Child Development Part 2; Test 2 study guide
Child Development Part 2; Test 2 study guide CDFR 2001
Popular in Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kara Fields on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 2001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Carrie Bumgarner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Exam 2 Study Guide o Resolved positively when experiences lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks The danger at this stage is ____inferiority___ - Pessimism of children who have little confidence in their ability to do things well Erikson’s sense of industry combines several developments of middle childhood: a positive but realistic selfconcept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, and cooperative participation with peers o Friendship becomes more complex and psychologically based ___Trust___ becomes defining feature; violations of trust are viewed as serious breaches of friendship Children tend to choose friends similar to themselves (age, sex, race, ethnicity, SES, personality, peer popularity, academic achievement, prosocial behavior) Highquality friendships remain fairly stable over middle childhood • Opportunity to learn the importance of ____emotional commitment____ Kindness and ____compassion___ in friendships strengthen each other’s prosocial tendencies Aggressive relationships riddled with hostile interaction o Popular children are those who get many positive votes ___Rejected____ children are actively disliked Controversial children receive many votes, both positive and negative ____Neglected____ children are seldom mentioned Average children receive average numbers of positive and negative votes o Rejected Children - Rejected____aggressive___ children show high rates of conflict, aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior - Rejectedwithdrawn children are passive and socially awkward and are overwhelmed by social anxiety - Rejected children are especially likely to be targeted for abuse by bullies o Selfesteem ___declines___ during the first few years of elementary school as performance is increasingly judged in relation to that of others Children eventually balance social comparisons with personal achievement goals, and this drop in self esteem is usually not harmful From middle childhood on, positive relationships among selfesteem, valuing of various activities, and success at those activities strengthen o Interventions that change victimized children’s negative opinions of themselves and teach them to respond in nonreinforcing ways Helping them acquire ___social___ skills o A Hierarchically Structured SelfEsteem… - By age 6 to 7, Western children have formed at least four broad selfevaluations: academic competence, social competence, physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance - Ability to view self in terms of stable dispositions permits allows for combining separate self evaluations into an overall sense of selfesteem - During childhood and adolescence, perceived physical appearance correlates more strongly with overall ____selfworth___ than does any other selfesteem factor o ChildRearing Practices… - Children who experience an ___authoritative___ childrearing style feel especially good about themselves - Controlling parents communicate a sense of inadequacy to children - ___Indulgent___ parenting is linked to unrealistically high selfesteem - American cultural values have increasingly emphasized a focus on the self that may lead parents to indulge children and boost their selfesteem too much - Children benefit more from encouragement to strive for worthwhile goals o Girls score higher in languagearts selfesteem, boys have higher math and science selfesteem—even when children of equal skill levels are compared Girls, more often than boys, receive feedback that encourages them to attribute poor performance to lack of ___ability___ o Children’s attributions affect their goals… Masteryoriented children focus on ___learning___ goals—seeking information on how best to increase their ability through effort Learnedhelpless children focus on performance goals, avoiding negative evaluations of their ability o Influences on AchievementRelated Attributions… Learnedhelpless children tend to have parents who hold a ___fixed___ view of ability Person praise with children low in selfesteem; process praise with children high in selfesteem Teachers who are caring and helpful and who emphasize learning over getting good grades tend to have masteryoriented students Girls, more often than boys, receive feedback that encourages them to attribute poor performance to lack of ___ability___ Cognitive development affects attributions as children develop a more realistic view of the possibility of altering undesirable characteristics Cultural values affect the likelihood that children will develop learned helplessness o Four ways schools can foster a masteryoriented approach… • Provision of ____tasks___. Child should be challenged but not overwhelmed • Parent and teacher encouragement. Communicate warmth, confidence in the child’s abilities, the value of achievement, and the importance of effort in success • ____Performance____ evaluations. Make evaluations private; avoid publicizing success or failure; Provide accurate, constructive feedback to children about their performance • School environment. Offer small classes, provide for cooperative learning, avoid ability grouping, accommodate individual and cultural differences in styles of learning, and create an atmosphere that sends a clear message that all pupils can learn o ___Problem___centered coping appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it If problem solving doesn’t work, children engage in emotioncentered coping internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome o Understanding Individual Rights Believe that certain choices (hairstyle and friends) are up to the individual As early as age 