EXAM #3 STUDY GUIDE – HIST 1020
1. Explain how to apply Robert Strayer’s “3Cs” of World History to the topics covered in this section of the course. Comparison, change, and connection. Comparing the two World Wars and the different forms of government arising. Change is a constant theme because of the rapid industrialization and militarization from the wars – resulting in new politics (Stalin’s 5year plan, NEP, New Deal, Daws Plan), new leaders (Lenin to Stalin, FDR and his social democratic state), and new problems (Great Depression in the U.S. and the world, Communism, the war creating the “unthinkable”). Connection plays a role in WWI with the major alliances of European powers. It’s also evident after the war when The Great Depression spread outside of the U.S. to the rest of the world due to a
cycle of loans and debt and the U.S. running out of money to loan to everyone else. 2. World War I: We also discuss several other topics like What are spontaneous reactions?
∙ What were the longterm political and cultural origins of the war? Political internal political conflicts (nationalism vs. socialism; the development of new nations, new imperialism and new conflicts; the unification of Germany). Cultural nationalism, jingoism, and social Darwinism fear that industry society creates weak womanly men, people bored of modern civilization life, invites war to happen, everyone thinks it will be an easy fight due to lessons from prior wars
and the “Cult of the Offensive.”
∙ What were the immediate causes of the conflict in 1914? Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the “Power Keg of Europe”: the Balkans, the Austrian Ultimatum (Germany supports Austria in wiping out Serbia), Russian Mobilization (they hope that if they start to mobilize, then Austria will back
down), the Schlieffen Plan: Germany launches a surprise attack by going through Belgium to take out France (this takes advantage of how slow Russia is at We also discuss several other topics like What is dependency school?
mobilizing), Britain and France enter the war, European War becomes World War ∙ What was the chronology of the war and nature/conduct of warfare?
Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, mobilization began, Schlieffen Plan, Great Britain joined in with France and Russia, stalemate and trench warfare, sinking of Lusitania, U.S. joins war, Germany has to agree to the Treaty
∙ Why did a stalemate ensue from fall 1914 until spring 1917? War of attrition, trench warfare, German Navy and “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare”: they start attacking any ship in bound for a British harbor, which is bad for Germany because it causes the U.S. to join the war and support Britain, British blockade of Germany German navy is not able to stop this because British navy is bigger,
they are trying to starve Germany and cut them off from their resources. ∙ What factors contributed to the end of the war? Russian Revolution: Russian
citizens are tired of the war and no longer support it, U.S. enters the war in April 1917, German spring offensive (attempt to end the war in March 1918) fails, Allied summer offensive (British and U.S.’s attempt to end the war in July 1918) succeeds, Collapse of central powers: German government fails and new German
3. How did World War I “make the unthinkable, thinkable”? Things that no one thought would ever happen, did happen… The nature of the industrial war failed to live up to the prewar expectations, destruction of European landscape and heritage, unprecedented
number of casualties, total war, national sacrifice, “The People’s War”, statesponsored
genocide. We also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate the master budget variance?
4. The aftermath of World War I: How did it impact Europe and the rest of the world? Throws off demographics (men 1530 years old), "The Lost Generation"/ "Front Generation" – all men killed in 4year period, international culture of mourning,
Armistice Day was created (Veteran’s Day = Nov. 11), disgruntled war veterans = 90 percent (focus was on those who died in war not on those returning and rejoining the world, lots of anger with community and government), divergent interpretations of the meaning of the war ( horrible loss v. times of being alive and community, everything is still the same, got nothing out of the war), votes for women, a shift in the global financial system (many in debt to the U.S., a change from UK to NY NY), first stirrings of Colonial Rebellions, the Myth of the "Stab in the Back" – if no enemy stepped foot in Germany (who didn’t return to the country until the Treaty of Versailles) did they really Don't forget about the age old question of What are ovarian follicles?
lose?, Pacifism (France and Britain) vs. Militarism and Nationalism (Germany and Italy) 5. How did World War I influence political and economic history in the 1920s and 1930s? It
completely shifted the leading powers in the world from Britain to the U.S. and in doing so it also shifted the world economy because everyone was in major debt due to large amounts of loans needed for the war, so now everyone is getting loans from the U.S. to repay their debt. This shift in the economy leads to the Great Depression and major political reform attempts by various countries (U.S. as a social democracy; Germany as a
6. The Paris Peace Conference/Treaty of Versailles:
∙ Who participated and who was left out? Participated: the U.S., France, Britain, Italy, and Japan (their first true recognition). Left out Russia (formerly Soviet
Union, but signed a separate peace treaty and became Russia), Germany, Austria
Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
∙ What were its provisions (i.e. what did the treaty include)? 1) Demilitarization – weakened Germany, 2) Reparations – Germany pays war debt for allies and “War Guilt Clause” – signed statement that Germans had sole responsibility in starting the war, 3) New Nations – Austrian empire gone, Germany is drastically reduced in size and its colonies are divided up, 4) League of Nations – before United
Nations but quite weak (no legal strength).
