RHM 321 Exam 1 Study Guide
RHM 321 Exam 1 Study Guide RHM 321-001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Wynn Rodgers on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to RHM 321-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Hahm in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 812 views. For similar materials see Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Public Health at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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RHM 321001 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Tourism in Perspective 1 What is tourism the four elementsperspectives that should be considered in the definition of tourism Tourist Businesses providing tourist goods and services Government of the host community Host community 2 UNWTO s definition of tourism Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places for 3 Inbound tourism vs Outbound tourism Inbound tourism people coming in to traveling area Outbound tourism residents leaving to travel 4 Sameday visitor vs Tourist Sameday visitor daytrippers excu rsionists don t stay over night Tourist stay at destination for over 24 hours but less than a year 5 Classification of Travelers Who is considered to be a tourist Tourists in international technical definitions Excursionists in international technical definitions Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism less than 50 miles 80 km from home Students traveling between home and school only other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism All persons moving to a new place of residence including all oneway travelers such as emigrants immigrants refugees domestic migrants and nomads 6 Two key indicators used in monitoring international tourism trends 1 Tourist Arrivals 2 Tourist Receipts 7 World s top tourism destinations World s top tourism destinations 2013 UNTWO 1 France 2 United States 3 Spain World s top tourism earners international tourist receipts 2013 by UNTWO 1 United States 2 Spain 3 France 8 Most visited US state and city by overseas visitors New York City 9 Most visited county in Alabama Baldwin County Chapter 2 Tourism through the Ages 10 Who are the founders of tourism Sumerians money cuneiform writing the wheel chariotlike and travel guides 11 Early beginnings of tourism RHM 321001 1 Egyptians organized and conducted cruises 5000 years ago Elaborate burial tombs including the Sphinx and the three Great Pyramids of Giza attracted many people prime motivation was curiosity or disinterested enjoyment 12 The three main groups that traveled 1 Military 2 Government officials 3 Caravans 13 Early roads Wheel 9 Heavy Wagon Roads were built for wheeled traffic around 2050 BCE Roads were better in Greece Later built and improved for military use war chariots Related to the centralizing of populations in power cities India The Romans built elaborate roads that some are still in use Pausanias Greek traveler Silk Road 15 Traveling during the Roman Empire Romans were the first pleasure travelers Famous temples Mediterranean Sea The Pyramids and monuments Egypt Medicinal baths and seaside resorts The Olympic games and other athletic competitions Theatrical productions Festivals Other forms of Amusement and Entertainment 16 Early travel in Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire Only the most adventuresome would travel all travel was somewhat dangerous travel was NOT associated with pleasure Travel by Pilgrims Accommodations Inns Castles or private houses church monasteries or hospices Hospice of Grand SaintBernard 17 The Grand Tour 17th and 18th centuries For English wealth youths Diplomats business people scholars To cities of France and Italy Began as an educational experience 18 Early travel in America Florida was explored by the Spanish in the 16th century St Augustine Travel from East to West American Express 1850 Issued first traveler s checks 1891 and offered travel services Significant amount of military travel during WWII 19 The sole remaining Seven Ancient Wonder of the World Great Pyramids of Egypt including Sphinx 20 Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the New Wonders of the World Ancient World Great Pyramids of Egypt Hanging Gardens of Babylon Tomb of Mausolus at Helicarnassus Statue of Zeus in Olympia Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes WPWN 6 7 RHM 321001 Exam 1 Study Guide Great Lighthouse Pharos in Alexandria Egypt Temple Artemis at Ephesus New World NQ P PWN Great Wall of China Ancient city of Petra in Jordan Statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro Machu Pichu in Peru They Mayan ruins of Chichen ltza in Mexico The Colosseum in Rome India39s Taj Mahal 22 The first travel agents the first rail excursion agent and one of the largest travel organizations in the world Thomas Cook 1841 First publicly advertised excursion train First rail excursion agent Still one of the world s largest travel organization today F Chapter 4 World National Regional and Other Organizations 24 Categorization of Tourism Organizations 1 