Communications Exam 5 Study Guide
Communications Exam 5 Study Guide COMM 1001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmberNicole on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Cultivation Theory: Chapter 29 Cultivation Theory Gerbner claimed that heavy television users develop an exaggerated belief in a mean and scary world o Regarded television as dominant force in shaping society Violence, a major staple of the TV world o Gerbner concerned the violence affects viewers’ beliefs about the world around them o Mean world syndrome: cynical mindset of general mistrust of others, held by heavy TV viewers Institutional Process Analysis: The First Prong Institutional process analysis: research that penetrates behind the scenes of media organizations to understand what policies or practices they employ o Hollywood concerned with how to export its product globally for maximum profit at minimum cost Message System Analysis: The Second Prong Message system analysis: research that involves careful study of TV content o Developed to measure violence but used for other content as well (e.g. smoking) An index of violence o Dramatic Violence: Overt expression or threat of physical force as part of plot o Ex: “If you don’t do this, I will beat you up” o Definition rules out verbal abuse, ideal threats, and pie-in- the-face slapstick o Includes physical abuse presented in cartoon format o Really bad Equal Violence, Unequal Risk o Over half of prime-time programs contain actual bodily harm or threatened violence Weekend children’s shows average 20 cases an hour By the time the typical TV viewer graduates from high school, he or she has observed 13,000 violent deaths Cultivation Analysis: The Third Prong Cultivation analysis: Research designed to find support for the idea that those who spend more time watching TV are more likely to see the real world through TV lens Mainstreaming: Blurring, Blending, and Bending of Attitudes Mainstreaming: blurring, blending, and bending process by which heavy TV viewers from different groups develop a common outlook through constant exposure to the same images and lables Example: That’s what she said joke from the office What types of ideas or norms could be influenced by constant TV viewing o Two men kissing on TV, cussing, ect, sleeping around Resonance: The TV World Looks Like my World, So it Must be True Resonance: condition that exists when viewers’ real-life environment is like the world of TV; those viewers are most susceptible to TV’s cultivating power o Ex: I live in a city, I watch crime dramas that depict a dangerous city, therefore, my city must be dangerous The Major Findings of Cultivation Analysis Cultivation differential: Difference in percent giving the “television answer” within comparable groups of light and heavy views o Ex: people who watch lots of TV think there are fewer old people today than there used to be o Why? Because few shows feature older adults Research revealed provocative findings o Positive correlation between TV viewing and fear of criminal victimization Heavy viewers believe criminal activity is 10 times worse than it really is Real answers and TV viewing answers o Perceived activity of police Heavy viewers believe that 5% of society is involved in law enforcement More like .003% Critique: Is the Cultivation Differential Real, Large, Crucial? Critics contend Gerbner’s original assumptions no longer valid with expansion of television programming o People no longer only watch “The Big Three” TV networks How does this impact the theory: use of social media to get the news, opportunity to watch different things Chapter 30 Agenda-Setting What not to think, but what to think about Agenda-setting hypothesis o Mass media have ability to make the issues on their news agenda turn into the public agenda Do not make deliberate attempt to influence opinions Look to news professionals for cues on where to focus attention What is important in the world? I look to John Oliver and he tells me Agenda-Setting Hypothesis Predicts cause-and-effect relationship between media content and voter perception o Media tell voters which topics are most important o How might they do this? Media Agenda and Public Agenda: A Close Match McCombs and Shaw’s first task was to measure the media agenda o Media agenda Pattern of news coverage across major print and broadcast media, as measured by prominence and length of stories o Public agenda Most important public issues as measured by public opinion surveys. What Causes what? Yale researchers establishes cause-and-effect chain of influence from media agenda to public agenda o Viewers who saw media agendas that focused on pollution and defense elevated those issues on their own lists of concerns o Supported cause-and-effect relationship between media agenda and the public agenda Who is Most Affected by the Media Agenda? McCombs and Shaw understood that people are not going to be programmed by the news media o People willing to let media shape thinking when they have a strong desire for more information High need for cognition Framing: Transferring the Salience of Attributes The media aren’t very successful in telling us what to think, but they are successful in telling us what to think about o Framing – selection of a number of related attributed for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular issue is discussed They decide how to “frame” a story, which parts to highlights and which ones to ignore. (What they put in the story and what they leave out) Not just what to think about, but how to think about it Framing is not just an option o Reporters inevitably frame a story by the personal attributes of public figures they select to describe o A typical example is deciding who a terrorist is o Two teammates talking about cheating and other man sends out videos: 3 perspectives- 1) whoever sent the video is a terrible person 2)the guy that is cheating is a terrible person 3)sympathy for the wife Beyond Opinion-The Behavioral Effect of the Media’s Agenda The behavioral effect of media agenda is very apparent in professional sports o Television dramatically raised salience of basketball by scheduling games in prime-time o What is one of the most watched tv events? (Hint: it has “great” commercials” o Many people discuss it the next day – it is on the “agenda” Who Sets the Agenda for the Agenda Setters? One view regards a handful of news