Geology 1103 study guide for exam 3
Geology 1103 study guide for exam 3 1103
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tess Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1103 at Appalachian State University taught by Brian Zimmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 265 views. For similar materials see Environmental change, hazards and resources in Geology at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
1103 Exam III Study Guide Glaciers and Climate Change: Parts of and types of glaciers o Types: Continental Glaciers – found at high latitudes Alpine glaciers – found at high elevation o Thermal Categories Temperate glaciers - Ice is at or near melting temperature Polar glaciers - Ice is well below melting temperature Glacial terrains o Have abrasion where they leave slicken lines, also plucking that occurs off backside. Slicken lines are used to tell if a glacier had been in the area o Glaciers also make moraines (pile of sediment or rock that marks the boundary of a glacier) Moraine continues to get pushed forward from glacier o Leave behind terrain changes – very sever and steep topography such as sharp horns, aretes, cirques and hanging valleys El Nino and La Nina events o El Nino – Occurs when upwelling along coastlines are cutoff, results in warm coastal waters and poor fishing o La Nina – occurs when there is extensive upwelling, results in cold coastal waters Methods of determining historical environmental conditions o Paleoclimate evidence Tree and plant pollen. More tree pollen = warm and wet conditions. More grass pollen = cold and dry o Dendrochronology (tree rings) Growth rings – tree rings can easily be dated Ring thickness reflects climate changes (wetter, warmer = thicker ; drier, colder = thinner) Ring widths form time sequences Overlapping sequences yield a time scale Milankovitch cycles o Eccentricity – long drawn out wave movement o Tilt – in between o Precession – fast, small waves Rock and Mineral Resources: Mining techniques o 1. Tunnel Mining – used for underground mining. 1. Tunnels are linked to a vertical shaft 2. Ore is removed by drilling and blasting 3. Excavated ore is hauled to the surface for processing 4. Expensive and dangerous Fewer jobs because tunnels can collapse, methane gas, black lung disease o 2. Strip mining - Landscape destroyed to reach coal 1. A large drag line bucket is used to scrape off overburden 2. Spoil (blasted rock/waste rock) is stockpiled for later use 3. Exposed coal is backfilled with spoil and soil then planted o 3. Open pit mines – large excavations open to the air Less expensive and dangerous than tunnel mines Usually require ore within o 4. Mountain Top Removal – removal of 100’s of meters of elevation Deforestation Destroys ecosystems Pollutes headwaters Increased flooding Types of materials mined and their properties o 1. Native – Naturally occur in pure form, easily shaped by cold working o 2. Precious – rare and economically important o 3. Base – Commonly used in industry o Metals can be hard or soft, ductile(able to be drawn into thin wires), malleable(able to be pounded into thin sheets) How ores form o Primary – setting and cooling process of ore - Via geological processes, magmatic activity, hydrothermal alteration (hot water altering the material) o Secondary – ore accumulation – weathering processes and hydraulic sorting Fossil Fuels: How formed – created by photosynthesis; solar energy form the past. Relative abundance o Natural gas: Supplies 25% of us energy, 300 trillion feet in reserves. Majority of oil is in the united states o Coal – 300 million years ago Benefits and drawbacks Methods of extraction o Underground mining, open pit, strip mining o Primary & secondary o Enhanced recovery – deliberate fracturing of rocks or using explosives Efficiency of different types of fossil fuels Alternative Energy: Perpetual sources of energy Advantages and drawbacks of wind o Advantages : winds are powered by the sun so more solar energy o Disadvantages: Intermittent wind means it is not a dependable source of energy Space : You’d need 100 sq. miles of turbines to = 1 large coal or nuclear plant in energy output Require energy storage mechanism like solar energy Can be very loud Advantages and drawbacks of nuclear o Aging fleet – plants are only good for about 50 years, a lot need to be shut down and demolished o Waste – What do you do with it? Where do you put it? o Generates highly radioactive wastes which are extremely toxic, wastes are poisonous for 1000’s of years. High-level waste storage is a major social issue o Wastes also generated by processing uranium ore o Nuclear accidents Advantages and drawbacks of solar o Advantages : most abundant source of energy, solar energy dwarfs that of hydrocarbon resources o Disadvantages – hard to utilize because it is… Diffuse (only a small amount of energy produced by the sun hits the earth) Highly variable on a seasonal and daily basis Difficult to convert into more usable forms of energy Advantages and drawbacks of geothermal o Advantages: very clean (steam is the by-product) and on par economically with fossil fuel plants, it is abundant o Disadvantages : 1. Lots of dissolved minerals 2. Subsidence 3. Not universally available 4. Output can very – decreases over time 5. Long transmission distances 6. Not useful for transportation Feasibility of biofuels and hydrogen fuel cells as gas replacements o Biofuels – energy from plant and animal matter. It must be grown quickly Ethanol is alcohol derived from corn 1. Burned as a motor fuel Produced in large quantities Unproven as a gasoline replacement o Hydrogen fuel cells Byproduct will be water the problem is that you need hydrogen and it is hard to get it by itself. It is also unstable
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