BIOL 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide
BIOL 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
BIOL 1030 Exam 3 Review Fungi o In fungi – dikaryotic hyphae are formed by plasmogamy o In many Ascomycota, haploid spores called conidia are produced by mitosis o In basidiomycota – a basidium exists as four haploid spores on the outside of a clublike structure o Many fungi exhibit a single celled growth form known as yeast o Imperfect fungi are separated from other groups of fungi because they lack sexual reproduction, or it is unknown o As a part of syngamy, fusion of nuclei is called karyogamy o A single threadlike strand of fungal tissue – hypha o Life cycle of ascomycetes – ascospores are produced as a result of meiosis and mitosis o Imperfect fungi and Ascomycota have condia in common o Lichen – composite organism consisting of a mycobiont and photobiont o Zygotic Meiosis in Fungi differs from that of protists because plasmogamy is separate from karyogamy o Chytridiomycota differ from other fungi in that flagellated spores (sperm) occur o Basidiomycota – mushrooms composed entirely of dikaryotic hyphae o Ascomycota – sexual spores produced 8 at a time within microscopic saclike structures o Glomeromycota – arbuscular mycorrhizae o Chytridiomycota – motile spores o Zygomycota – bread molds, pin molds, and sugar molds o A single threadlike strand of fungal cells without membrane divisions between cells is called a coenocytic hypha o In a basidiocarp, the layer covering the gills (where zyogtes are formed) is called the: hymenium Animalia o Choanocytes occur within the spongocoel in ascon body types o In sponges, water always exits through an opening called an osculum o Porocyte = cell type that forms the ostia in simple sponges o Members of the class Hexactinellida have silicious spicules o Level of organization in the Porifera is cellular o Acoelomate animals are lacking an a body caity o Specializes cells found only in porifera – choanocytes o Choanocytes in flagellated chambers, as well as incurrent and excurrent canals, occur in leucon body type o In sponges, water always enters through the ostia o Spongin fiber and/or silicious spicules in complex body types are found in Calcarea sponges o Epidermis and gastrodermis = 2 tissue layers existing in the body wall of an adult polyp o The level of organization in the Porifera is cellular o The level of organization in the Cnidaria is tissue o In Porifera, cells and spicules are imbedded in a matrix called the mesohyl o In Cnidaria, a noncellular layer exists between tissue layers, called the mesoglea o Medusa life stage is usually responsible for sexual reproduction in Cnidaria o Diploblastic animals are lacking in mesoderm o In acoelomate animals, the space between organs is filled with tissue derived from the mesoderm o Filter feeding = feeding mode of sponges o Blastopore = hole that develops by gastrulation o Embryonic stage of animal development following the zygote and consisting of a solid ball of cells = morula o Cnidaria = diploblastic o Characterized by a lack of symmetry, tissues or organs = Parazoa o In animals, protostome development involves the blastopore developing into the mouth o Tissue systems in NOT an evolutionary trend noted in Animalia Body cavity, embryological development, segmentation, and symmetry are o Some general characteristics Annelida Parapodia in some Segmented worms Cnidaria Stinging cells Mesoglea between tissue layers Mollusca All members have a foot, although it is variable Most with a calcareous shell Nemertea Acoelomate, complete gut, true circulator system Rhynchocoel Platyhelminthes Many parasitic members o 2 tissue layers in the body wall of an adult Hyrda = epidermis and gastrodermis o largest animals that use cilia for locomotion are members of Ctenophora o Annelida belong to the superphylum Lophotrochozoa o The inner layer of a conch shell is called the nacreous layer o Embryonic stage of animal development consisting of a hollow ball of cells: blastula o Motile larval stage in the life cycle of most Cnidarians = planula o Symmetry of comb jellies = bilateral symmetry o Comb jellies – biradial symmetry (?) o Unique to phylum Mollusca Calcareous shell Mantle Radula o Metameric means segmented o Group of worms with complex life cycles of two or more hosts, one being a mollusk = Trematoda o Nematocyst found within a cnidocyte o Blastopore = hole that develops by gastrulation o Anterior worm that produces a chain of longitudinal buds, in many Polychaetes, is call an atoke o Adult tapeworms absorb nutrients from their host with the aid of microtriches that increase surface area o Class of flatworms containing nonparazitic species = Turbellaria o Mineral skeletal components of sponge bodies, calcareous or silicious – spicules o Cnidarian class where animals occur as polyp only (no medusa) = Anthozoa o Flame cells, connected canals, and external pores function in osmoregulation and possibly excretion
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