editors as the “gate- keepers” Alternative view regards candidates as ultimate source of issue salience o How might candidates influence issue salience? Do debates help to “set” the agenda or conversation Current thinking on news selection focuses on crucial role of public relations professionals working for government agencies, corporations, and interest groups o How would these groups influence the agenda? Critique: Are the Effects too Limited, is the Scope too Wide? Definition of framing doesn’t include the emotional connotation of key terms used in ongoing public debate of issues o Popularity of framing as a construct in media studies resulted in diverse and ambiguous meanings Communication Accommodation Theory of Howard Giles Chapter 31 Introduction Giles claimed that when two people from different ethnic or cultural groups interact, they tend to accommodate each other in the way they speak in order to gain the others approval He specifically focused on the nonverbal adjustments of speech rate, accent, and pauses Speech accommodation is a strategy frequently used to gain the appreciation of people who are from different groups or cultures A simple Notion Becomes a Comprehensive Communication Theory The scope of the theory expanded to answer relevant questions that it raised In 1987 Giles changed the name of the theory to communication accommodation theory (CAT) and offered it as “a theory of intercultural communication that actually attends to communication” Accommodation o The constant movement toward or away from others by changing your communicative behavior o CAT researchers have shown consistent interest in exploring communication accommodation in an intergenerational context Communication Accommodation Strategies Giles has consistently contrasted two strategic forms of communication that diverse people use when they interact o Convergence and divergence He sees both types of behavior as accommodation because they each involve constant movement toward or away from others through a change in communicative behavior Strategy 1: Convergence o A strategy of adapting your communication behavior in such a way as to become more similar to another person o It is a form of audience adaptation used to reduce nonverbal differences o Discourse management another form of audience adaptation, is the sensitive selection of topics to discuss Strategy 2: Divergence o A strategy of accentuating the differences between you and another person o Divergence is a form of counter-accommodation A direct way of maximizing the differences between two speakers o Self-handicapping For the elderly, a face-saving strategy that invokes age as a reason for not performing well o Maintenance (under accommodation) Persisting in your original communication style regardless of the communication behavior of the other; similar and has same results as divergence o Over accommodation Demanding or patronizing talk; excessive concern paid to vocal clarity or amplification, message simplification, or repetition Ex: baby talk to an elderly person Different Motivations for Convergence and Divergence CAT theorists have always regarded desire for social approval as the main motivation for convergence Desire for approval convergence positive response However, this motivational sequence cant explain why we frequently communicate in a divergent way, and the causal chain doesn’t take into account the fact that we often act as a representative of a group Social Identity Theory o Tajfel and Turner suggested that we often communicate not as individual actors, but as representatives of groups that help define who we are o If one (or both) of the interactants regards self or other as a representative of a group of people, Tajfel and Turner said that their communication will likely become divergent because of their need to emphasize their distinctiveness o Need for distinctiveness (social identity) divergence Negative response Social Identity o Group memberships and social categories that we use to define who we are Our group memberships – whether formal associations or allegiances only in our minds – can greatly affect our communication Initial Orientation o Communicators’ predisposition to focus on either their individual identity or group identity during a conversation o Predicting which route (personal identity or social identity) a person will take is difficult, but the additive presence of five factors increases the odds that a communicator will see the conversation as an intergroup encounter. 1. Collective cultural context Individualistic type of personality 2. Distressing history of interaction Previous uncomfortable interactions with another speaker Ex: men are just like that 3. Stereotypes the more negative images people have another group the more likely it is to become a stereotype 4. Norms or expectations for treatment These expectations can affect the way one person in a group looks at another person in another group as one of them. 5. High group solidarity and high group dependence Initial intergroup orientation and high dependence on it for her sense of self because of her connections and reliability of group so she acts as reprehensive of group Initial Orientation No single factor determines a person’s initial orientation However, if all five factors line up in the direction of public identity, its almost certain that a communicator will approach a conversation with an intergroup mindset Recipient Evaluation of Convergence and Divergence Listeners regard convergence as positive and divergence as negative Converging speakers are viewed as more competent, attractive, warm, and cooperative Diverging speakers are often seen as insulting, impolite, or hostile What’s ultimately important is not how the communicator converges or diverges, but how the other perceives the communicator’s behavior Objective Vs. Subjective Accommodation o Early in his research, Giles realized that there was a disconnect between the communication behavior that he and other neutral researchers observed what participants heard and saw o He described the gap as the difference between objective and subjective accommodation o A speaker’s accent, rate, pitch, and length of pauses could actually be shifting toward a conversational partner’s style of speaking, but the partner might regard it as divergent o In light of the discrepancy, Giles says it’s the recipients’ subjective evaluation that really