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SOCL 2001, Exam 3 Notes

by: Ashley Bourgeois

SOCL 2001, Exam 3 Notes SOCL 2001

Ashley Bourgeois

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These notes cover Chapters 7-9 / Exam 3 for SOCL 2001 with Gremillion.
Intro to Sociology
Skylar Gremillion
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Bourgeois on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by Skylar Gremillion in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 04/07/16
SOCL Exam 3 Notes CH 7: Stratification 04/08/2016 ▯ ▯ ▯ STRATIFICATION ▯ Talking about in a very abstract matter ▯ Not in the perspectives through people who are living in poverty and such ▯ We will be talking about it through social structure and what solving this problem could look like ▯ Definition: ▯ systemic inequalities between groups of people ▯ systemic b/c influence by social structure ▯ Different ways to organize society and think about it ▯ Different social groups, different countries, different ways of thinking organize society in different ways ▯ They are consequences to this ▯ As a consequence of social processes, relationships ▯ Ex: iPhones – allows you to do so much on one (media, technology, etc.) item but all that manufacturing are not manufactured by the US and instead in China ▯ No easy way to win the game. Not 1 to 1 ratio ▯ EX: people talk about the removal of manufacturing ▯ US hasn’t been a producer of alrge scale goods for the entire world since the 1970s ▯ Appears as an American slogan but it is a very large amount of high waged low scale jobs are no longer available ▯ No matter how much you wish, you will not be able to bring manufacturing back to what it was in the 1940s ▯ Detroit used to be a huge place where things were made and people could make a nice living out ▯ Systemic does work on the individual level ▯ This is difficult b/c it is hard to measure things like ability ▯ What we can measure our things like education, job experience, parents’ socioeconomic status, etc. ▯ Often talking about things that are immeasurable and slightly measureable ▯ ▯ ▯ STRATIFICATION AS A SOCIAL CONCEPT ▯ Viewing it as a cultural thing or state based thing ▯ Seeing inequality as a broad concept ▯ ▯ VIEWS OF INEQUALITY ▯ (1) Rousseau ▯ Not a real functionalist ▯ Had some Marxism values (pre-Marxism) ▯ He gives us one of the first definitions ( assets) ▯ Argues that pirate property creates social inequality, which leads to social conflict ▯ Ex: if you have two children present. If you give one a popsicle, the other is upset b/c they do not have a popsicle ▯ Top-down perspective ▯ The ideas that it is not an individual perspective but a cultural thing ▯ 18 century ▯ The time he is coming out of, the feudal system is over, but at tail end of middle ages feudalistic perceptive where land ownership wasn’t that common ▯ People lease/ worked land for the king ▯ Every single person owning land is a relatively new phenomenon ▯ (2) Ferguson, Millar agree, but argue inequality is good ▯ It means some are getting ahead, creating assets ▯ By everyone not getting the same, it highlights that some individuals are stacking and creating wealth ▯ a form of income that can be stored or stacked up permanently ▯ Capitalism inherently creates inequality ▯ What they see is this notion that the ability to create assets provides an incentive to work harder to increase their wealth ▯ Inherently going to improve society by inspiring individuals to work harder ▯ When someone succeeds, they are creating inequality at the same time which will inspire or push people to work harder ▯ Two similar perspectives so far ▯ One has analytical tone ▯ One works wit ha philosophical point of it ▯ (3) Malthus ▯ 1 social demographer ▯ study society not in a subjective way but as a game of pure numbers ▯ Ex: every few years after a census, the state will publish an estimate of what the next census will be ▯ Taking the temperature of society based on how the population movies, shifts, changes ▯ Study where people are moving in the country ▯ He thought inequality is a good thing ▯ He was super concerned about population overgrowth ▯ Viewed inequality favorably, as a means of controlling population ▯ Equal distribution of resource’s would increase world population to unsustainable levels ▯ Mass starvation ▯ Conflict ▯ Malthus was writing at a time where there was actual famine ▯ There is famine now, it’s just not in our city ▯ He was concerned about population control ▯ If we equally distributed resources, the population would grow in unsustainable levels ▯ What he did not foresee is that we would produce so much food that we would throw it away or fuel our cars with it when others do not have anything to eat ▯ Coldest view of them all ▯ He noted that inequality kept the population in check ▯ Really functionalist perspective ▯ Inequality that people see as political or social, he aw it as a force of nature – doing something necessary ▯ Places that are already starting or having trouble feeding people have growing population numbers ▯ Whereas in the US, we have a birth rate