Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide Psych 220
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Review for Exam 3 – 220 Developmental Psychology *The sections in red are the specific criteria given by Mrs. Bryan. Chapter 9 * Understand Preoperational thought, including: Preoperational intelligence: includes language and imagination but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible at this stage. Between 2 and 6 years Transitional period A replica of concrete actions, events Overcomes limitations that stand in the way of true operations Mental manipulation of symbols Symbolic thought: accomplishment of preoperational intelligence allowing a child to think symbolically, including understanding that words can refer to things not seen. Example: a flag is a symbol for a country * Conservation The amount of something stays the same despite changes in appearance *Object Permanence * Appearance vs. reality Preoperational children have difficulty distinguishing between the way things seem and the way things are Example: the other toddlers call a boy toddler with long hair a girl * Centration The inability to focus attention on more than one aspect of an object or event at a time. Involves: Tendency to focus on surface appearance, neglecting other features Inability to simultaneously consider several features of an object Focus on static reasoning rather than transformations Focus on appearance: ignoring attributes that are not apparent Example: a girl gets a short hair cut and worries she’ll turn into a boy Static reasoning: way of thinking that nothing changes; the world is stable, unchanging, and always in the currently encountered state. Example: child cannot imagine his mother was once a child too * Egocentrism – Egocentrism: thinking about the world from own personal perspective Example: a toddler boy buying his mom a Tonka truck for her birthday The tendency to center on oneself; seeing the world from their own perspective Egocentric with respect to representations * Collective monologue * False Belief Tasks Contrast erroneous mental impression with a known reality Example: there is a crayon box with M&M’s in it. 3 year olds fail; experimenter asks what the child thinks is in the box, the child thinks crayons are in the box, he/she see M&M’s, then say they always thought M&M’s were in the box 4 to 5 year olds pass: think crayons are in the box, see the M&M’s, still knew that crayons should have been in the box * Theory of Mind A person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. Children must realize others are not thinking the same thoughts as them. Realization seldom occurs before the age of 4 A kind of social cognition; what we think and believe is actually reality Assigning mental states to self and others Using mental states to explain action Recognizing self, others as “things that think, believe, imagine, intend” * Fastmapping (not discussed in class, but is in book) Speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning. Example: connecting new animal names close to already known animals, save the details. The “tiger” is easy to map if the child already knows “lion” * Overregularization Grammar mistakes: Over regularization- the application of rules of grammar to the exceptions Example: foots, tooths, mouses Chapter 10 * Aggression – age, type, gender Aggression –behavior aimed at harming another *Intensifies during the second year 24 years: Higher amounts of verbal aggression Lesser amounts of physical aggression 36 years: Hostile aggression appears Types of aggression: Instrumental aggression Hostile aggression Reactive aggression Relational aggression Bullying aggression Sex difference in aggression: First 3 years –few if any differences By the age of 4 –boys show more aggression than girls; but girls develop relational aggression more often * Empathy & Prosocial behavior Empathy: understanding of people’s feelings and concerns when they differ from one’s own Prosocial Behavior: sharing, helping, comforting, showing compassion; extending helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefit to oneself Increases with age in early childhood First acts are physical By 18-24 months comforting will assume a variety of forms BUT: kids often find other’s distress amusing 2ndand 3 year: less likely to show empathy when they are the cause of the distress * Gender constancy & gender stability 34 years: Understanding gender stability Understanding gender stereotypes Talk about gender play preferences 45 years: achieve gender constancy Permanence of categorical sex Difference in aggression / ways of helping * Parenting Styles as discussed in class 1. Authoritarian –high behavioral standards Children are generally socially inept, lacking spontaneity, and rely on authority to decide what is right. 2. Permissive indulgent Children are generally immature, have difficulty controlling their impulses, and don’t accept responsibility for their actions. 