Mus. Module 3 study Guide
Mus. Module 3 study Guide MUS 139
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUS 139 at University of New Mexico taught by Paula Corbin Swalin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Mus. 139 Module 3 Study Guide AND MUSICALSEN, OPERAS, DUE APRIL 1AT MIDNIGHT. HAVE TWO CHANCES, GOODLUCK Music by Women: Hildegard von Bingen: “Alleluia” -Given to the church by family, grew up to be a nun -Believed in the power of music to put the mind, soul and body back on the right path -Melodies included many leaps (large ascending and descending interval skips) and were disjunct and angular • Frequent melismatic passages increased the dramatic quality of her music • Encouraged the use of instruments • Each instrument had a specific function -was allowed to compose due to religious visions she had Beatriz de Dia--Female Troubadour -lover of well-known troubadour to whom her compositions were for -“A chantar” A strophic song--same music repeated for all the stanzas of the poem. • Dorian mode with strong cadences at the end of each phrase • Free meter/rhythm • Text: Occitan (sometimes called Provençal) • Neumatic and Melismatic text setting • Arabic influence Flute and drum accompany the 2-line ending (tornada). – A “tornada” is a short stanza at the end of a poem • Often includes a dedication, reflection on the poem, or in this case, a moral admonishment -succeeded because she was of wealth and was encouraged by her lover JACQUET DE LA GUERRE DEBUT PERFORMANCE FOR LOUIS XIV AT THE AGE OF 5 • Installed as a member of the entourage for the Sun King’s mistress – Lived, studied and composed at the court – Received encouragement and protection from the king • Maintained her court connections all her life Excelled at sight reading and improvisation – Prolific composer • Keyboard solos • Violin sonatas – Innovative form • Cantatas – Multi-movement works for solo voice and continuo – Dramatic narrative • 2 Full Operas – First opera by female composer to be produced in France Supervised the printing of her compositions Violin Sonata No. 6 in A Major – Multi-movement composition for violin with basso continuo • Published in 1707 with an elaborate dedication to King Louis XIV • Includes “obbligato” passages for the Basso Continuo – Obbligato: Parts are notated with specific pitches and rhythms which the performers are obligated to play. Women in music and the Enlightenment movement: -women ac-epted as performers and singers, but only certain instruments Salonnières – Sponsored parties and meetings of the mind to showcase composers, poets, philosophers Romantic Era Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847) -Received best education possible alongside brother Felix until age 14 expected to be modest woman and marry; greatly discouraged by her father -married a painter that encouraged her to compose; hosted Sunday concerts at her home like a Salonniere, with guests such as Paganini and Liszt -managed to publish some of her works with husband’s help published some of them under her brother’s name, who was also a successful composer/musician it is unclear what pieces were actually hers and which were his, although there is a piece that Queen Victoria loved, and he confessed his sister wrote it -“Italien” Modified Strophic Lied for piano and voice • Poem by Franz Grillparzer NADIA BOULANGER (1887-1979) -born in Paris, taught by her father -tutored her younger sister Lili until sister died; this led her to become a teacher of other composers, where she placed her own influence in lots of their music. AMY CHENEY BEACH (1867-1944) -From New Hampshire; studied piano with her mother -married Mrs. H.H.A Beach to an older man who told her to dedicate all her money to charity instead of keeping it once her husband died she performed much more, but oppression pushed her to composition “Gaelic Symphony”: Inspired by Dvorak, she composed one of the first “Nationalist” symphonies Proclaimed s the 1 symphony by an American woman based on Irish folk melodies Horn is the most featured instrument, and its melody follows all throughout piece with development; “Reverse” scherzo and trio – Slow-fast-slow MISSY MAZZOLI: – Eclectic style: Combination of acoustic and electronic elements Traditional and non-traditional musical sounds • Voice – Minimalism – Changing the concept of “classical” music • “Cathedral City” – Written for Mazzoli’s ensemble “Victoire” • Keyboards, electronics, violin, clarinet, voice JENNIFER HIGDON Self-taught flute player; winner of Pulitzer prize “Amazing Grace” - Commissioned by the Sky Quartet • Arrangement of the traditional hymn originally for choir • Starts simply with original melody and counter melody • Homophonic/Polyphonic development • Accelerando to faster tempo OPERA Opera: A combination of poetry, dance, music, and visual art (scenery and costumes) -LIBRETTO: The text of an opera 1. Overture: orchestral piece at the beginning of opera, that will introduce themes of the opera 2. Aria: a lyrical songlike composition from an opera for a solo singer. Accompanied by full