Notes test 2 Health Psychology (Psy 426)
Notes test 2 Health Psychology (Psy 426) PSY 426
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Puck Reeders on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 426 at Geneeskunde Universiteit Utrecht taught by Gail Ironson PhD. M.D. in Fall2015. Since its upload, it has received 241 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Geneeskunde Universiteit Utrecht.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Stress management October 7 2014 0 Stressful event 0 Awareness I Thoughts feelings emotions 0 Thought appraisal I What are you saying to your self I Rational thought replacement 0 Appraisal of the situation I Coping techniques 0 0 Awareness of the situation 0 When you are stressed out how do you know it 0 Check off symptoms 0 Cognitive Anxious thoughts fearful anticipation poor concentration difficulty with your memory 0 Emotional Feelings of tension worries irritability restlessness inability to rea1x depression crying O Behavioral Avoidance of tasks sleep problems difficulty in completing work assignments fidgeting tremor strained face tension crying changes in drinking eating or smoking behaviors 0 Physical stiff or tense muscles grinding teeth clenching fists sweating tension headaches faint feelings choking feeling difficulty swallowing stomach ache loss of interest in sex tiredness awareness of heart beating 0 Social How a person acts in response to other people when heshe is under stress avoiding others isolating themselves or seeking out other people venting inappropriately getting esi1y irritated with others 0 How thoughts can effect the way you feel examples Biting in a 1emon salivate thinking about someone you hate I you feel tense and anxious 0 All or none thinking 0 I can t cope with any of my new medications I cant do anything right 0 If you are not a 100 supportive you are against me O This relationship didn t work I will never be in a relationship I will be forever alone 0 overgeneralization 0 you think that 1 negative event will happen over and over again 0 Mental Filter 0 you pick out one thing and only focus on that None of the positive filters through 0 Presentation criticism and praise you only remember the criticism 0 Disqualifying the positive 0 You discount the positive stuff and interpret things as the most negative 0 Mind reading 0 Jumping to conclusions You assume you know what someone is thinking 0 He did not say hi to me at a party he must not like me anymore 0 The fortune teller Since I have a pain in my stomach I have colon cancer 0 Catastophising minimizing or maximizing O I worked hard on that project its no big deal 0 I have a stomach ache it must be colon cancer 0 Should statements 0 I should have done that 0 How to deal with there things 0 Negative thought replacement Instead of They only want to get together with me because they feel sorry for me They are hanging outwith me because I am awesome Instead of He didn t say hi to me so he doesn t like me to I He did not say hi to be because he did not see me 0 Coach ACoach B Ball player is going to catch a ball but misses it Negative coach says You idiot that was an easy ball you are incompetent you will never be a good ball player Coach B You almost got it next time you will do better Normally you always catch these balls 0 Evidence for and against 0 I didn t do well on the test I did well on other tests I can figure out what the professor wants and do better next time 0 To types of coping 0 problem focused coping Tackle the problem directly It involves changing a problem or aspect of a problem that is causing distress by using coping strategies such as cofnitive problem solving decision making con ict resolution seeking information seeking advice and goel setting Problem Since I was mugged I have been aving trouble sleeping Problem focused I will talk to my doctor and counselor about medications and learn skills I can use to help regulate my sleep 0 Emotion Focused coping To handle feelings of distress rather than actual problems It involves regulating the emotional response produced by a stressful situation by using coping strategies such as cognitive reappraisal and reframing emotional expression behavioral changes engaging in pleasant activities and physical stress reduction exercising relaxation deep breathing It does not make sense to butt you head against the wall if you cant do anything about the situation Exercizing 0 Lowers blood pressure 0 Lowers heart rate 0 Study by James google 0 O O O O O 0 Compared anti depressants and exercising Mild depression exercising is as good as taking anti depressants No side effects He compared Zoloft makes sore serotonine available to your brain 50200 10 minute warmup 30 min moderate exercise on treatmin 5 minute cooldown 45 min in total 3 times a week This is equivalent to a antidepressant Moderate exercise means you need to get your heart rate up to a certain point I 70 085 220age 0 Time management 0 O O O 0 0000000 OWa 39lt 00000 Write to do list Scheduling Setting short and long term goals Problem focused coping is used for controllable aspects changeable Emotion focused coping is used for uncontrollable aspects unchangeable Bad coping strategies Ignoring the problem Procrastinating Denying the problem exists Giving uo Eating drinking or smoking to numb feelings Using drugs or alcohol Over medicating Stuffeing feelings not talking to others about what we feel or need s in which spirituality coping may help They are about twice as likely to live Make meaning of the event The feeling that one has support guidance and is not alone Elicitation of a calming response Appraisal of the stressor as less toxic Appraisal of the self as stronger Missed class How to change your health behaviors 10142014 completing chapter 6 Page 145 start Motivational factors 0 O 0 You know that if u wanna continue buying fatty foods