6, children view freedom of speech and religion as individual rights, even when laws deny these rights Children regard laws that discriminate against individuals as wrong and worthy of ___violating___ 4th graders faced with conflicting moral and personal concerns typically decide in favor of kindness and fairness o The extent to which children hold racial and ethnic biases varies depending on personal and situational factors… Children with a fixed view of personality traits or with overly high __selfesteem__ are more likely to form prejudices The more adults highlight group distinctions, and the less interracial contact children experience, the more likely white children are to display prejudice o ___Achievement___ Areas Often regard reading, art, and music as “feminine” and mathematics, athletics, and mechanical skills as “masculine” Adults’ gendertyped judgments of children’s competence can have lasting consequences o From 3rd to 6th grade, boys strengthen identification with “masculine” personality traits; girls’ identification with “feminine” traits declines Girls experiment with a wider range of activities Awareness that society attaches greater prestige to “masculine” characteristics o Gender identity expands to include several selfevaluations: Gender ___Typicality___: degree to which a child feels similar to others of the same gender Gender contentedness: degree to which a child feels comfortable with his or her gender Pressure to conform to gender roles: degree to which the child feels that parents and peers disapprove of his or her genderrelated traits o Four broad factors promote resilience in middle childhood: Personal characteristics include: an easygoing, sociable temperament; favorable selfesteem; and flexible coping strategies ___Family___ environment that includes: a warm, trusting relationship with at least one parent; an authoritative childrearing style; and positive discipline Schools: when teachers are warm, helpful, and stimulating; students are taught lessons in tolerance; and highquality afterschool programs are available ___Community___ that includes: adults who provide warmth and social support and youth groups that promote prosocial behavior o ___Coregulation___: a form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of momentbymoment decision making o Selfcare children: regularly look after themselves for some period of time during afterschool hours (estimated 4.5 million 5 to 14yearolds in U.S.) Older selfcare children who have authoritative parents, are monitored by parental telephone calls, and have regular afterschool chores appear responsible and welladjusted Children left to their own devices are more likely to engage in ___antisocial___ behavior o Findings confirm that children with samesex and oppositesex parents develop ____similarly____ - children’s adjustment linked to factors other than parental sexual orientation o Five Sibling Relationship Patterns: Caregiver relationship one is more parenting figure. Most common with older sisters. Buddy relationship treat each other as friends. Want to be alike and together. Casual relationship not emotional tense or very involved. Easy going. Shift to this as get older. Rival relationship compete with one another to determine success. Critical relationship high conflict. Conflict tends to decrease during time. Becomes less tense. o Old myths and persistent stigma Experiences of loss, isolation, and discontinuity with past __Financial__ discontinuity Lack of a common family paradigm __Unrealistic__ expectations Problems of boundary ambiguity o Have no time to consolidate ___couple__ bond without children – time consuming, childrelated concerns intercede Typically start with tenuous relationship (lots of excess baggage), tightly bonded parentchild alliance, and potential interference in family functioning from an outsider Step parents’ relationships with spouses and step children are __linked__ because they develop simultaneously In most first marriages, the couple relationship is the foundation for positive relationships among other family members, but in step families’ marital relationships are sometimes associated with child behavior problems Difficult __parentchild__ interaction is the most frequently reported stress o Stepfamilies/Blended families: Children have higher rates of delinquency and lower school grades Preschool – more negative effects for __boys__ Adolescence – more negative effects for __girls__ Depressed, drug use, difficulty getting along with step father o Parental Status of stepparents over time… 1. Develop __realistic__ expectations for a stepparentstepchild relationship Time for adjustment Parental Status is granted by child Older children may not ever see stepparent as a parent 2. __Empathize__ – Remember the ABC’s Accepted Belong Control 3. Build Family Strength through individual dyads (__pairs__) Open discussion – awareness raising Mutual agreement on nature of relationship is the goal Nurture parentchild relationships Develop strategies that promote dyadic relationships 4. Stepparent eases into the behavior __management__ role Stepparent provides warmth and support Stepparent enforces the rules of the house 5. Promote basic parenting __knowledge__ and skills Child development information Positive parenting strategies 6. Recognize that a child is part of 2 households Child isn’t just being parented by us. Has another parent and family. o Coparenting/ multiparenting strategies… 1. Acknowledge child’s need for relationship with other parent and encourage __connection__: o Would you like to call your Dad and tell him? o You’ll have a great time with your Mom this weekend! 2. Find something you respect about other parent verbalize 3. Nonjudgmental, __neutral__ language – even in response to negativity from other parent 4. Allow for other’s parenting style 5. Bio parents are primary communicators 6. Do not involve child in conflict
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