Bio 152 Exam 3 Study Guide
Bio 152 Exam 3 Study Guide Bio 152
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alena Comley on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 152 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. O'Quin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE UNIT 5 Adult Tissue Type Description CPart of Homeostatic System Functionat are loosely arranged in a liquid, jellylike, or solid matrix. Type of Heat Exchange Descriptionlls and several types of CondSensor dirsenses some aspect of the external Muscle Tissue bodies in contact with each other, the or internal environment Convection heat exchange between a solid and ahe contractions of the digestive system Epithelial Tissue movcover the outside of the body, lines Radiation trathe surfaces of organs, and form needed for homeostasis notglands.ect contact Evaporationr when liquid water becomes a gastore the desired internal condition Organism Problem Problem Resolved by.... Saltwater Fish Lose water by Drink large quantities of seawater Organism osmosis How it maintains balance Section of the Kidney What occurs there Sharks They osmoconform by keeping high Renal Corpuscle Gain electrolytes by lActively transport electrolytes out levels of salt enter the gills; this is drinking and removed actively: 1) A Na /K -ATPase diffusion Freshwater Fish Gain water by pExcrete large amounts of wateryn. 2) The movement of Na+ down its Proximal Tubule osmosis gradient through a cotransporter and flows down gradient and carries other carries Cl and K with it against their Lose electrolytes by gradients. 3) Cl diffuses down its diffusion concentration gradient into the lumen concentration gradient. Water of the rectal gland. 4) Na+ moves down their electrochemical gradient Terrestrial Water loss by iReplaced by eating and drinkingnd. animals Henle evaporation, pee, Water moves out of the descending Fish that change from fresh to limb (which is permeable to water) by saltwater and sweating move ions either in or out of the gills, osmosis based on ions that are moved out of the ascending limbent Insects Malpighian tubules form a filtrate, which flows to the hindgut. If the Distal Tubule insect is osmotically stressed water and electrolytes are reabsorbed in and the hindgut and returned to thew hemolymph, leaving uric acid behind. Collecting Duct The urine leaving it can either be dilute or concentrated based on the circumstances of hydration. ADH causes concentrated urine. KEY TERMS: Anatomy: the study of an organism’s physical structure Physiology: the study of how the physical structures in an organism function Adaptation: heritable trait that allows individuals to survive and reproduce in a certain environment better than individuals that lack those traits. Trade-off: an inescapable compromise between two traits that cannot be optimized simultaneously. Acclimization: a change in an individual’s phenotype that occurs in response to a change in natural environmental conditions. Tissue: a group of cells that function as a unit. Connective tissue: an animal tissue consisting of scatter cells in a liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular matrix; includes bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood. Nervous tissue: an animal tissue consisting of nerve cells (neurons) and various supporting cells. Muscle tissue: an animal tissue consisting of bundles of long, thin, contractile cells (muscle fibers); functions primarily in movment. Epithelium: an animal tissue consisting of sheetlike layers of tightly packed cells that line an organ, gland, a duct, or a body surface. Organ: a group of tissues organized into a function and structural unit. Organ system: groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform a function. Homeostasis: the array of relatively stable chemical and physical conditions in an animal’s cells, tissues, and organs. Set point: a normal or target value for a regulated internal variable, such as body heat or blood pH. Sensor: any cell, organ, or structure with which an animal can sense some aspect of the external or internal environment; usually functions, along with an integrator and effector, as part of a homeostatic system. Integrator: a component of an animal’s nervous system that functions as part of a homeostatic system by evaluating sensory information and triggering appropriate responses. Effector: any cell, organ, or structure with which an animal can respond to external or internal stimuli; usually functions, along with an integrator and sensor, as part of a homeostatic system. Negative feedback: a self-limiting, corrective response in which a deviation in some variable triggers responses aimed at returning the variable to normal. Conduction: direct transfer of heat between two objects that are in physical contact. Convection: transfer of heat by movement of large volumes of a gas or liquid. Radiation: transfer of heat between two bodies that are no in direct physical contact. Evaporation: the energy-absorbing phase change from a liquid state to a gaseous state; many organisms evaporate water as a means of heat loss. Thermoregulation: regulation of body