and smoke sigarettes you are biased to what you let in Motivational reasoning You look for information regarding your beliefs I Defense mechanisms to cope with stressful information Not practicing safe sex more likely to get STD s I Motivational reasoning We may decide that if our partner looks healthy hes not infected with HIV I People who smoke cigarettes give a lower risk then people who don t smoke Less rational processes 2 False Hope 0 O O 0 Sometimes it s a good thing recovery etc Often people are willing to engage in risky behaviors I If your social norms are like that I If your friends smoke weed I If your friends have unprotected sex If your have done it before you will more likely do it again If the cool people smoke Emotional factors 0 O O O 0 If we want to do ads that stress you out or don t stress you out Under stress you are not going to remember as much and you are going to pay less attention If u go to the doctor and you get a devastated diagnosis the doctor needs to know that the patient will not remember everything People avoid stressful things If ads are to stressful people will change it Skip development and health 146148 0 Don t skip O The time people has the greatest chance of doing risky behavior is your adolescents peer in uence etc I If you can have open communication with your parents it will be better for the child 0 If you are trying to do drugs try them in a safe environment 0 often panic attacks come from bad trips 0 Most Teen deaths are from auto accidents in developed countries 0 Older people are more likely to do healthy behaviors except for exercise Gender and Health 0 Women live longer then men Europe and USA its about 5 years 0 If u make it to 65 the remaining life expectancy is about 3 years 0 Why do women live longer PAGE 48 I Estrogen protects their heart from heart diseases until 52 0 Less cholesterol levels I Decreased platelet clotting 0 Increased vessel exibilitV 0 Less thsiological reactivitv to stress I Women have larger social circles They can deal with loss better I Men might have stressful jobs I Men are more likely to smoke and drink I More risky activity during sex I Men do more risky driving men I Men exercise more then women I Men are less likelv to be depressed 0 Women have more acute illnesses then men 0 Might be because they go to the doctor more 0 Women are more likelv to be depressed O Depressed connected to mortality 0 Socio cultural status amp Health 0 Americans have more heart diseases cancer etc British smoke and drink more Americans are more obese Even after you control for weight Americans are still a little sicker then British Study here at UM Why Hispanics have lower then expected cardiovascular diseases even when the risk factors are present spirituality 0 P 150 AA and African Indians poor health Related to social class More chance of cancer and stroke but less COPD O KNOW 22 of native Americans 18 of blacks 17 Hispanics and 12 white rate themselves as having Door health 0 Some reasons why Stress from discrimination except here in Miami higher substance use HIV Deathinjury from violence 0 What would helps Poverty programs Give information to people with low literacy O O O O 0 Consideration of socio cultural status 0 Cognitive and linguistic factors I Some HispanicsAfrican americans believe in spirituality they believed in voodoo death Have of people don t take their HIV meds and don t take their doctors They don t believe it works 0 What are the biological differences I AA have more hypertension salt sensitive I Small white women are prone to osteoporosis 127 pounds 0 Different cultural groups use different kinds of social support 0 O O 0 Programs for Health promotion 0 Public service announcements I Have limited success in changing behavior I They work when people already want to change their behavior I Helping people to stop smoking how successful was it 17 obtained from smoking a year later successful program High relapse rate 0 Doctors office to promote information I only 23rds check to see if the patient is smoking I only 15th of physicians give the smoking patients information on how to quit O I You get genetic testing if you have increased risk for example cancer 0 Even if you offer it for free less then half requests testing 0 Features of information to enhance motivation O Helptail With the advise I If people cant afford medications tell them how to get free meds 0 Study from Ironson I The Ryan White act 0 People With chronic fatique syndrome I Cant come in do it over the phone 0 Message framing I If u are going to do an add to make people change the behavior I Emphasize the gains benefits of the losses costs I Gain frame messaging promoting the benefits 0 Using condoms to prevent a illness you Will stay healthy 0 Physical therapy walk Without pain prevention and recovery 0 If u exercise you Will be more fit and less likely to develop heart disease I Loss frame I If u do not get your RR checked you can increase your chances of getting a heart disease or stroke 0 When do u use these For behaviors to detect a problem early 0 Mammogram 0 Fear messages I Fear can motivate people to change behavior but the effects are transient If its to fearful people will ignore it 0 When are fear messages most persuasive I When the person presented actually has it I If they emphasize the seriousness I If they provide specific instructions to change your behavior I If they help gain self confidence They believe they can do it Alcohol October 21 2014 Chapter 7 Alcohol 0 O O 0 Most psychoactive drug Consumed for thousands of years perhaps as far back as 8000 BC A central Nervous system depressant Society s love hate relationship with alcohol I Social lubricant I Adjunt to a fine meal I demon rum In drug and alcoholic units they are looking for people that went through the phase of being an alcoholicdrug addict People want toget treatment when they