orchestra; similar to a monologue, does not move plot forward 3. Recitative: speech like singing style accompanied by basso continuo; moves the plot forward Would often be connected to Greco-Roman themes and mythical stories. England: HENRY PURCELL (1659-1695) -Most talented English composer of late 17th century -Opera---Dido and Aeneas Based on part of the Roman epic poem, the Aeneid by Virgil – libretto by Nahum Tate. • Tells story of love affair between Dido, the Queen of Carthage, and Aeneas, a mythical Trojan warrior. Aeneas abandons Dido, and she commits suicide -famous Aria, Dido’s Lament has Ostinato How opera began in France: Court of Versailles demanded elaborate performances and king Louis loved to dance Rameau makes many operas for the king -Opera ballet -Tragedie en music -Comedie lyrique -Pastorale Heroїque Les Indes Gallants (1735) Composed by Jean-Phillippe Rameau and premiered in 1735 Libretto incorporated exotic elements Opera-Ballet (Ballet-Heroïque) Prologue and four acts (entrées) Fourth entrées entitled Les Sauvages (The Savages) Set in Illinois, USA; Two characters compete for the affection of the daughter of a native chief THE CASTRATI: The Baroque era required singers to be virtuous, just like musicians, thus faster, higher notes were demanded CASTRATI: young boys from the church that were good singers that were castrated before puberty to achieve these expectations. If successful, they could do Coloratura – a lot of notes sung in a fast Tempo Opera in the Classical Era – Comic Opera Middle-class audiences were tiring of boring, mythological libretti that praised and aggrandized the monarchy Short, comic operas were played in front of the curtain between the acts of serious operas Intermezzo Italy - Opera Buffa – Italian comic opera France - Opéra Comique – French comic opera Germany – Singspiel – German comic opera with spoken dialogue All feature simpler music, down-to-earth characters, and amusing plots. Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) Based on a banned play by Beaumarchais The narrative included a triumph of servants over nobility and the humbling of a count The story appealed to the middle class but threatened the nobility The libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte had to be approved by Emperor Joseph II Premiered in 1786 Featured a “pants role” Woman dressed as a man, singing in a woman’s range One of the most frequently performed operas today Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) Premiered in 1791 at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden Not a formal opera house Composed in German, not Italian Incredibly successful! Over 100 performances “Habanera” from Carmen by Georges Bizet Libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy -Premiered in 1875 and was not well-received -Premiere was delayed due to many factors including a search for the right leading lady -Exotic setting, sexual content arealism : A reaction to Romanticism where artists and composers depicted the true aspects (good and bad) of real life in their works. Death, adultery, low morals, murder, illness and other uncomfortable topics are explored instead of ignored. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) (Italian) Memorable melodies Patriotic, nationalistic works Patriotic and political Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re D'Italia (Viva Verdi) RICHARD WAGNER (GERMAN) Rude and complicated man that would flee his country to escape his debts made opera his main compositional focus He called it “Music Drama” Gesamptkunstwerk: meaning "total art work" or "ideal art work". Wagner was “auteur” with total control over his productions -used Leitmotifs: recurring musical phrase that represents a person, emotion, situation or thing Example of this is his Ring Cycle (Flight of the Valkyries) MUSICALS Musical Theater play with dialog, songs and dance Different from opera in that the dialog and dance are as important as the music Also known as musical comedy Often feature light-hearted, comical plots and uplifting music Performers: 1. Sing (belt, legit, speak-sing) 2. Dance 3. Act Origins of American Musical Theater- Vaudeville: Originally “Vau de Ville” – French term Variety Shows catered to all male audiences Played in music houses and burlesque theaters Risqué content Political satire and gossip Music Vaudeville was geared toward family audiences to increase client base Marathon performances with 6 to 20 acts FOLLIES: Similar to Vaudeville; crated by Florenz Ziegfield Songs, skits, tableau vivant Expensive Sets Elaborate Costumes elevated women MINSTREL SHOWS: -White performers wore blackface makeup and imitated African American songs, dances, and humor. -Tremendously popular in the 1840s through the 1880s. -Racist content with demeaning portraits of African Americans OPERETTA French Operetta Relief from the ever more serious Opera Comique which was Bawdy, lewd and sexual Lighthearted, popular, silly stories American “Light Opera” Operetta with spoken dialog and acting Gave way to musical theater after WWI The First American