temperature. Endotherm: an animal whose primary source of body heat is internally generated. Ectotherm: an animal that gains most of its body head from external sources as opposed to metabolic processes. Homeotherm: an animal that has a constant or relatively constant body temperature. Heterotherm: an animal whose body temperature varies markedly. Countercurrent exchanger: in animals, any anatomical arrangement that allows the maximum transfer of heat or a soluble substance from one fluid to another; the two fluids must be flowing in opposite directions and have a heat or concentration gradient between them. Osmolarity: the concentration of dissolved substances in a solution, measured in osmoles per liter. Osmoregulation: the process by which living organisms control the concentration of water and electrolytes in their bodies. Osmoconformers: an animal that does not actively regulate the osmolarity of its tissues but conforms to the osmolarity of the surrounding environment. Isosmotic: comparative term designating a solution that has the same solute concentration and water concentration as another solution. Osmoregulator: an animal that actively changes the osmolarity of its tissues. Hyperosmotic: comparative term designating a solution that has a greater solute concentration, and therefore lower water concentration, than another solution. Hyposmotic: comparative term designating a solution that has a lower solute concentration, and therefore a higher water concentration than another solution. Cotransporter: a transmembrane protein that facilitates diffusion of an ion down its previously established electrochemical gradient and uses the energy of that process to transport some other substance, in the same or opposite direction, against its concentration gradient. Symporter: a cotransporter that moves solutes in the same direction. Antiporter: a cotransporter that moves solutes in opposite directions. Ammonia: a small molecule, produced by the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids, that is very toxic to cells; it is a strong base. Urea: the major nitrogenous waste of mammals, adult amphibians, and cartilaginous fishes. Uric acid: a whitish excretory product of birds, reptiles, and terrestrial arthropods; used to remove from the body the excess nitrogen derived from the breakdown of amino acids. Rectal gland: a salt-excreting gland in the digestive system of sharks, skates, and rays. Tracheae: in insects, any of the small air-filled tubes that extend throughout the body and function in gas exchange. Spiracle: in insects, a small opening that connects air-filled tracheae to the external environment, allowing for gas exchange. Hemolymph: the circulatory fluid of animals with open circulatory systems (i.e. insects) in which the fluid is not confined to blood vessels. Malpighian tubules: a major excretory organ of insects, consisting of blind-ended tubes that extend from the gut into the hemocoel; filter hemolymph to form “pre- urine” and then send it to the hindgut for further processing. Filtrate: any fluid produced by filtration, in particular the fluid (“pre-urine”) in the Malpighian tubules of insects and the nephrons of vertebrate kidneys. Kidney: in terrestrial vertebrates, one of a paired organ situated at the back of the abdominal cavity that filters the blood, produces urine, and secretes several hormones. Ureter: in vertebrates, a tube that transports urine from one kidney to the bladder. Bladder: a mammalian organ that holds urine until it can be excreted. Urethra: the tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside environment. Nephron: one of many tiny tubules inside the kidney that function in the formation of urine; the basic functional unit of the kidney. Cortex: the outer region of the kidney. Medulla: the inner region of the kidney. Renal corpuscle: in the vertebrate kidney, the ball-like structure at the beginning of the nephron, consisting of a glomerulus and the surrounding Bowman’s capsule; acts as a filtration device. Glomerulus: in the vertebrate kidney, a ball-like cluster of capillaries, surrounded by Bowman’s capsule, at the beginning of the nephron. Bowman’s capsule: the hollow, double-walled, cup-shaped portion of a nephron that surrounds a glomerulus in the vertebrate kidney. Filtration: a process of removing large components from a fluid by forcing it through a filter; occurs in a renal corpuscle of the vertebrate kidney, allowing water and small solutes to pass from the blood into the nephron. Proximal tubule: in the vertebrate kidney, the convoluted section of a nephron into which filtrate moves from Bowman’s capsule; involved in the largely unregulated reabsorption of electrolytes, nutrients, and water. Loop of Henle: in the vertebrate kidney, a long U-shaped loop in a nephron that extends into the medulla; functions as a countercurrent exchanger to set up an osmotic gradient that allows reabsorption of water from a collecting duct. Vasa recta: a network of blood vessels that runs along the loop of Henle and eventually joins up with small veins in the kidney. Distal tubule: in the vertebrate kidney, the convoluted portion of a nephron into which filtrate moves from the loop of Henle; involved in the regulated reabsorption of sodium and water. Antidiuretic hormone: a peptide hormone, secreted from the posterior pituitary gland, that simulates water retention by the kidney. Cloaca: in a few mammals and many nonmammalian vertebrates, a body cavity opening to the outside and used by both the excretory and reproductive systems. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Explain the difference between adaptation and acclimatization. Discuss what a trade-off is and understand it in the context of the example discussed in class Describe what a tissue, organ, and organ system are and how they are connected to each other. Briefly describe connective, nervous, muscle, and epithelial tissues and know examples of each. Describe what homeostasis is and two ways it is achieved (conformation vs. regulation). Explain why homeostasis is important. Describe the components of the homeostatic system (sensor, integrator, and effector) and how negative feedback helps to maintain this system. Describe the four mechanisms of heat exchange and be able to discern between them when given an example. Explain the difference between an endotherm and an ectotherm. Explain the difference between a homeotherm and a heterotherm. Describe how endotherms are able to maintain their internal body heat and the benefits and tradeoffs associated with that. Describe how ectotherms maintain their body heat and the benefits and tradeoffs associated with that Describe the benefit of a countercurrent heat exchanger and how it works. Know what an electrolyte is Know why osmoregulation occurs Describe the difference between an osmoregultor and an osmoconformer. Describe the difference between isosmotic, hyposmotic, and hyperosmotic. Describe the challenges that fish that live in seawater have to deal with and how they go about regulating water and solute concentrations. Describe the challenges that fish that live in freshwater have to deal with and how they go about regulating water and solute concentrations. Describe the challenges that terrestrial animals have to deal with and how they go about regulating water and solute concentrations. Know the different types of nitrogenous wastes and how habitat relates to the waste an animal produces. Know the trade-offs between producing ammonia and urea. Describe the how sharks osmoconform. Describe how sharks excrete salt through the rectal gland, emphasizing the different modes of membrane transport that help in this process. Describe the process of how ions are obtained in freshwater fishes and the role of cotransporters in this process in fish that switch from freshwater to saltwater. Describe how terrestrial insects minimize water loss. Describe the role of the Malpighian tubules and hindgut in the formation of filtrate and the reabsorption of electrolytes and water, noting how water and electrolytes get back into the hemolymph. Describe the structure of the human urinary system. Describe the structure of the nephron and know that it is the basic functional unit of the kidney. Describe the process of filtration at the renal corpuscle. Describe the role to the proximal tubule in reabsorption. Describe how an osmotic gradient is established in the loop of Henle. Describe how the loop of Henle might change based on the environment the animal lives in. Describe the role of the distal tubule and the collecting duct in water and electrolyte balance and how this can be altered by aldosterone and anti-diuretic hormone. Describe how water is reabsorbed in reptiles. UNIT 6 Feeding Strategy How They Feed Suspension feeder Filter small organisms or organic debris from water via cilia Deposit feeder swallow sediment and other types of deposited material rich in organic matter Fluid feeder Suck up or lap up fluids Mass feeder seize and manipulate food by using jaws, teeth, or special toxin injecting organs Part of the What occurs Enzymes and Hormones digestive tract there what it breaks involved and down function Mouth Physical Salivary N/A processing of amylase-digests food by chewing; starch chemical digestion starts Lingual lipase- digests-lipids Esophogus Connects the N/A N/A mouth to the stomach; muscular contractions called peristalsis move the food down the esophagus Stomach Muscular Pepsin-protein Gastrin-triggers contractions digestion secretion of HCl cause mechanical breakdown; protein digestion Part of the What occurs Enzymes and Hormones digestive tract there what it breaks involved and down function Small Intestine Digestion is Proteases-protein Secretin- Induces completed, water digestion a flow of and nutrients are bicarbonate that absorbed Nucleases- neutralizes the breaks down stomach acid DNA and RNA Amylases-digests Cholecystokinin- carbohydrates stimulates the secretion of Lipase-breaks digestive down complex enzymes from fats into fatty the pancreas and acids and small molecules that lipids help process lipids from the gall bladder Large Intestine Compact the N/A N/A wastes that remain and to absorb enough water to form feces Type of Problem Cause of Treatment Diabetes problem Type 1 Diabetes Do not synthesize