are about to lose their job or house Who drinks and why 0 Cultural in uences on drinking ethnic and social factors 0 Trends in the US I Use peaked in 1981 followed by decline mirroring patterns of ilicit drug use I Decline particularly signi O FINISH What is de ned as heavy drinking 0 More then or equal then 5 drinks a day or O 15 drinks a week 0 differs for men and women upper one is for male 0 Have you ever had 5 or more drinks in a day 0 2 different patterns I Binge drinking I Drinking everyday 0 Women 4 or more a day or 8 or more a week 0 Moderate drinking 2 a day for men 1 a day for women What is one drink 0 Standard drinks has about 05 ounce of pure alcohol I 12 ounce beer I 4 ounce wine I 1 ounce of 100proof spirits Hops might be good for your bones US alcohol consumption 0 regional differences in the US I Stress index drinking rates higher in states where people experience a great deal of social stress and tension I Drinking norms drinking rates higher in states where people tend to approve of the use of alcohol to relieve stress Legal level 008 Questionaire O 4 questions CAGE ON TEST I Have you ever felt you should Cut down on your drinking I Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drinking I Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking I Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover Eye opener 0 Mental health intake 0 Yes to two of them 90 tchance of being alcoholic You can build up tolerance You need more and more for the same feeling PAPER WHAT IS BEST FOR A HANGOVER EXPLAIN WHY SOME STATES HAVE HIGHER DRINKING RATES US alcohol consumption 0 Gender differenced Males more likely to drink than females and more likely to drink more 0 FINISH Pharmacology 0 absorption I some absorbed in the stomach most in the small intestine I Absorption is slower I FINISH 0 Distribution I Blood alcohol concentration BAC is a measure of the concentration of alcohol in blood expressed as a percentage in terms of grams per 100 mL I Alcohol is distributed throughout body uids I Alcohol is less distributed in fatty tissues so a lean person will have a lower BAC than a fatter person 0 Metabolism I Liver metabolized about 025 ounce of alcohol per hour I If rate of intake rate of metabolism BAC is stable I If rate of intake exceeds rate of metabolism BAC climbs O WRITE PAPER ON NAILPOLISH THAT CAUSES RXN WITH RUFIES DOES EXCERSIZE HELP WITH YOUR METABOLISM and lowering your BAC Blood alcohol concentration 0 The relationship between BAC and alcohol intake 0 FINISHI Picture 2 hours per drink to metabolize 1 drink every two hours will keep your BAC stable Metabolizing intake Gender differences 0 Women tend to be more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol after consuming the same amount I Stomach enzyme that metabolizes a small amount of alcohol is more active in men 0 Women absorb a greater propertopn I Women tend to weight less and have a higher proportion of body fat 0 FINISH Alchol metabolism 0 2 of alcohol is excreted unchanged Most alcohol is metabolized in the liver FINISH Exercise coffee and other strategies do not speed up the rate of metabolism Liver responds to chronic intake of alcohol by increasing enzyme activity I Contributes to tolerance among heavy users 0 O O O 0 EC DOES WATER HELP AGAINST GETTING DRUNK Mechanism of action 0 CNS depressant Central nervous system 0 Used as anesthetic until the late 19th century 0 Alcohol has many FINISHHHHH I Dopamine and serotonine are connected to mood SRRI s work on serotonine receptors I Hits anxiety and mood neurotransmitters O FINISH Behavioral Effects 0 BAC determines effects I At low effective levels Complex and abstract behaviors disrupted I FINISH O Mood changes can include euphoria reduced anxieties and reduced inhibitions O FINISH BAC and behavioral effect KNOW DIAGRAM O 005 lowe alertness O 010 slower reaction times impaired motor function less caution O 015 large consistent increases in reaction time 0 If someone come in the ER with 060 and they are not dead we know they are a chronic alcoholic Behavioral effet 0 Alc use serves as a social signal for a time out from responsibilities O FINISH Driving under in uence 0 13 rd of all traffic crash fatalities are linked to alcohol use Risk of a fatal crash is dose related Single vehicle fatalities are more likely FINISH Men are more likelu then women to be involved in an alcohol related fatal crash Anyone who drinks and drives is a potential threat not just problem drinkers FINISH SLIDE Sexual behavior OOOOOOO I Enhances interest in sex but impairs physiological arousal I Linked to unsafe sex 0 Blackouts I Danger sign of excessive alcohol use 0 Crime and Violence 0 FINISH Physiological effects 0 Peripheral circulation dilation of peripheral lood vesels mean that drinkers lose 0 Fluid Balance 0 Hormonal effect 0 FINISH Acute Physiological toxicity 0 Alcohol overdose poisoning is common and dangerous 0 If someone O FINISH Hangover 0 Symptoms I Upset stomach fatique headache thirst depression anxiety and general malaise 0 Possible Causes I Alcohol Withdrawal exposure to congeners cellular dehydration 0 Moderate drinking is the only way to avoid a hangover O FINISH SLIDE Alcohol Toxicity Long term risks and effect 0 Brain tissue loss and intellectual impairment 0 Liver disease Hepatitis fatty liver cirr O FINISH FAS O FINISH O FAS I Related to peak BAC and to duration of alcohol exposure I Prevalence 02 to 15 per 1000 Births 0 Fetal alcohol effects I All alcohol related developmental abnormalities associated With prenatal alcohol exposure I Prevalence 80 to 200 per 1000 births 0 Drinking during pregnancy increases risks of spontaneous abortion 0 Data do not prove that low levels of alcohol use during pregnancy are safer or that they are unsafe O FINISH Kids are more prone to 0 If u have an alcoholic father male children are much more likely to become alcoholic