Quiz 4 - COM 113 (Media, Culture, & Society)
Quiz 4 - COM 113 (Media, Culture, & Society) COM 113
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Justin Hynes on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 113 at Pace University taught by Marcella Szablewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Media, Culture, & Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at Pace University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Quiz 4 - Media, Culture, & Society (Chapter 7) Images of Horror from Fallujah • “the pictures, it can be argued, are most definitely news” BUT “To show a horror solely for its shock value is asking to being a pornographer of war.” • Would American victories, like the Normandy invasion, have been viewed differently if the American public had been shown thousands of dead G.I.’s carpeting the beaches?” Journalism during Times of War • Jensen claims that citizens need three things from journalists in a democracy: ◦ An independent source of factual information ◦ The historical, political, and social context in which to make sense of those facts ◦ Exposure to the widest range of opinion available in the society 76% of guests were either current or former military officials Anti war guests/coverage counted for less than 1% ◦ Embedded v. Uni-lateral? "Embedded journalists were “allowed to travel with military units —so long as they followed the rules” Unilateral are journalists who were “covering the war without military approval” • Rules for Embeds? ◦ reporters could not travel independently (which meant that they could not really report independently) ◦ interviews had to be on the record (which meant lower-level service members were less likely to say anything critical) ◦ officers could censor, copy, and temporarily restrict electronic transmissions for “operational security” (which, in practice, could be defined as whatever field commanders want to censor) "The Platform for Truth” U.S. Central Command, Doha According to the L.A. Times, “The U.S. military hired a scenic designer and spent $225,000 to put this glossy face on the daily briefings it gives to the international media” Control Room • Released 2004 • Dir. Jehane Joujaim (American-Egyptian filmmaker) • Follows Al Jazeera producers and reporters as they cover the war and interact with representative of US Central Command Al Jazeera: Friend or Foe in War Terror? Donald Rumsfeld was quoted in saying that Al Jazeera seemed as if they were promoting terrorism and that if you were to watch the news source day in and day out, you would begin tot believe that America was bad Questions to Keep in Mind • Bias v. Objectivity in reporting? • Regulation of the press in the “national interest”? • Program of embedding reporters with active duty troops, was it effective? How so? • Remember the rules for “embeds” (textbook p. 106-107) Media and Social Movements Social Movements ◦ Issue of gatekeepers Social movements need to get the attention of the media nd convince that their issue is worthy of ceverage ◦ Issue of framing Framing refers to the “context into which the media place facts. Frames organize information and help make it intelligible Economics Again • The need for “sound bites” and PR machines • Often organizations with $ can push their agenda more so than grassroots organizations that don’t have support. How Does the Media Discredit a Social Movement? • Downplays content in favor of emphasizing the spectacle of the event • Painting demonstrates as deviant and unrepresentative of the population • Granting comparable coverage and thus “false balance” to a tiny number of counter demonstrators • Undercounting the attendance at demonstrations Example: University of Missouri • What happened at the University of Missouri this past fall and what can these events tell us about the role of the media in supporting/discrediting social movements? What Are the Rights of Reporters Covering Protests? If protests are forming in public forum, reporters don’t need credentials to cover it—they enjoy a right of access along with the public. They don’t need permission to be there. Cyber-Utopianism: Will the Internet Set Us Free? • Does the Internet promote democracy abroad, or is it a tool of surveillance, oppression and dominant ideology? • The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom, Evgeny Morozov Whose Tweets? • But, in fact, • AL-Jazeera, an international news network based in Qatar, could confirm only 60 active Twitter accounts in Tehran Unintended Consequences • And, because the U.S. Senate Department endorsed the notion of the “Twitter Revolution” • Iran cracked down on social networks, Iranians entering the country were looked upon on Facebook to see if they had links to known dissidents Chapter 8: Active Audience What is the “Active Audience”? The notion of an active audience appeals to out belief in the intelligence and autonomy of individuals. Term is: • a critique of cynicism about the power of media • an expression of faith in the power of people granting people some power and agency in their use of media Interpretation The meanings of media messages are not fixed; they are constructed by audience members. • construction comes from a kind of engagement with media texts, generally through routine acts of interpretation. Social Context of Interpretation Audiences are active in the sense that they interpret media messages socially. • Audiences do not simply watch, read, or listen to a media text; develop independent interpretations of what it means; and stick to them • On the contrary, media are part of our social lives, and we engage with media in social settings Collective Action “Audiences can engage in collective action to try and change media texts or media policies. Such collective action can include public protest, boycotts of specific media products, publicity campaigns to broaden audience indignation, online petitions, pressure on advertisers to withdraw financial support, mass letter writing to highlight audience outrage, and lobbying of Congress for government action,” (264) Audience as Producers “Audience members can produce and distribute their own media, both to criticize the major media and to provide alternative perspectives that are rarely available from national media outlets,” (264) • Images (memes, instagram, etc.) • Video (viral videos,) • Text (tumblr, black twitter, hashtags, trends)
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