Musical- Show Boat by Jerome Kern Premiered in the Ziegfield Theater in 1927 The second show to play in Ziegfield’s new theater Very successful Music by Jerome Kern, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein, II Based on a novel by Edna Ferber Serious subject matter and music Show Boat is loved and hated Racial tension Stereotypical portrayal of African Americans Both African American and white people in the cast Melding popular, folk and classical styles Operetta, Spiritual, Minstrel Compelling Story Rogers & Hammerstein Musical composer and librettist duo. Their works including Oklahoma!, South Pacific, Carousel and The Sound of Music established the formula for the classic musical in America. Musicals: 1950s to Today Primary format (with many exceptions) Musical Comedy – songs and dialog with comedic plots Often a mix of styles/genres: Jazz Country Rock Hip-Hop/Rap Stories; Address controversial topics Musicals: Types Book Musical Story based. Linear story dictates the music, character development, dance numbers, and form Review Individual musical numbers and sketches which do not follow a cohesive plot Concept Musical Can be non-linear or episodic. The overall message is more important than a linear story. Jukebox Musical Features songs from a particular artist or group. May have a linear story or not Rock Musical Features Rock & Roll style music Includes dialog Rock Opera Rock & Role style No spoken dialog Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) Conductor, composer, pianist; Artistic Director of the New York Philharmonic Overnight Success! Concerts for Young Audiences Compositions: Ballet, Opera, Symphony, Songs, Film Music Musicals: On The Town, 1944 Wonderful Town, 1953 West Side Story, 1957 West Side Story, 1957 Book by Arthur Laurents Music by Leonard Bernstein Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim Choreography by Jerome Robbins Based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet Film version released in 1961 Combination of Classical, Jazz, Popular and Latin American styles -Orchestration includes woodwinds, horns, trumpets, trombones, extensive percussion, electric guitar, Spanish guitar, mandolin, violins, celli, double bass, piano and celesta -Dance sequences, solos, duets, ensembles Story baseline: Two feuding gangs in New York Addresses issues facing youth of the day: Violence Drugs Police brutality Racism Poverty Rock Musicals 1960s: Hair, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell 1970s: Grease, Rocky Horror Show, The Wiz, Evita, Pippin 1980s: Pink Floyd-The Wall, Little Shop of Horrors, Chess, Miss Saigon 1990s Tommy, Rent, Hedwig and the Angry Inch Rock Opera? -Les Miserables -Music and lyrics by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil -Based on novel by Victor Hugo -Premiered in 1980 as a “concept album” -Opened in the West End in October 1985 – and still running! -Fully sung in pseudo-operatic style -Electronic pop/rock elements in the orchestration The Who’s Tommy -Concept album – rock opera -Album released in 1969 -Film in 1975 -Broadway debut in 1993 -Broadway version fills gaps in the story -Almost fully sung through Jonathan Larson: American composer/playwright -From New York -Studied acting and music in college -Struggled to make a living as a composer Rent -Rock musical – songs, ensembles, some spoken dialog -Plot partially autobiographical -Mirrors the plot of Giacomo Puccini’s Romantic Era opera La Boheme -Premiered in a “workshop” in 1994 -Officially opened off-Broadway on January 25, 1996 -Won Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1996 -Opened on Broadway, April 29, 1996 -Won Tony Award for Best Music (and many other awards -Ran for 12 years (5123 performances) ADDITIONAL TRENDS- 1960S TO TODAY African-American: Ain't Misbehavin‘, Dreamgirls, The Color Purple Dance Musicals: Chorus Line, Fame, Saturday Night Fever, Billy Elliott European “mega-musicals”: Phantom of the Opera “Independent” Musicals Urinetown, Avenue Q, The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, The Light in the Piazza, Spring Awakening, In the Heights Musicals for Kids: Matilda, Wicked, Elf Disney Musicals Beauty and the Beast (1994), The Lion King (1997) and Aida (2000), Mary Poppins (2004), Tarzan (2006),The Little Mermaid (2007), Aladdin (2011), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (2014) Musical Movies Made into Musicals: Rocky, School of Rock, Shrek the Musical, Footloose, Chitty-Chitty Bang-Bang, The Wizard of Oz, The Wedding Singer, Frozen Rap Musicals Lin-Manuel Miranda (b. 1980) From New York; Graduated from Wesleyan Musicals – Hip-hop and Rap -In the Heights -Premiered on Broadway in 2008 -Hamilton: Premiered on Broadway in August 2015 Hamilton - Hottest ticket currently on Broadway Based on the life of Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) - First U.S. Secretary of the Treasury -Inspired by Hamilton biography - Developed from the Hamilton Mixtape project -Lin Manuel Miranda plays the lead in the Broadway production
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