and women are much more likely to become depressed 0 Don t know about mother EC 0 Alcohol Dependence Withdrawal syndrome 0 Abstinence syndrome is medically more severe and more deadly than opioid withdrawal 0 Abstinence syndrome occurs in stages I l tremors rapid heartbeat hypertension heavy sweating loss of appetite insomnia I 2 Hallucnations auditory visual andor tactile I 3 delusions disorientation delirium I 4 seizures Initial detoxification shoulc be carried out in an inpatient medical setting Sedatives given instage l or 2 prevents stages 3 and 4 Some symptoms can last for up to several weeks 0 Measure of heartrate are objective measures to see if they are in withdrawal 0 Dependent behaviors O APA defines substance abuse and dependence and includes alcohol as psychoactive substances I Alcohol abuse is a maladaptive pattern indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having persistent problems caused by alcohol I Alcohol dependence FINISH 0 Alcoholics Anonymous 0 Good social support 000 O 0 12 steps I We admitted we were powerless over alcoholthat our lives had become unmanageable I Came to believe that a power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity I Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood him I Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves I Admitted to God to ourselves and to another humans being the exact nature of our wrongs I Confession I Were entirely ready to have god remove all these defects of character I Humbly asked him to remove our shortcomings O Psychological principles goo e Spiritual principles Confession forgiveness accepting yourself ammending 0 Thursday October 23 2014 0 Of this chapter ONLY slides Page 184192 Quitting a substance without Therapy 0 Dependence You lost control over it 0 Disulfuran Antibuse 0 0AA 0 0 Drug that makes you throw up when you are drinking If you are a mentor for AA you are more likely to stay abstinent Psychological principles on test I If you don t go to one of these programs 0 O O O 0 00000000 20 of people can stop by themselves Those able to quit have high self esteem Fewer episodes of intoxication Have a friend group who do not drink Is there a addictive personality Missing one check book Yes Lower self esteem More rebellious More accepting of illegal behavior Less socially conforming Less committed to a religion Thrill seeking Lack of self control Marshmallow test I You can have a marshmallow now or you can have 2 later I Taking the later one Late discounting You are willing to delay gratification I It is actually easier to quit smoking by yourself compared to quit drinking by yourself 0 O O O 60 succeed Characterisitics IN BOOK I You want to quit I They generally smoke less then a pack a day I Less stress in their lives 0 Behavioral principles and methods used in treatment 0 O O 0 You know antecedents triggers and consequences Stimilus control I You know people are going to a bar where people are drinking you don t go there I If you are on a diet you don t go to the grocery store hungry Make substance less available I Instead of having 5 packs in your car only have 3 sigs in your car Self monitoring I You become aware of what triggers you behavior I You become aware of the consequences I Stimulus control control ques Restrict time spant of situation when the behavior occurs 0 Having a competing response 3rd I AA meeting instead of drinking I Sig after coffee skip coffee take shower instead 0 You can wear a patch 0 Aversion strategies I Before u quit you double the amount I Smoking a stale sigarette 0 Scheduled reduction I You wait longer and longer across the days 0 Behavioral contracting I You write down what you are going to do reinforcers consequences I You give someone 100 dollars you get a contracts and if u finish the contract u get ur money back 0 Chemical treatment for substance abuse I Patch 0 Works better for men then for women Welbutron 0 Anti depressant O 0 Does not interfere with sexual desire I Disuluran I Nitrexone 0 Blocks the high narcotics give you Methadone 0 Prevents euphoria when taking opiate I Simulates the effects of the opiat O O 0 Dealing with relapse relapse prevention 0 lapse LOOK UP IN BOOK 0 learn to identify high risk situation 0 training in coping skills and stress management I relaxation techniques I What you are saying to yourself 0 Practise coping skills with therapist 0 Having booster sessions SmokingTobacco Chapter 10 of another book Tobacco Dilemma 0 A legal product 0 FINISH SLIDE 0 History 0 O O O O O O O O 0 Regulation efforts 1964 Surgeons General s report states that smoking causes lung cancer in men I Tobacco sales FINISH SENTENCE Trends in cigaretters Tobacco Regulation Efforts Laqsuits seeking compensation for the health consequences of smoking FINISH Safer cigarettes lower nicotine cigaretes lower tar cigarette FINISH Current Cigarette use 21 of people are smokers More likely to smoke if you are less educated Tobacco products Hookahs large ornate water pipes imported from Arab countries I Hookahs produce milder water filteres finish 0 Adverse Health Effects 0 O O I Costs 0 0 Lung Cancer Cardiovascular disease Chronic obstructive lung disease I including emphysema Risk increases for those who start young smoke many cigarettes and continue to smoke for a long time Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of death The more you smoke the worse the effects and the younger you start the worse the effects mortality Wrinkles and premature balding FINISH 0 Passive smoking 0 O O O Nonsmokers inhaling cigaretes FINISH Health effects difficult to define but include FINISH I Nicotine O a natural occurring liquid alkaloid that is colorless and volatile 0 Tolerance and depence develop quickly 0 Highly toxic I Typically FINISH Nicotine Absorption and Metabolism 0 Inhalation is very effective 0 Most nictotine 0 Use of nicotine 0 Greater risk of bladder