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Anatomy & Physiology II, Lecture Exam 3, Respiratory System study Guide

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by: MohamedAddani

Anatomy & Physiology II, Lecture Exam 3, Respiratory System study Guide BIOL 1218

Marketplace > Rochester Community and Technical College > Biology > BIOL 1218 > Anatomy Physiology II Lecture Exam 3 Respiratory System study Guide

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Lecture Exam 3 consist of Three main topics 1- Respiratory System 2- Digestive System 3- Metabolism This study Guide Only covers Respiratory System section
Anatomy and Physiology II
Steve Cole
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by MohamedAddani on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1218 at Rochester Community and Technical College taught by Steve Cole in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Rochester Community and Technical College.


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Loved these! I'm a horrible notetaker so I'll be your #1 fan in this class

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Date Created: 04/06/16
Anatomy & Physiology II Lecture Exam 3 Respiratory Study Guide Review Respiratory System Major Function 1- Gas exchange O 2in CO 2out 2- Vocalization 3- Maintain blood PH Normal pH 7.30-7.40 Sleep apnea - Respiratory Rate decreases - Treatment : C PAR Repertory Pathway Mouth  Pharynx  Larynx (vocal chor Trachea (windpip Primary bronchi  Secondary Bronchi (in lun Tertiary Bronchi (in lun Terminal Bronchioles (in lun Alveolar ducts (in lung)  Alveoli (in lung) As we move along the pathway, the tissue surrounding the structure changes Trachea: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with Goblet cells (mucus) Bronchioles: simple cuboidal epithelium > Smooth muscle > involuntary > Asthma Alveoli: Simple squamous epithelium Smoking - Nicotine - Enlargement of alveoli - Contain carcinogens Gas exchange 1- Pulmonary ventilation a. Breathing 2- External Respiration a. Blood-> Lung (CO ) b. Lung-> Blood (O2) 3- Transportation of CO 2+ O 2in Blood 4- Internal Respiration Paranasal Sinuses 1- Frontal 2- Maxillary 3- Ethmoid 4- Sphenoid Sinusitis - Infection in a sinus - Mucus and bacteria block the passage way into nasal cavity - Treatment: Antibacteria – decrease histamine (running flproduction Pharynx 1- Nasopharynx a. Block Uvula b. Connect to auditory tube 2- Oropharynx a. Palatine tonsils 3- Laryngopharynx a. Passage for food & air Strep throat - Infection - Difficult swallow - Dryness Larynx - Vocal cords - Support hyoid bone - Hyaline cartilage o Thyroid cartilage o Cricoid cartilage o Epiglottis - Two types of vocal cords o True o False Laryngitis - Inflammation of vocal cords - Less vibration in larynx - Caused by virus, dry air, tumor, bacteria, overuse Laryngeal Cancer - Remove larynx - Mostly caused by Smoking Trachea - Windpipe - Made of cartilage Tracheotomy - Vertical incision in trachea is preferred - Horizontal incision is dangerous due to carotid artery Lungs 1- Left Lung a. 2 lobes i. Superior and Inferior lobe 2- Right lungs a. Much larger b. 3 lobes i. Superior, middle, and inferior lobes Two big process 1- Inhalation/inspiration a. Diaphragm contracts b. Its active process(require energy) c. Supported by external intercostal 2- Exhalation a. Diaphragm relaxes b. Its passive process (does not require energy) c. Supported by internal intercostal Factors affecting ventilation 1- Airway resistance a. if resistance increases = ventilation decreases b. if bronchioles constrict = ventilation decreases Asthma Chronic bronchitis - Caused by smoking - Build up mucus in bronchioles Hypoxemia - Decreased O 2 getting in lungs 2- Alveolar surface tension a. Type 2 alveolar b. Surfactant- reduces surface tension Premature Birth - Surfactant is given to the mother to develop alveoli 2 for babies 3- Elasticity in lungs a. As aging increases = Elasticity & Gas intake decreases Emphysema - Caused by smoking - Smaller alveoli - Elasticity decreases = Ventilation decreases = O 2decreases Hypoxemia - Blood viscosity increases - Stress on the heart COPD - Chronic Obstructive pulmonary diseases - Either emphysema or chronic bronchitis Spirometry - Measuring lung volume - Total lung volume = 3-6 L - Variable due 2 factors o Height o Age Values in spirometry 1- Tidal volume (TV) - Amount of air inhaler exhaled 2- Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) – forcefully inhaled after normal inhalation 3- Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – forcefully expired after normal expiration 4- Residual Volume – 1 L of air that is always present 5- Vital Capacity – max of air that can expired after a max inspiration 6- FEV 1.0– Force expiratory volume in 1.0 seconds Obstructive Disorder - Asthma - Decrease FEV 1.0 TB - Tuberculosis - Bacterial diseases - Treated with antibodies - Highly contagious - Highly drug resistant - Inhaled - Decrease Elasticity and Immunity Bird Flue - SARS – severe acute respiratory syndrome - Viral disorder - Water reduces O 2diffusion - Cause anemia or suffocating or death


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