matters, because that’s what will shape their response Attribution Theory o Giles draws from attribution theory to cast light on how we’ll interpret our conversational partners’ convergent or divergent behavior o Attribution The perceptual process by which we observe what people do and then try to figure out their intent or disposition o Heider and Kelly suggest that we attribute an internal disposition to the behavior we see another enact o Our default assumption is that people who do things like that are like that o Yet three mitigating factors come into play 1. The other’s ability 2. External constraints 3. Effort expended Applying CAT to Police Officer-Citizen Interaction CAT can be applied to any intercultural or intergroup situation where the differences between people are apparent and significant Giles has employed CAT to analyze routine traffic stops for issues of communication accommodation and race Study predicted different race conflict would be worse than those of the same rate Critique: Enormous Scope at the Cost of Clarity CAT can be evaluated using the six criteria for good social science theories o Explanation of the data CAT not only describes communication behavior, it explains why it happens o Prediction of the future CAT has consistently predicted what will happen in specific situations o Relative simplicity CAT is an extraordinarily complex theory presented in multiple versions that are sometimes offered simultaneously. Even the meaning of accommodation within the theory is slippery o CAT can be evaluated using the six criteria for good social science theories Testable hypothesis CAT is not falsifiable as testing “the whole of the theory” is not possible Quantitative research Tests of CAT have used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods Practical utility CAT can be beneficially applied to any situation where people from different groups or cultures come into contact Main Terms Uniform-Effects Model The view that exposure to a media message affects everyone in the audience in the same way; often referred to as the “magic- bullet” or “hypodermic-needle” model of mass communication Straight-Line Effect A specific effect on behavior that is predicted from media content alone, with little consideration of the differences in people who consume that content. Typology A classification scheme that attempts to sort a large number of specific instances into a more manageable set of categories Parasocial Relationship A sense of friendship or emotional attachment that develops between TV viewers and media personalities Institutional Process Analysis Scholarship that penetrates behind the scenes of media organization in an effort to understand what policies or practices might be lurking there Message System Analysis Scholarship that involves careful, systematic study of TV content, usually employing content analysis as a research method Dramatic Violence The overt expression or serious threat of physical force as part of the plot Cultivation Analysis Research designed to find support for the notion that those who spend more time watching TV are more likely to see the “real world” through TV’s lenses. Accessibility Principle When people make judgements about the world around them, they rely on the smallest bits of information that come to mind most quickly Mainstreaming The blurring, blending, and bending process by which heavy TV viewers from disparate groups develop a common outlook through constant exposure to the same images and lables Resonance The condition that exists when viewers’ real-life environment is like the world of TV; these viewers are especially susceptible to TV’s cultivating power Heavy Viewers TV viewers who report that they watch at least four hours per day; television types. Cultivation Differential The difference in the percentage giving the “television answer” within comparable groups of light and heavy TV viewers Meta-Analysis A statistical procedure that blends the results of multiple empirical and independent research studies exploring the same relationship between two variables (E.g. TV viewing and fear of violence) Mean World Syndrome The cynical mindset of general mistrust of others subscribed to by heavy TV viewers Agenda-Setting Hypothesis The mass media have the ability to transfer the salience of issues on their agenda to the public agenda Media Agenda The pattern of news coverage across major print and broadcast media as measured by the prominence and length of stories Public Agenda The most important public issue as measured by public opinion surveys Index of Curiosity A measure of the extent to which individuals’ need for orientation motivates them to let the media shape their views Framing The selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object or issue is discussed Interest Aggregations Clusters of people who demand center stage for their one overriding concern; pressure groups Communitarian Ethics A moral responsibility to promote community, mutuality, and persons-in-relation who live simultaneously for others and for themselves Agape Love An unconditional love for others because they are created in the image of God Accommodation The constant movement toward or away from others by changing your communicative behavior Convergence A strategy of adapting your communication behavior in such a way as to become more similar to another person Divergence A communication strategy of accentuating the differences between you and another person Self-Handicapping For the elderly, a face-saving strategy that invokes age as a reason for not performing well Maintenance Persisting in your original communication style regardless of the communication behavior of the other; similar to divergence; underaccommodation Overaccommodation Demeaning or patronizing talk; excessive concern paid to vocal clarity or amplification, message simplification, or repetition Social Identity Group memberships and social categories that we use to define who we are Initial Orientation Communicators’ predisposition to focus on either their individual identity or group identity during a conversation Norms Expectations about behavior that members of a community feel should (or should not) occur in particular situations Attribution The perceptual process by which we observe what people do and then try to figure out their intent of disposition
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