cancer be it goes through your kidneys O FINISH Physiological Effects 0 mimics acetylcholine stimulates and blocks certain receptor sites causes the release of adrenaline FINISH CNS and circulatory system effects I Inceased heart rate and blood effects 0 Reduces hunger Behavioral effects 0 FINISH Nicotine dependence 0 Debate continues despite conclusions made in th surgeons General s report I Cigarette amp tobacco are addicting I FINISH How to stop 0 There are more than 50 million ex smokers in the US 0 Challenges to quitting I Relapse is extremely high 7080 I FINISH O Nicotine replacements Nicotine Without the tar and carbon monoxide I Gum patches nasal spray inhalers lozenge candy you suck on O Bupropion Zyban O Combing counseling and pharmacological treatments increase the odds of quitting O O O 0 Drug Abuse and Classification os Psychoactive drugs 0 Nicotines O Stimulats I Cocaine Hallucinogens Marijuana Depressants Opioids OOOO O Psychotherapeutics O FINISH 0 Using alcohol for a long time can make you depressed 0 Ask cage questions 0 2 of them yes 90 they are alcoholics 0 first off alcohol 0 still depressed Then therapy 0 Marijuana Toxicity Potential 0 Acute physiological effects I Increaded heart rate possibly risky for someone With preexisting cardiovascular disease I No human overdose deaths have been reported 0 Panic reactions I Characterized fear of loss of control and fear that things will not return to normal I FINISH 0 Marijuana Toxicity Potential 0 Driving ability Research findings I Lab studies of computer controlled driving stimulations FINISH Chronic lunch exposure from marijuana smoking 0 Smoking egukar smoke fewer ma 0 I FINISH I Reproductive effects ON TEST 0 Reduces sperm count 0 reduced I Immune system effects I Motivational syndrome 0 Heavy I Psychosis I FINISH I Brain damage 0 Animal studies indicate that heavy doses of THC may change the structure of the neurons in the hippocampus I Some nonpsychoactive ingredients in marijuana may have brainprotecting antioxidant properties I Con icting reports on effects are likely to continue 0 Medical uses of cannabis O I Cocaine Acute Toxicity 0 Acute cocaine toxicity causes profound CNS stimulation Which can lead to respiration or cardiac arrest 0 Significant individual variation in the uptake and metabolism of cocaine I Difficult to estimate the size of a lethal dose 0 Rare severe and unpredictable reactions can cause cardiac failure 0 Cocaine combined with alchol can cause the formation of the toxic chemical cocaethylene Chronic Toxicity O FINISH Amphetamines Acute Toxicity 0 Acute behavioral toxicity 0 Very high doses Chronic 0 Depressants Causes and Concerns 0 Dependence I Psychological dependence I Physical I Benzodiazepine calm you down If u stop them you get the opposite effect ON TEST 0 Where the word quarantine word comes from Plagues Supportive care vomiting and diarrhea replace the uids Plague in Europe killed 13 They tried to quarantine them for 40 days Ouaran means 40 It comes from the plague in Eurone Now you want to treat them Not just isolate them The quarantine period is only 20 days I You are only transmitting things like ebola through your uids when you are showing symptoms 28 Oct 2014 00000000 0 Last slides on chapter 7 drugs 0 Depressants Causes for concern 0 Anti depressant drugs 0 Dependence 0 Withdrawal will be the opposite of the effect of the drug Know this I Psychological dependence especially associates with shortacting barbiturates I Physical dependence potentially life threatening withdrawal syndrome linked to large doses of sedative hypnotics 0 Barbiturates Withdrawal Anxiety insomnia weakness nausea and vomiting seizures disorientation agitation delusions visual and auditory hallucinations 0 You can die from the seizures 0 Benzodiazepine Valium Xanax anxiety irritability or insomnia 0 Cross dependence occurs among the barbiturates the benzodiazepines and alcohol Causes of concern 0 Toxicity I Behavioral 0 Alcohol likeintoxication I Physiological I FINISH 0 Patterns of abuse I Most abuse associated With oral use of legally manufactured products I 2 types of abusers 0 older adults using prescription drug tolerance develops dose increases 0 Younger people Who obtain drugs to get high may take higher dose and mix With alcohol Inhalants Dangers 0 Kidney damage 0 Brain 0 FINISH LSD Adverse reactions Hallucinogen O Impossibte to determine true incidence of adverse reactions I Some bad reactions may be due to impurities in street LSD andor preexisting psychological conditions in the user Panic reaction Flashbacks I Recurrence of symptoms weeks or months after an individual has taken LSD I Rare variable and unpredictable in occurrence I DSM5 classifies them as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder Effects rea Overall PCP causes a dissociative state that resembles schizophrenia much more than the LSD state FINISH Ecstasy MDMA 0 Some research has found that MDMA may cause brain damage I Selective destruction of serotonin neurons I Strong evidence from animal studies but limited evidence of long term neurotoxic effects in humans 0 Listed as a Schedule 1 drug but continue to be studied as a potential psychotherapeutic agent I Opioids Current patterns of abuse 0 Heroin 01 of USA past years use Prescription pain relievers non medical use5 of americans report past years USE FINISH Toxicity potential Know PINPOINT PUPILS opioids Sympathometics give u big pupils Acute toxicity I Opioids depress resipiratory centers in the brain I Effects with alcohol are addictive I FINISH 0 Chronic toxicity is associated with injection use I FINISH OOOOOO Chapter 8 Nutrition All in book 0 Page 195 review of food I Carbhvdrates 0 Simple and complex sugars incl glucose 0 Glue fruits and animal products 0 Fructose in honey 0 Source of energy 0 Lipidsfats 0 Provide energy for the body 0 Saturated worst type fats and