Plsc 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
Plsc 101 Exam 2 Study Guide plsc 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by randomchic12 on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Plant Science Exam 2 Study online quizlet.com/_1aw04j 1. spermatophyte seed plant;most crop plants reproduce by 20. pinnate net venation with veins extending from seed mid-rib 2. vegetative increases in number and size of roots, 21. palmate net venation with major veins diverging phase stems, and leaves from the petiole and leaf blade union 3. reproductive plants flower and produce seeds 22. leaf whole organ of photosynthesis phase 23. petiole leaf stalk 4. radicle embryonic or primary root -connects leaf tostem 5. seed 1st stage of life cycle of crop plants 24. midrib main vein through center of leaf germination 25. node joint on stem 6. seedling 2nd stage of life cycle of crop plants -point of origin of leaf or bud 7. -may show ring or leaf scar vegetative 3rd stage of life cycle of crop plants phase 26. compound leaf leaf with 2 or more leaflets 8. reproductive 4th and final stage of life cycle of crop plants 27. leaflet foliar element of a compound leaf phase 28. opposites leaves directly across from each other on 9. fibrous many slender roots similar in diameter and stem length (Ex:cereals, grasses) 29. alternate leaves spaced in alternate fashion along 10.taproot main root that pushes straight downward stem with lateral roots branching throughout its 30. whorled three or more leaves present at a node length (Ex:legumes, root crops, woody plants) 31. morphology structure and form 11.root functions -Anchors plant 32. inflorescence flower's fancy name -Absorption of water and nutrients (i.e. 33. stamen male flower nitrogen) 34. - Physical support for the stem pistil female flower -Food storage organ 35. perfect contains a stamen and pistil 12.stolons horizontal above ground stems;runners 36. imperfect either a stamen or pistil is missing - Bermuda grass, strawberry 37. monoecious same plant has separate stamens and pistils 13.rhizomes horizontal below ground stems 38. dioecious plant has either stamens or pistils but not 14.tubers fleshly belowground stem;carbs both -potato, artichoke 39. determinate vegetative growth ceases with formation of 15.bulbs narrow stem surrounded by layers of rings plant flowers/fruits;more compact plants -onion, tulip - Ex:tomatoes- Better Bush, Roma, Rutgers 16.corms compressed, fleshy, solid underground 40. Indeterminate vegetative growth can continue after stem plant flowers/fruits start forming;larger plants -Ex:tomatoes- Most cherry varieties, Better -crocus, timothy Boy, Early Girl, most Heirloom varieties 17.stem functions -conduct water and nutrients from soil through xylem vessels 41. self-pollinated pistil is pollinated with pollen from the same - conduct food materials through phloem flower or flowers on the same plant from leaves toother parts of plant - Ex:wheat, oats, rice, soybeans -support and protect plant organs 42. cross when pistil is pollinated by pollen from -display leaves and flowers pollinated flowers on another plant -contains nodes that are enlarged areas on - Ex:corn, sorghum, rye, clover stem where vegetation and buds develop 43. photosynthesis production of carbohydrates from CO2 and 18. Leaves -absorb light during photosynthesis water in the presence of chlorophyll using -allow cooling during transpiration light energy -veins are xylem and phloem 19.parallel veins parallel toleaf axis 44.6CO2 + 12H20 + light photosynthesis formula 59.first type -aerobic respiration or Krebs cycle -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + -oxidation of glucose togive off CO2 6H20 and H2O -C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O 45.C6H12O6 glucose formed - only about 50%of ATPcaptured;rest 46.metabolism photosynthesis is used toconvert lost as heat complex compounds for ___________ 60.second type -Anaerobic respiration occurs with low 47.chloroplast photosynthesis takes place in O2 levels __________ organelle -results in production of ethanol;toxic 48.mesophyll photosynthesis is located in tocells -cells will die if exposed for long periods _____________ cells -occurs in flooding and extreme soil 49.chlorophyll pigment that accepts light for photosynthesis compaction 61.transpiration loss of water in the form of vapor from 50.400-700 nanometers visible light spectrum of the stomata of plants photosynthesis -almost all water absorbed by plant is 51. blue, red, green Best at absorbing _____ and _____ transpired wavelengths; -occur via stomates on leaf surfaces not _____ in photosynthesis 62. water Because of transpiration, water is most 52.65-85 degrees best production in photosynthesis often the limiting factor tocrop yield Fahrenheit 63.water balance relation between absorption and water 53.calvin cycle reduction of carbon by reactions in loss by a plant chloroplast cells 64.water deficit when water transpired exceeds 54.C3 pathway -makes a 3- carbon sugar absorption - Rubiscocatalyzes this reaction -often occurs at mid-day cause wilting (ribulose 1, 5-biphosphate 65.permanent wilting point when a plant cannot recover carboxylase) point when placed in a favorable -stomata stays open environment for growth -efficient under normal light and moist 66.evapotranspiration -the plant's total water loss conditions - Ex:wheat, soybeans, most plants -water loss from: 55.rubisco catalyzes C3 pathway reaction ~Transpiration ~leaf surface through evaporation (ribulose 1, 5-biphosphate ~soil surround the plant carboxylase) 67.nutrient element or compound required for 56.C4 pathway higher yielding reaction;a 4-carbon plant growth and metabolism sugar -energy -pep carboxylase catalyzes -building plant tissue -4-carbon sugar delivered toRubisco and normal C3 reaction occurs 68.metabolism cellular reactions that allow for plant -stomata does not open as long;CO2 growth and maintaining life taken in quicker 69.essential nutrient one whose absence prevents a plant -can occur in higher temps and drier from completing its life cycle conditions - has a clear physiological role - corn, sorghum, and sugarcane 70. growth when plants receive the essential 57.pep carboxylase catalyzes C4 pathway reaction nutrients and sunlight energy, they (Phospheonolpyruvate carboxylase) can form all the compounds needed for growth 58.respiration conversion of sugars made in photosynthesis toenergy (ATP) touse 71.carbon, hydrogen, essential nutrients from Air and Water in plant metabolism oxygen - energy used for cell maintenance, 72. growth and building new tissues macronutrients required in larger amounts by plants -one molecule of glucose= 36 ATP molecules produced 73. 91. nitrogen, phosphorous, Macronutrients (6) potassium Functions: potassium, calcium, -water movement and retention;xylem magnesium, sulfur tissue -opening and closing of stomata 74.micronutrients required in lesser amounts by plants 92. calcium Functions: -plant structure:cell walls, cell 75.boron, chlorine, Micronutrients (7) membranes, and building new cells copper, iron, manganese, 93. magnesium Functions: molybdenum, zinc -part of the chlorophyll molecule 76.iron most important micronutrients (photosynthesis) 77.nutrient deficiency essential nutrient is not available 94. sulfur Functions: -protein marker;part of three important in sufficient quantity tomeet aminoacids plant growth requirements -used tomake nodules on legume roots 78.deficiency -will not allow complete plant life (N fixation) cycle -is specific for that nutrient and 95. iron Functions: -helps make chlorophyll molecules directly involved in the plants 96. growth and metabolism nitrogen cycle nitrogen constantly moving between soil, atmosphere, and plant 79.disease random distribution of symptoms (asymmetrical) - same atom of N can cycle through inorganic and organic forms and as 80.nutrient deficiency symmetrical distribution of several types of compounds symptoms 97. 78% atmosphere contains _____ gaseous N(N2) 81.chlorosis yellowing of leaves from lack of chlorophyll 98. triple bond ________ between the twoNitrogens makes it unusable by plants in nitrogen 82. stunting lack of growth cycle 83.irregular growth poorly shaped leaves and stems 99. microbes certain _______ can break the bond and 84.necrosis death of tissue make Nitrogen unusable 85.mobile nutrients move from older leaves to 100.95-99% of soil inorganic nitrogen is unavailable to younger leaves plants - Ex:N, P, K 101.R (R-NH2);____ = an aminoacid (amine - Result= deficiency symptoms in group) older leaves 102.mineralization -microbes in soil attack these compounds 86.mobile nutrient K shows chlorosis in older leaves or -amine group hydrolyzes 87.immobile nutrients cannot move from older leaves ammonification -Nitrogen released as ammonium ion - Ex:S, Ca, Fe (NH4+) - Result= deficiency symptoms in 103.nitrification oxidation of ammonia toform nitrate younger leaves (NO3-) -Step 1-NH3 toNO2 (by nitrosomonas) 88.immobile nutrient Fe shows chlorosis in young leaves -Step 2-NO2 toNO3-(by nitrobacter) 89.nitrogen Functions: 104.1. nitrogen cycle -part of enzymes/amino acids/proteins in plant tissue mineralization -nucleic acids as part of RNA and or DNA ammonification 2. nitrification 90.phosphorous Functions: -ADPand ATPfor transfer of 3. plant uptake ofNH4+ vs. NO3- energy for growth and 4. de- reproduction (i.e.photosynthesis) nitrification or -nucleic acids as part of RNA and immobilization DNA 105.NH3 to NO2 (by nitrosomonas) Step 1 of Nitrification 106.NO2 to NO3 (by nitrobacter) Step 2 of Nitrification 107.negative soil's natural charge is 108. plant uptake ofNH4+ vs. NO3- -NH4+ can be held tonegatively charged soil particles -NO3- is more readily available toplants ~negative charge is not absorbed tosoil particles (more in soil solution) ~some NO3- can be lost toleaching 109.NH4+ can be held tonegatively charged soil particles 110.NO3- is more readily available toplants 111.de-nitrification or immobilization -conversion of NH4+ and NO3- tounavailable organic forms by microbes (Pseudomonas) -nitrification and de-nitrification occurs simultaneously in soil 112.nitrogen fixation -certain bacteria convert inert N2 intoorganic forms that are usable -bacteria infects root cells and a nodule develops -nodule= site of Nitrogen fixation -symbiotic relationship between bacteria and plant roots -plants receive fixed Nitrogen and bacteria receives carbohydrates 113.nodule site of Nitrogen fixation 114.symbiotic relationship, fixed In nitrogen fixation, there is a ______________ between bacteria and plant roots.Plants receive nitrogen, carbohydrates ___________ and bacteria receives ______________ 115.photosynthesis most important biochemical reaction on Earth 116.nitrogen fixation second most important biochemical reaction on Earth behind photosynthesis 117.legumes nitrogen fixation occurs mostly in ______________ -certain types of alfalfa, clovers, peas, and beans
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