declining as education becomes a larger thing and food is more available ▯ (4) Hegel ▯ A little closer towards a Marxist perspective ▯ Everything in social life works off a master-slave dialectic ▯ Most social relationships based on master-slave model ▯ Master becomes as dependent on the slaves as the slave is dependent on the master ▯ Workers went on strike b/c they were necessary in order to achieve any goal the factory worker wanted ▯ Will die out as society gains more free people over time ▯ Both physically and mentally ▯ Ex: if you spend 300,000 on a house – unless you started out wealthy – you’ll be paying on that for a long time ▯ At time he was writing, there were large amounts of poverty and the one way to get a job was to work in one of these factories ▯ Unless you get your college degree, you will be stuck in the service industry – you won’t have a lot of say-so in jobs ▯ You don’t just have to see this as one perspective. ▯ It is a dependency that is incredibly problematic (the word slave) ▯ Over time you become so indebted to the person who is providing something for you, you cannot do anything without them ▯ Examples of master-slave dialectic ▯ People being slaves to new technology ▯ Lining up outside Apple Store for the new iPhone ▯ Professor’s story: ▯ Saw a guy get his credit card declined twice, then go to ATM and get out cash w/ interest just to buy some games. ▯ ▯ STANDARDS OF EQUALITY ▯ How to bring equality to society ▯ Social theorists have come up with ideas on how to bring equality to unequal societies ▯ (1) Ontological equality ▯ Everyone is created equal in the eyes of God ▯ From a social perspective, this is one of the earliest standards of equality ▯ You were all equal at birth, whatever happens next is up to you ▯ “It doesn’t matter if you’re rich or poor, the higher power will see you as equal” ▯ if inequality is an infection and you’re trying to figure out where to cut off the food before it spreads, it says to not figure it out b/c God will sort that out for you ▯ No need for intervention ▯ Ferguson & Miller would argue for this standard ▯ (2) Equality of opportunity ▯ Structure society towards inequality ▯ Inequality is acceptable if: ▯ Everyone has the same opportunities for advancement ▯ It is judged by the same standards ▯ 1960s Civil Rights is the first step in this direction ▯ Ex: it’s okay to have a nice house as long as everyone had the same opportunity to get there as well ▯ There should be intervention ▯ Hegel would argue for this standard ▯ (3) Equality of Condition ▯ Everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue their goals ▯ Hegel would argue for this standard ▯ (4) Equality of Outcome ▯ Everyone should end up with the same “rewards” regardless of their starting point, opportunities, contributions ▯ None of the theorist would argue for this standard ▯ These are merely conversations about how we should stop inequality and bring equality ▯ Think about these things when people start talking about “how I will solve poverty” ▯ ▯ ▯ FUNCTIONALIST PROSPECTIVE OF UNEQUALITY ▯ Inequality is a good thing for a couple different reasons ▯ (1) Social inequality and its mechanisms can be used as a sorting mechanism ▯ Pay different people different things for different reasons ▯ Unequal pay distribution holds values on those professions ▯ Ex: you have to go through a lot of schooling and things to be a doctor – it’s complex so that they make sure you really want this job in order to become such a high valued profession ▯ (2) Pulls people together to work harder ▯ ▯ ▯ CONFLICT THEORIST PERSPECTIVE ON UNEQUALITY ▯ It’s not really that fair if you’re not an elite ▯ People of different skill sets working different jobs ▯ Elites using an influence to gain what they want in society ▯ Ex: ACT/SAT ▯ These jobs are a way to sort people into different levels ▯ They are inherently biased towards elite individuals ▯ Ex: Supreme Court / the President ▯ The colleges they have graduated from come from a bank of like 2 ▯ Harvard & Yale ▯ They have all “grown up” in the same way ▯ Supreme Court justices have clerked for other SC Justices … ▯ Ex: the US makes enough food to feed the world, yet that does not happen. ▯ ▯ ▯ FORMS OF STRATIFICATION ▯ Weber ▯ A class ▯ A group characterized by common life chance and opportunities ▯ Getting away from the notion that social class is purely income ▯ Graduate students are more educated than me and have a higher prestige, but they meet poverty wages ▯ One of the first sociologists to note that class is more than just how much money we make ▯ Very heavy critique of Marx ▯ Marx was obsessed with who owned what and how much people made ▯ Weber says that a society purely based off of who makes how much money is not going to work ▯ Status Hierarchy system ▯ Argues that social class is actually based solely on social prestige ▯ Instead of looking at life chances, some people have chosen to look at it as social prestige ▯ How would our society be if picking jobs would be solely based on prestige of that job instead of income?? ▯


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