unsaturated fats are okay for you 0 Including cholesterol 0 0 Looking at the label On test 0 1030 of your carolies are from fat preferably unsaturated I Avocado nuts Bad fat in meats 0 Example MampM 200 calories 11 grams of fat 11x999 99200495 calories are from fat Too high It can max be 30 0 There are 9 calories per gram of fat 0 Granola bar 260 cal 13 grams of fat 117 calories from fat 11726045 Too high Proteins 0 Made of amino acids 0 Half you need from your diet 0 Body developing and functions Vitamins O For metabolism 0 They breakdown things faster 0 Vitamin B amp CI Water soluble I Don t have to worry about taking too much you will pee them out 0 Other Vitamins I Fat soluble I If u take too much you will get diarrhea I You can eat orangesfresh orange juice when you have a cold Vit C I Damage liver and kidneys I Vit D is good for bones you can take more then recommended amount I Most people do not get anough vitamin D Minerals 0 Calcium 0 Potassium I Anti 0 Sodium I Potassium and sodium are involved In the nerves I Blood pressure regulation I Muscle contraction I S O Fibers I Not nutrient but help with digestion 0 Anti oxidents I Decrease damage to cells by counteracting with free radicals I Alpha glycoac acid ubicanol I Take before xray before the xray damage Section 2 What people eat only know from class 0 0000000000 Since the 80 s the red meat consumption has gone down Red meat is bad because of the fat Leaner meat is better The less marble Consumptopn of whole milk is going down good Healthy food consumption has gone up More vegetables More poulty skim milk and rice Unhealthy changes Intake going up of sugars cheese soda People who are vegetarian probably wont lose weight if they still eat cheese Processed food consumption has gone up O I Nitrates are bad hotdogs and lunch meat I MSG some people get a bad reaction Per person consumption of fat and calories are the highest in the United stated I 178 grams fat pp per day consumed in America I 3900 calories a day I Average 178x 91602 1602390041 calories from fat Too high I Page 201 BMI O Besal metabolic index 0 How overweight you are 0 25 or over overweight O 30 or over Obese 0 Look at chart in book 0 Formula I Weight in pounds lb X 7045 height in inches2 I professor is 62 inches 130 pounds Her BMI is 238 0 Stat on test I 13 of people in the USA are obsese BMI geater or equal to 30 I 23 of people in the USA are overweight BMI geater or equal to 25 O 0 Page 203 O Whitin whites men are more likely to be overweight then women 0 In general Obesity is especially high within African American women and Mexican americans O 77 of Mexican women are overweight look at men 0 How diet effects different things 0 Atherosclerosis 198 I Cholesterol leaves fat deposits on the lumen in your arteries I Main culprit is cholesterol I Bad type of cholesterol LDL related to increase in plaque deposits I 80 cholesterol is made in the bodv 20 comes from diet IRecommendations from American heart association 0 LDL lt 160 if Healthy 0 LDL lt 100 if you have at least one risk factors 0 HDLgt 60 is good 0 HDL less then 40 is too low I A lot of people say that ifthe total is over 200 you need to cut it down but now u separate LDL and HDL I Risk factors 0 age 45 men 55 for women 0 cigarettes 0 Smoking lowers HDL and highers LDL 0 High blood pressure 14090 either or 0 Low HDL 0 Family history of early cardiovascular disease IStatin drugs help with cholesterol IDietary things to reduce LDL p199 0 Mediterranean diet 0 Fish broil or bake foods low fat diary 0Monosaturated fats instead of saturated fats IYou don t want cholesterol to be too low Because it is involved in so many bodily processes If your LDL is too low you have effects like thoughts about suicides etc 0 Diet in hypertension I 13 of USA is hypertensive I higher then 90 or higher then 140 I increases force against arteries microtearscollects atherosclerosis I Salt is bad for you if you are hypertensive I Salt sensitivity When u eat salt your BP goes up I Increase potassium and decrease sodium intake I You need to be in good control of your potassium To much of too little heart rate gets weird I Diuretics increase uids you excrete You would need to take potassium supplement I Caffeine does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease But it transliently increase BP 0 Diet in Cancer 30 October 2014 I Calc the percentage of calories from fat 0 Diet and cancer 0 Diet high in fiber 0 Low in saturated fat I More fish poultry less red meat 0 Low fiber more saturated fat low fish I bigger chance of getting cancer I Colon cancer and prostate O Colon cancer I avoid burnt food I Take a baby aspirin 0 Do vitamins protect against cancer I Some studies show protective effect I Some studies don t 0 Questions to know if the doctor is good I Who does the doctor go to when they are sick I Who trained them 0 Interventions to improve diet Page 200 0 Many diets out there usually work in the short term unless you actually change the way you eat Research if you go on a diet after 1 year 40 gained back the weight they lost 2 years 80 gained back the weight they lost Diet are notoriously bad to keep the weight off in the long run Incredibly hard to do and to keep it off Effective ones I Change of health behaviors 0 Perceived bariers of change from health belief modelwhat is going to stop you form losing weight 0 I Self efficacy whether you believe that you can do it I social cognitive theory I Readiness to change I stages of change model I Cooperation by household members I Support groups weight watchers 0 Long term follow up 0 Address peoples preference for high fat foods 0 Address difficulty finding healthy foods when eating out I Mr Fit p 200 to reduce cholesterol hypertension and smoking 0 gave counseling and information I talked about benefits of modifying diet 0 preparing your own meals I women they gave 2 individual counseling