∙ How did it affect politics, economics, and everyday life in the 1920s and 1930s? Germany and Austria had to pay war reparations which hurt the economy causing inflation, Britain and France did not get war payments and in turn could not pay loans to the U.S., U.S. then loans Germany money to pay back reparations, and
then Germany owes the U.S.
∙ How did help to pave the way for World War II? People of Germany were not happy with the treaty, “Stab in the Back Myth”, the U.S. was not willing to
stabilize the world economy.
7. What was the historical impact of the influenza pandemic of 1918? 25% of the U.S. population gets the flu, 500,000 U.S. citizens die of the flu, 20+ million people die of the
flu worldwide, killed people age 2040 years.
8. The Russian Revolution:
∙ What were its long and short term causes? Long suppression of the Russian
people by the Romanov dynasty. Short WW1.
∙ Why did it occur when and how it did? Immense social tension mounting under the rule of the Tsar coupled with the hardships of WW1, bringing the Bolsheviks into power.
∙ Was a Communist Revolution predictable in Russia in 1917? No, Marx thought it
would happen in a country that was highly industrialized and proletariat ∙ How did the Bolsheviks justify building communism in Russia? They claimed to
be defending Russia from imperialist and protecting the masses from their
∙ How did the Bolsheviks prevail in the Revolution in 1917? Tsar steps down after March Revolution, then there was only a Provisional government and soviets (temporary government where people create their own small scale local governments called Soviets), so when Lenin returns to Russia in April he takes advantage of the Soviets by infiltrating them to take control, Army Order No. 1 (May) – soldiers are also workers and should be allowed to govern themselves and not listen to their officers, Army Mutiny (June) – soldiers rise up against officers, Army Coupe (August) – provisional governments attempt to control the situation but lose control instead, November Revolution – Bolsheviks take control when the provisional governments lose control and ban all other forms of
government creating a communist state.
∙ How did the Bolsheviks prevail in the Civil War, 19181921? Bolsheviks were better organized, had an established "chain of command" that enforced discipline, rewarded those who followed orders, and punished those who didn't follow orders. Centralization of Party authority and the militarization of
Bolshevism/Communist party Bolsheviks began the Civil War controlling majority of Russian cities, therefore the centers of industry for the war effort.
They also controlled railways.
9. Communism in Russia/the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s:
∙ How did the Bolsheviks/Communist party transform Russia into a communist society? The Bolsheviks waited for the provisional government to lose control over the Soviets from army uprisings and mutiny, infiltrated them, and then took control in the November Revolution of 1917 and banned all other forms of
∙ How did the preRevolutionary structure of the Bolsheviks shape the development of the Communist party and Soviet state? The Bolsheviks believed that revolution requires violence and they placed high importance on party leadership and loyalty. Their vision was not a popular revolution, but one where the minority will change the masses. These are all very important aspects of the Communist party
and Soviet state.
∙ Why did Stalin become Lenin’s successor? He was a very good organizer and good organize people together to support him, he was the secretary for the
∙ What types of politics did Stalin introduce and what were their consequences? He started the first and second 5year Plan to rapidly industrialize cities and implemented collectivization (people have to farm according to dictate of states for food stability). Consequences: peasants revolted, major famine, Stalin kills
disobedient and resistant peasants,
∙ What was life like in the Soviet Union in the 1930s? Freedom in the one thing people had lost. The people of Russia had to read what the state allowed, see what the state allowed, and listen to what the state allowed. State had absolute control
over the media. Those who didn't obey were severely punished.