2 3 4 5 Geographically nations regions statesprovinces urban centers citiesmunicipalities By Ownership government quasi government or private By Function type of activity regulators suppliers marketers developers consultants researchers educators publishers By industry transportation lodging attractions recreations travel agents By motive profit or nonprofit 25 What do the below international and regional organizations do and who are their members UNWTO o What is it United Nations World Tourism Organization specialized agency of the UN Responsible for the promotion of responsible sustainable and universally accessible tourism 0 What is their objective To promote and develop tourism worldwide particularly in developing countries Transfer of tourism knowhow to developing countries 0 Members consist of public or private companies Public AND private 0 What are current projectsactivities Global Activities Produce statistics and market research Human Resource development Facilitate World travel Regional Activities RHM 321001 3 Each region39s representative meets with top tourism officials from each of the countries in their region Analyze problems and help seek solutions Promote regional projects Current Projects Consulting unit on Tourism and Biodiversity Hotel Energy Solutions Protect Children Tourism and Poverty alleviation Tourcom o Represents the private sector 0 Who are their members Global business leaders from about 100 of the world s foremost travel and tourism companies 26 National Organizations Office of Travel and Tourism Industries OTTI o Inflight survey The major research program for the office US Travel Association 0 Private tourism organization in the US Leading private tourism organization US Department of State Why does this organization have an important role in international travel Provides American citizens with important information on international travel 27 State organizations in the US 49 states have an agency responsible for travel development and promotion except for one state most have one but some have two or three View tourism as a tool for econ development 28 CVBDMO What is it Convention and Visitor Bureau CVB Destination ManagementMarketing Organization DMO What do they do CVB Notforprofit umbrella organizations that represent a city or urban area in the solicitation and servicing of all types of travelers to that city or area whether they visit for business pleasure or both DMO serves as the broker or the quotofficialquot contact point for convention meeting and event planners tourist operators and tourists Encourage groups to hold meetings conventions and trade shows in the city or area it represents Who are their members Planners Where do they get their funding from DMO funded by transient room taxes government budget allocations private memberships or a combination of these three Where is the largest CVB in the US located RHM 321001 Exam 1 Study Guide Orlando FL Chapter 9 Motivation for Pleasure Travel 29 The destination selection process What are push factors and pull factors Push Factors Escape routine of everyday life Relaxation Social Interaction Exploration Pull Factors Attractiveness Appreciation Activities Where do the above factors and information search have influence in the process Destination to Travel Evaluations of alternatives from awareness set of destinations Marketing can make a difference in which stage of the model Destination to travel Evaluations of alternatives to travel from awareness of destinations Final destination selection 30 Current Market Research Practices Satisfaction 0 Understand the Disconfirmation Theory by Oliver Refers to the judgments or evaluations that a person makes with respect to a product service or technology Positive Disconfirmation exceed the person39s original expectations Negative Disconfirmation fails the person39s original expectations Loyalty Composite of BOTH behavioral and attitudinal factors Cognitive 9 Affective 9 Conative 9 Action Behavioral Intentions Repeat visit or purchase Recommendation WOM Accurate predictors of actual behavior 31 Stanley Plog s model What is the model about Tourists visit a destination based on their personality type What types of people are considered as Psychocentric tourists or Allocentric tourists Psychocentrics nonadventerous and inwardlooking about 25 Allocations Adventerous and outwardlooking about 40 What did we learn from Plog s model Appeals to common sense Understands the diversity of tourists that exit within any source market their underlying motives and the types of products that may appeal to them RHM 321001 5 32 Pearce s travel needs model The Career Model Built on Maslow s hierarchy of needs More emphasis on changing patterns of motives 33 Know the differences between Plog s and Pearce s models Plog Does not consider multimotive behavior Does not consider the dynamic nature of motives in a traveler s lifespan Pearce Understands that people have range of motives for seeking experiences Recognizes flexibility and variability
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