sessions about decreasing fat and increasing vegetables and fruit 0 20 min feedback program online 0 2 phonecalls about Motivational interviewing stages of change social cognitive theory I There have been interventions out there that have been able to modify to change diet and cholesterol levels I Section Becoming overly fat 0 Critical period during childhoof and adolescent O O O 0 time when you create fat cells that will never go away about 70 of those obese in childhood become 1013 years become obese as adults They are increasing fat cells which are never going to go away more difficult Middle age people overweight I People gain weight during holidays pregnancy etc I Metabolism decreases with age I Metabolic predisposition who express it later in their lifetime 0 Biological factors 0 0 Heavy people eat more then lighter people and their diet contains more fat Genetics 0 Gene FTL effects the feeling whether you are full ornot O MC4R related to whether you prefer fat or not 0 How can you compensate I Excersize lowers LDL 0 Theories that each persons body has a set weight that it tries to maintain EXTRA CREDIT SET POINT howc changeable it is Most diets 0 pretty good at first then you get to a plateau Thermostat like function in hypothalamus O Hormones O Leptin regulates circuits in the hypothalamus that simulates eating and metabolism 0 Insulin is made by the pancreas and regulates blood glucose 39 Converts glucose to fat and gets stored in fat cells 0 Glycemic index carhohydratearich meal 1 2 TIME I HO URS BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION You get hungry around the drop low glycemic food blue 29 at top high glycemic foods red 100 at top If you want to not get hungry throughout the day eat low glycemic foods Low glycemic foods fruits veggies nuts High lycemic foods glucose candy cake pasta Glucose spike message to pancreasl we need insulin 0 High glycemic foods Risk of developing cardiovascular disease cancer and diabetes 0 Recommendation 0 Have snacks around with low glycemic foods OOOOOOOO P205 Psychosocial factors 0 stress can induce Eating O comfort foods 0 some people eat more some people eat less 0 Depression either eat more or eat less 0 Having a sedentary job 0 Watching tv shows can decrease your metabolism can even lower it then your resting rate 0 Food cues seeing a desert card I Overweight people are more likely to eat desert if they see the desert card I Normal weight people are more likely to stop eating when they are full 0 Social network I spouse overweight You are likely over the years to get the weight similar to your spouse 0 Immigrant factor I Tend to gain weight in the USA I They come into line with the people in the USA and usually takes 15 years 0 People weight their health the same as people with normal weight 0 Overweight people have risk for cardiovaslucar disease diabetes and cancer Obesityl you are also at risk for hypertension stroke and dying 0 Graph 206 KNOW I BMI of 30 you lose about 1 year of life I BMI of 40 you lose about 5 years of life I BMI of 45 you lose about 10 years of life More serious for men then women 0 African American men BMI of 45 lose 20 years of life 0 As women get older their weight goes to hips and thighs men to their abdominal region 0 Worst health risk if you are rounded in the middle How to prevent being overweight in kids 0 1013 year critical period 0 restrict TV watching 0 Have them exercise I Best way sports 0 Don t use junkfood as reward use activities 0 Serve fruits and nuts as desert 0 Extra CREDIT IS SUGAR ADDICTIVEgt movie FED UP p208 In any given year half the women and 13 of the men are trying to lose weight Exercise 0 walk 30 minutes pretty quickly 100 Cal 0 Jogging 30 minutes 400 calories I Milkshake Lifestyle interventions behavioral cognitive intervention 0 Why is losing weight so hard 0 Because you still have to eat Because you constantly have to be tempted and confronted 0 People don t know how to control antecedents cue u to eat and consequences 0 Stimulus control I Shop with a list when you are full I Store food out of sight I Eat in the diningroom I Avoid situations that prompt lapses looking at desert menu I Buy small bag of chips instead of family sized bags I Don t hang around people that eat a lot 0 Self monitoring I Keep diary about what you eat I You will know what the triggersantecedents are 0 Study if u use these two people were able to lose 2646 pounds page 209 0 Only 13 of people follow minimum guidelines for calories and exercise 0 Change eating exercise don t to fad diets On average when obese people join a weighloss diet 0 Lose 78 check pounds in the first 4 months 0 40 gain it back on in a year p ZIOSuccesful program 0 Nutrition and exercise Put utensils down between bites Having fam work as a team Social support Reward yourself for sticking to a diet Reward yourself for exercising P211 Self help program 0 Weight watchers O Strongest evidence for it being effective 0 High dropout O 50 dropout in the first few weeks work site prgrams 0 not successful inadequate motivations O the ones that do work provide incentives Medically supervised programs 0 For obese people 0 Moderate weightloss 0 More effective if behavioral and pharmacological I SIBUTRAMINE appetite suppressant I Orlistat decreases fat absorption Liquid diet 0 Need supervision 0 When u eat normally again you will gain weight Surgery BMI greater then 40 O stapling OOOOO 0 band 0 Relapse O O 0 Food ques Negative emotions bored I prevent relapse O O followup paying attention to social in uences I p 212Methods for keeping weight off 0 00000000 Stimulus monitoringcontrol self monitoring Rewarding good behavior losing weight gradually reducing number of calories and fat eating low glycemic food so you don t get hungry exercising best predictor of weightloss avoid situation I lapse good social support NOV 4th Chapter 8 Nutrition Only what is