – having two or more wives Sources of biases: 1. Ethnocentrism – judging other ones culture based on your cultural values 2. Egocentrism – little interest in others, very selfabsorbed Macro theories: key concepts, assumptions and questions about family that the theory can answer: Ecological theory Structural functionalism Conflict Feminist perspective Microtheories key concepts, assumptions and questions about family that the theory can answer: Family systems Family development theory Symbolic interactionism Social exchange theory Research: Meaning of scientific research and concepts Variables: 1. independent variable influences the dependent variable 2. dependent variable outcome variable 3. intervening variable affected by the IB, race, and in turn affects the dependent variable, life expectancy Hypotheses Classification of research: types of research: purpose/goal type of data collected quantitative or statistical, inferential statistics used to determine results nonquantitative not using stats or nonquantitative methods design inductive and deductive research data collection technique 1. basic research pure research, done for development of theories and principles or for intellectual pleasure 2. applied research testing a theory, or solving a problem Inductive vs. deductive research 1. inductive aims at developing a theory, not hypothesis aims at testing a theory 2. deductive theory driven, key concepts turned into variables Data collection, type of data and timing of data collection Ethical considerations when researching human subjects and the role of Institutional review board (IRB) Chapter 4 Gender refers to everything else, how one sees oneself, the expectations one forms of others based on their being females and males, roles in the house, opportunities for education Difference between sex and gender sex is biologically determined and gender is what you identify as Gender related terminologies: 1. transsexual individuals develop gender identities that differ from biological sex assigned at birth 2. intersexed born with reproductive system that doesnt fit the typical definition of male and female 3. gender stereotype held belief that all males and females result of sex possess distinct psychological and behavioral traits 4. gender attitude attitudes 5. gender behavior behavior based on gender 6. gender identity sense of ourselves as a certain gender 7. Other cultures and gender Gender theory Gendered role socialization theories: Social learning and cognitive development theory Parents gendered socialization: 1. manipulation treat daughters more gently than boys 2. channeling children are directed toward certain objects or toys relating to gender 3. verbal appellation different words to describe young boys vs. young girls 4. activity exposure boys are discouraged from imitating their mothers, while girls are expected to be a mothers helper, more exposure to feminine activity as a child and boys are told to shy away from it Peer socialization friends influence a lot, provide standards for gendered role behaviors Chapter 8 Marriage: a legal union between two people, generally a man and a woman, in which they are united sexually, cooperate economically, and may give birth or adopt children Who is likely to be married and who is not historically involves number of spouses, and whether or not it is interracial, and gender orientation marriage laws governed by each state are different gender and sex orientation minimum age is 18 in 49 out of 50 states no overlap between spouses must present a legal termination of one spouse before another mental capacity blood test Selecting a mate: 1. Endogamy marriage around acquaintances strengthens ties and allows to pick from socialized, acceptable, potential partners 2. Exogamy everyone else marry outside groups, out of our own family specifically 3. Homogamy marry those who have the tendency to choose a mate whose personal or group characteristics are similar to our own 4. Heterogamy tendency to choose a mate whose personal or group characteristics are different from our own or our group, like SES, religion, interracial marriages Theories of mate selection: 1. Complementary needs theory the belief that people select as spouses whose needs are different from their own 2. Value theory (role theory) gratification follows from finding someone who feels and or thinks like we do 3. Parental Image theory suggests that we seek partners similar to our opposite sex parent 4. Filter theories the choice of spouse is based on a number of different factors that become less important as the relationship develop, grows, and changes 5. Stimulusvaluerole theory depict what happens between that magic moment with its mysterious chemistry of attraction to maintain long term relationships/marriages Benefits of marriage 1. health and psychological 2. economically extended family can help 3. social selection vs protection Parenthood and marriage circumstances chance, more responsibility, decline of independent activities, father may feel sad because less attention paid to him more towards the child Chapter 9 Alternative family forms: SingleNever married, Divorced, Widows, Single parents and cohabitors. Types of singles 1. Voluntary and temporarily unmarried younger men and women actively pursuing higher education and careers, freedom, fun, socialize, number of different sexual relationships, have opportunity to establish themselves and mature 2. Involuntarily and temporarily unmarried men and women in this category want to be married so they are actively searching for a spouse 3. Voluntary and permanently unmarried individuals who are single and want to remain single, never married single mothers, do not intend to marry 4. Involuntary unmarried wish to be married, but have been unable to find a partner, and resigned to being unmarried, women facing a shortage of men who share similar interests and age (40 and older) Cohabitation living together and not formally married The prevalence of cohabitation and reasons 1. sexuality is more liberal than it was a generation ago 2. meaning of marriage and divorce have chanted 3. marriage age has delayed 4. women are less economically dependent on marriage Types of cohabitations 1) Trial marriage the motive for living together outside marriage is to assess whether or partners have sufficient compatibility to enter marriage 2) Precursor to marriage partners share the expectation that they will eventually marry 3) Substitute for marriage partners are not engaged and have no intention to marry, but they anticipate staying together 4) Coresidential marriage the relationship is more like serious boyfriendgirlfriend relationship, lacking any intention or expectation to marry Cohabitation in 5 types: 1. Prelude to marriage testing ground for the relationship, partners would like to marry or break up before having children, short duration, 2. Stage in the marriage process may reverse the order of marriage and childbearing, they cohabit for longer periods, and then briefly postponing marriage knowing they will eventually marry 3. Alternative to singlehood too young to marry with no immediate intention to marry, living together or separately, commitment of a dating couple, prone to separation and breaking up 4. Alternative to marriage couples choose living together over marriage, but still choose to form their families, 5. Indistinguishable from marriage more indifferent rather than opposed to marriage, lack incentive to formalize their relationships through marriage Sassler identifies six broad categories as to why couples decided to cohabit 1. finances 2. convenience 3. housing situation 4. desire 5. response to family or parents 6. as a trial then comes a three category typology: 1. accelerated cohabitants decide to move in quickly, intensity of attraction and connection spend lots of time together, moving in is a natural process 2. tentative cohabitants uncertainty about moving in together, 712 months together before moving in together, see each other less often than first category, experienced disruptions in relationship before moving in 3. Purposeful delayers most deliberate in the decision making process, relationship progressed more gradually, taking more than a year to move in together, allow time to discuss and plan future goals and plans, reasons why moved in together for finances and housing arrangements Comparison between cohabitation and marriage marriage is institutionalized and cohabitation is not, and there are different commitments Common law marriages back in the 1900’s they lived together without marriage and after a period of time they were just considered married Domestic partnership cohabiting heterosexual, lesbian, gay, couples in committed relationships may be guaranteed certain legal rights and granted some of the protection of marriage Civil union Gay and lesbian cohabitation
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