3. Authoritative encouraging Children are generally selfreliant, selfcontrolled, content, and curious. * Freud’s term “identification” (not discussed in class, but is in book) *Part of the psychoanalytic theory of development Identification: attempt to defend one’s selfconcept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else, coping with guilt and fear. Example: a boy copy’s his father’s mannerisms and actions * Selfconcept (learn more in class discussing Chapter 12 metamemory) Selfconcept: a person’s understanding of who he or she is, in relation to selfesteem, appearance, personality, and various traits. Chapter 11 * Externalizing Disorders vs. Internalizing Disorders Externalizing disorders: Acting out, behavior excess Insufficient control *External are more easily noticeable than internal Internalizing disorders: Behavior deficits, withdrawal Anxiety, shyness, depression * Autism 3 Core sets of symptoms: Impaired reciprocal social interaction o Seeing things from another person’s perspective Delayed language o Of social interaction/communication, not vocabulary Aberrant activities o Rigid routines, motor stereotypies (excessive repetition), restricted interests First clear signs of autism in failures of joint attention * Comorbidity -The tendency of kids diagnosed with one disorder to manifest symptoms of another disorder *Aptitude vs. Achievement tests (not discussed in class, but is in book) Aptitude Tests The potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge Reaction time, selective attention, and automatization are the foundation Achievement Tests A measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or another subject * Dyslexia (not discussed in class, but is in book) Specific Learning Disorders A marked deficit in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by an intellectual disability, or by an unusually stressful home and environment Dyslexia: unusual difficulty with reading, thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment. Dyslexia is the most common learning disorder * ADHD A conditions characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or by hyperactive or impulsive behaviors Interferes with a person’s functioning or development Core symptoms: Inattention Impulsivity Hyperactivity o Some hyperactivity must be present before the age of 7 o Must present in at least two settings; i.e. school and home o Clear evidence of interference with normal development * Conduct Disorder Conduct Disorder Lying Fighting Stealing Vandalism Antisocial behavior Repetitive and persistent behavior *3 or more characteristics must be present over a year to diagnose Types of Conduct disorder: o Aggressive conduct o Nonaggressive conduct o Deceitfulness or theft o Violation of rules * Oppositional Defiance Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) o Negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile toward authority o Easily lose temper o Arguing with authority o Actively defying rules o Deliberately doing things that will annoy others o Blaming others for their mistakes or misbehavior *At least 6 behavior symptoms must persist for at least 6 months in order to diagnose Risk factors * The Flynn Effect (not discussed in class, but is in book) The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations * Hostile attribution bias Hostile Attribution Bias: interpreting neutral or ambiguous events as attacks on self; integrity Trouble inhibiting responses Don’t anticipate outcomes of action Do except positive outcome for aggression Chapter 12 * Metacognition “Thinking about thinking,” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, then monitor and adjust one’s performance on said task. More comprehensive, more transcending The ability to think about one’s own thought processes o Not only do people hold thoughts different from one’s own, but they can think about the thoughts they have for themselves Knowing how difficult it will be to solve a problem Knowing how to choose strategies to solve a problem * Longterm vs. Shortterm memory (not discussed in class, but is in book) Working (or short term) memory: the component in which current, conscious mental activity occurs; when sensations become perceptions *Improves markedly in middle childhood Long term: last component in the informationprocessing system where virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely; involves storage and retrieval *The capacity of longterm memory is huge by the end of middle childhood * Concrete operational thought, & what is lacking Concrete Operations The ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions Can manipulate symbols mentally Can perform true operations Can perform coordinated mental actions Direct events or things they can process only when experienced Become more systematic and more objective Still lacking in middle childhood: Formal operations –cannot consider all possible combinations or solve problems systematically; fully considering the variety of strategies Hypothetical reasoning –generating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and thinking about situations that are contrary to fact (what could happen) * “Twosided” cognition “Twosided” thinking in middle childhood: Think about objects from other perspectives (Recall the three mountains test with early childhood and egocentric thinking) Hold two things in mind at the same time * Metamemory The ability to perceive one’s own memory Metamemory and 8 year olds Have a better understanding of memory than 5 year olds Know that they need to study and test themselves in order to remember things Know to remember –consistently rehearse
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