said in class Not the book p 212224 0 Talked about 0 How heavy ppl are BMI etc 0 Anorexia Bulimia O O O O O O Underweight less then a BMI then 175 or more then 15 below normal weight Exercise a lot 3 hours a day They often purge after a normal meal not always they can also just eat only a little 15 die form starvation kidney failure cardiac arithmeries electrolyte imbalance sodiumpotassium impalance I Die either from low potassium or high potassium Many you need to hospitalize to treat They are very resistant to treat They have a distorted body image Causes I Genetics identical twins studies I Neuro endocrine factors I Societal factors 0 Emphasis on being thin for women I Family factors TEST 13 of 15 year olds have engaged in purging in the last month Woman are more likely to do it compared to men Major stressors can precipitate an eating disorder o Psychological issues I Issues are often thought to be controlled They feel like they are incontrol I Family therapy is used I Some therapists think the core of the problem is how parents treat them and that there are problems with separation I Problems often appear by age 11 because you are some ind of extension to your mother until age 11 0 Culture stereotypes I Black girls have lower incidences of eating disorders I Partly genetic O A lot of anorexic are hospitalized I check what they eat I they cannot exercise 0 12 anorexics after being treated continue to have problems anorexia problems 0 Bulimia 0 normal weight 0 purge after you eat Less severe disorder Psychotherapy with eating disorders 0 fam therapy esp fam 0 self monitoring I what they eat and if they purge 0 build in rewards I rewards for not purging O cognitive restructuring I try to ID the negativedistorted thoughts I over generalizing etc I things you can say instead to your self I Evidence for and against coach A coach B 0 Sub monitoring rewards and restructuring pretty successful with bulimia 0 How to detect if someone is purging I Their teeth start to show it I They have very bad breath 0 Where would you look for I Athletes models dancers Exersize 0 after early 60 0 the amount of people doubles doing exercise 60 s to 80s Box p216 ideal exercise program for health 0 Warm up session 5 min I Stretching and exibility I Strength and endurance O Aerobics with oxygen 20 min physical activity levels that need high levels of oxygen 0 Cooldown 5 minutes Walking 0 How high does your heart rate need to be 0 Test Heart rate needs to be between 60 220age to 80 220age 0 Benefits 0 psychological Exercising is as good as taking meds for depression Increases endorphins Decreases your resting heart rate Increases bone density resistance training Decreases anxiety depression Decreases stress Enhancing self concept Helps with sleep 0 Physiological p217 Salas Less likely to have type 2 diabetes Why EC Less likely to develop coronary heart disease Lower resting pulse and resting BP systolic and diastolic Less reactive to stress HR AND BP REACTIVITY Less likely to cancer especially colon cancer and prostate and breast cancer Raises HDL Lowers LDL Improves Natural killer cells activity and function 0 They fight tumors and viruses and are innate in the immune system Good for your cognitive performance 0 fewer errors on memory tasks 0 men from 5060 0 if they exercised regularly their work capacity did not decline 0 if they did not exercise their work capacity declined 12 every year 0 First an exersize program increases stress 0 Neg of exercise 0 pain in joints tennis and field hockey are bad 0 heat exhaustion especially in FL how do u know You feel hot on the skin and you have a rapid pulse 0 Sudden cardiac death in athletes often because there was an underlying problem 15 in 1000000 less likely to get this if u exercise regularly O Steroids 0 Increase muscle strength and size 0 Stamina 0 You recover more quickly 0 Reduce in ammation 0 Problem I Extended use I Raises LDL I Lowers HDL I Risk of kidney tumors stroke heart attack acne Half of americans teens exercise and if you exercise when you are a teenager you will more likely exercise older 0 Whites more likely to exercise 0 Older people exercise less 0 Women exercise more Why don t people exercise 0 Time 0 Inconvenience 0 Whether they enjoy it or not 0 They do not feel high equisafy 30 min 5 times a week If people are susceptible to an illness they are more likely exercise 12 of people that exercise quitgive up after a year p 220 Strategies to promote exercising O preassessment Why are u doing it health status check up Figure out what you are going to do and tailor it to something you would enjoy Conditions e g treadmill in front of the tv Setting some kind of goals write them out Build in some consequences rewards or punishment Having some social in uence I exercise buddy Record keeping Doctors can give verbal or written advise about exercising detail Maintenance Call them for the progress 000000000 0 How ready are they do do it exercise Safety p 221 0 Leading cause of death in age under 45 0 You lose as many years from injury as from the 3 most common causes of mortality of older people of heart attacks and strokes preventing accidents are important 0 How to prevent accidents 0 Extra brake light on the top of the car I rear end collision reduction of 50 0 Cell phones 4 times more likely to be in an accident using a cell phone also hands free I Equivalent to drunk driving 0 Seatbelts 0 Car seats for infants show how they work reduced injury rates 1 Peak in accidents between 15 and 25 2 Get a car with side airbags passangers often die I no stiring wheel 3 Sunprotection a Over 80 of kids have had a sunscreen in the past year b Lesson Gain frame i You will keep your healthy young skin c Loss frame lesson does not help as well i You will increase risk of skin cancer and premature aging if you don t use sunscreen
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