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Quiz 1 Study Guide

by: Cara Cahalan

Quiz 1 Study Guide Bios 207

Cara Cahalan
GPA 3.8

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Study guide for the first quiz. Also notes for the final.
Ecology and Evolution
Study Guide
ecology and evolution
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bios 207 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Quiz 1 Study Guide  1 1/13: Virus and Whale  Class:   Phylogeny: a visual representation of the evolutionary history of populations, genes, or species  Populations and individuals within species and clades o Hierarchy embedded   Clade­ all species with shared common ancestor   Trees can be drawn with fewer species   Fossils used to find time of convergence   Whales share synapomorphies  (shared derived traits) with other mammals o Mammary glands, 3 middle ear bones, hair (in developing embryos   Isotopic analysis of fossil teeth  o Terrestrial animals drink saltwater, marine drink freshwater o O18/O16 ratio higher in saltwater  Higher ratio in teeth of marine animals  How does change arise?   Phylogeny created from phenotype not fossils   Each tip is a different blood sample in time o Alleles regulate growth/development o Change in regulating alleles changes morphology   Node created when mutations occur in virus  FF:  o Number of genera change through time  o Explosion of diversity Readings:   Biological evolution­ any change in inherited traits of a population occurring from 1 generation to the next  Lineage­ chain of ancestors. 1­generation of organisms in a single population 2­members of entire species during  a given time. 3­group of related species descending from a common ancestor   Natural selection­ differential survival and reproduction of individuals because some genes outcompete  Homology­ characteristics shared due to common ancestor   Synapomorphy­ derived from shared trait of related species   Evolutionary biologists use many lines of evidence to test their hypotheses  Uniformitarianism­ natural laws observed are also events of the past (Earth shaped through a gradual process)   On the Origin of Species by: Charles Darwin   Common descent supported by homologous traits   Natural selection­ different in phenotypes of individuals causing some to more effectively reproduce than others  Adaptations­ inherited aspect that allows them to outcompete members of the population that lacks that trait  Genetic drift­ evolution arising from random changes in genetic composition of a population from 1 generation  to the next  1/15: Quantitative Traits and Heritability  Class:  Natural selection  o Population growth and reaches the environments carrying capacity and available resources  o Discrete and quantitative traits which must be heritable  o Genetic polymorphism can produce discrete differences in phenotype  o Normal distributions of quantitative traits arise through the effect of multiple genes o Histograms are used to describe quantitative traits  Variance­ if all observations equal the mean, then the variance is 0 Quiz 1 Study Guide  2 2 Var x = Σ(x−´ x) Variance= n−1  Components of phenotypic variation  o V PV +VG E o P­total phenotypic variance in population  o G­variance due to genetic differences  o E­variance due to environmental differences   Heritability­ proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetic differences among individuals  2 V G o Broad sense heritability­ = V p h ¿ o Narrow sense heritability ( ­ proportion of phenotypic variance explained by additive genetic  variance  o Causes offspring to resemble parents   VG=V +A +V D I (A­ additive, D­ dominance, I­ epistasis, E­ environment)  Why is the slope = heritability  V A o Slope=  V P o Slope gives you the ratio of variances  Covariance(x,y) h =slope= o Variance (x) Don't need to calcualte covariance! Readings:  Chapter 5:   Genetic polymorphism­ simultaneous occurrence of 2 or more discrete phenotypes in a population  Polyphenisms­ multiple discrete phenotypes arise from a single genotype according to environment  Phenotype influenced by genes and environment  Quantitative continuous (quantitative genetics studies these traits)  Chapter 7:   Quantitative genetics studies genes, environment, and their interactions with each other   V P V G V E 2 H = V G = V G  Broad sense heritability (H )=  V V +V P G E o VG­ not broken down any further   V G=  VA V D+ V I o A­ additive. D­dominance I­epistatic   A­ why relatives resemble each other   Narrow sense heritability (h )­ proportionPof V  of trait attributable to additive effecAs of alleles (V ). Causes  populations to evolve predictably in response to selection  V A o h =  V AV +VD+V I E Quiz 1 Study Guide  3 o > h  – more similar offspring is to parent   FF­ Darwin’s theory of natural selection  o Fact 1: Population exponentially grows  o Fact 2: Population sizes are stable (carrying capacity) o Fact 3: Resources are limited   Inference 1: Struggle for existence among individuals  some surviving o Fact 4: Variability in populations o Fact 5: Heritability to offspring    Inference 2: Survival depends on heredity of individuals  unequal survival  natural selection  Inference 3: Natural selection  change in population over time  evolution of new species  2  (h )­ measurement slope of the graph  1/20: Breeder’s Equation and Selection Class:   Pesticide application:  o Applied closer to the coast­ allele frequency for resistance higher on coast than inland  Selection differential (S)­ strength of selection  o Difference between mean of population (X ) Pnd mean of breeding population (X ) B  How much the population changes depends on:  o Selection differential and heritability  2   Breeder's equation: R = h  S  3 modes of selection:  Directiona l­ selected  in one  direction     Stabilizing ­  promoting  the  middle,  against the extremes,  two  directional selections Disruptive ­ promoting  extremes,  against the middle    Quiz 1 Study Guide  4 Readings:   Selection differential­ strength of phenotypic selection, difference between mean of reproducing population who  can contribute offspring to the next generation and mean of entire population   Selection with mean breeding (Xb) doesn’t equal mean population (Xp)  o Strong selection if difference larger  2  Breeder’s equation: R (evolutionary response): h  x S o R­ speed, h ­ ability to transmit phenotypes to offspring, S­ phenotypic variation influencing fitness  Fastest evolutionary response when h and S are high   Population can experience selection even if they can’t evolve   Extended phenotypes­ structures made by organism that can’t influence survival success, not part of organism,  but properties reflect genotype of individual (bird nest, gall flies)   When selection forces are opposite  balance (net effect)  stabilizing selection  1/22: Quiz 1


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