∙ How did the existence of the U.S.S.R. alter the nature of global politics? The creation of the Soviet Union in Russia (the first Communist state) was a huge plot
twist for global politics because Russia was the least industrialized European nation and Karl Marx predicted that the first communist state would be in a highly industrialized nation. This brought Tsar Nicholas II’s monarchy and revolution against him for his very conservative views and little industrialization. These revolutions brought inconsistent government reforms, switched it from minimal
industrialization to rapid industrialization, and the uprising of the Bolsheviks. 10. The Great Depression:
∙ What were the long and shortterm causes of the “slump” in the global economy? Established cycles of “boom” and “bust”, improved agricultural production which led to people who work in agriculture’s incomes to decrease. Decreased consumer demand and manufacturing, war debt and reparations (everyone borrowed from
the U.S. for WWI and are now deeply in debt), created a cycle of loans between countries (Daws Plan – U.S. banks loan money to Germany to pay off loans to other countries), world’s primary lender/leader shifts from Britain to U.S., rising production with uneven distribution of profits, U.S. was unwilling to work to stabilize world economy (they had so much money they didn’t think they needed
to worry about it, it would last forever).
∙ Why did the “slump” begin the United States? Why did it spread? Because they were loaning out so much money to other countries, nut were unwilling to help stabilize the global economy (they thought they could loan out massive amounts of money with no limit, because they had so much of it). Industrial production outpaced consumer demands and there was an uneven distribution of profits from the rising production. It spread because the U.S. stopped loaning out money once their stock market crashed and they realized they had no more money.
∙ How did the “slump” affect local and global economics? Everyone was a part of the recession now since the U.S. stopped loaning out money. Other countries freak out and worry and raise tariffs, which ends free trade and war reparations.
Soviet Union is the only place safe from this.
∙ How did the “slump” affect the lives of ordinary people? Significant decline in standard of living, high unemployment preceded by a significant decline in the value of investments, a loss of savings for those who had money in the failing banks. those who remained employed were forced to accept much lower wages which meant they couldn’t effectively care for their families (a sign of masculinity at the time), social disorder and anxiety, and crime, vagrancy, and
∙ How did the “slump” affect the nature of politics, and the varieties of government responses to the problems caused by the slump? Failure of charity, community programs, and local governments. Inaction of national governments – U.S. mindset is “the only hope is for the government to do nothing” but this was clearly failing because “hungry men are angry men.” “The Bonus Army” March on Washington, D.C. in 1932 – veterans want their pay owed by the government,
it was dispersed with tear gas by the U.S. military.
11. How different were the United States and Germany from each other in the 1920s? Germany was a fascist state (opposite of communist) whereas the U.S. was a social democratic state. Also, the U.S. had shifted to become the new world leader/lender with seemingly unlimited amounts of money, whereas Germany was in critical debt from
borrowing so much money for WWI and now having to get loans from the U.S. 12. The New Deal:
∙ What types of policies did the New Deal involve? “Fireside chats” – uses radio to explain government policies and the economy to the masses to ease social anxiety. Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933) – subsidizes banks that haven’t already collapsed and creates a whole new set of regulations to provide greater stability. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) (1933). The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – takes unemployed men and put them to work creating National Parks, reserves, sidewalks, and anything else needed by the government. Works Progress Administration – smaller scale CCC, government puts unemployed to work, gives them a sense of masculinity back because it’s wage work. Industry policies – union legislation and collective bargaining. Agriculture policies – Agricultural Adjustment Act. Social Security
– income tax for retirement.
∙ How effective were these policies? They were effective in a smallscale sense because they helped with social anxiety and selfrespect among men, created a stronger central government, and created an “Economic Safety Net” through the implementation of social/economic security (income tax for retirement). But they weren’t effective enough to end the Great Depression completely, they only
helped to slightly and slowly improve things.
∙ Why was the New Deal controversial? It ended laissezfaire, created not only shortterm measures but also longterm changes/policies in the U.S. national government, created a stronger central government with stronger influence over individuals, and it failed to fully end the Great Depression (the changes made helped but didn’t end it) – the Great Depression ended artificially by WWII.
∙ What was the relationship between the New Deal and U.S. involvement in World War II? FDR stated that “individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence.” This mindset correlates with the New Deal, which created a social democracy under FDR’s presidency and made it difficult for the U.S. to remain neutral in the war since it was fighting to be free. Ultimately Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor is what lead to the U.S’s involvement in the war because they had to retaliate to fight for their freedom rights as stated in “The Second Bill of Rights” – rights to free trade, employment, food, shelter, health, education, and “Freedom from Fear.” This created tension on how they relate to free market economy.