Autoimmune insulin injections sufficient insulin disease where the and attention to insulin-producing diet cells of the pancreas is destroyed Type 2 Diabets resistant to insulin receptors diet, exercise, insulin, meaning not longer maintaining blood that insulin does functioning glucose levels, not effectively correctly or they and activate its are reduced in by drugs that receptor in target number, with increase cellular cells obesity being the responsiveness to primary factor for insulin development KEY TERMS: Nutrient: any substance that an organism requires for normal growth, maintenance, or reproduction. Food: any nutrient-containing material that can be consumed and digested by animals. Essential nutrient: any chemical element, ion, or compound that is required for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of a living organism and that cannot be synthesized by the organism. Essential amino acid: any amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize and must obtain from the diet. Vitamin: any of various organic micronutrients that usually function as coenzymes. Mineral: one of various inorganic substances that are important components of enzyme cofactors or of structural materials in an organism. Electrolyte: any compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water; in nutrition, any of the major ions necessary for normal cell function. Suspension feeder: any organism that obtains food by filtering small particles or small organisms out of water or air. Deposit feeder: an animal that eats its way through a food-containing substrate. Fluid feeder: any animal that feeds by sucking or mopping up liquids such as nectar, plant sap, or blood. Mass feeder: an animal that ingests chunks of food. Ingestion: the act of bringing food into the digestive tract. Digestive tract: the long tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. Digestion: the physical and chemical breakdown of food into molecules that can be absorbed into the body of an animal. Absorption: in animals, the uptake of ions and small molecules, derived from food, across the lining of the intestine and into the bloodstream. Incomplete digestive tract: a digestive tract that has just one opening. Complete digestive tract: a digestive tract with two openings, usually called a mouth and anus. Feces: the waster products of digestion. Salivary amylase: an enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands and that can break down starch by catalyzing hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues. Lingual lipase: an enzyme produced by glands in the tongue; it breaks down fat molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Salivary gland: a type of vertebrate gland that secretes saliva (a mixture of water, mucus-forming glycoproteins, and digestive enzymes) into the mouth. Mucus: a slimy mixture of glycoproteins and water that is secreted in many animal organs for lubrication. Esophagus: the muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. Peristalsis: rhythmic waves of muscular contractions; in the digestive tract, pushes food along. Crop: a storage organ in the digestive system of certain vertebrates. Stomach: a tough, muscular pouch in the vertebrate digestive tract between the esophagus and small intestine; physically breaks up food and begins digestion of proteins. Sphincter: a muscular valve that can close off a tube, as in a blood vessel or a part of the digestive tract. Pepsin: a protein-digesting enzyme present in the stomach. Parietal cell: a cell in the stomach lining that secretes hydrochloric acid. Mucous cell: a type of cell found in the epithelial layer of the stomach; responsible for secreting mucus into the stomach. Ulcer: a hole in an epithelial layer, exposing the underlying tissues to damage. Ruminant: member of a group of hoofed mammals (i.e. cattle, sheep, deer) that have a four-chambered stomach specialized for digestion of plant cellulose; ruminants regurgitate cud, a mixture of partially digested food and cellulose- digesting bacteria, from the largest chamber (rumen) for further chewing. Symbiosis: any close and prolonged physical relationship between individuals of two different species. Cellulase: an enzyme that can break down cellulose by catalyzing hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues. Gizzard: a modified stomach found in birds. Small intestine: the portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine; the site of the final stage of digestion and of most nutrient absorption. Villi: small, fingerlike projections of the lining of the small intestine; function to increase surface area available for absorption of nutrients. Microvilli: tiny protrusions form the surface of an epithelial cell that increase the surface area for absorption of substances. Protease: an enzyme that can break up proteins by cleaving the peptide bonds between amino acid residues. Pancreas: a large gland in vertebrates that has both exocrine and endocrine functions; secretes digestive enzymes into a duct connected to the intestine and secretes several hormones (notably, insulin and glucagon) into the bloodstream. Trypsin: a protein-digesting enzyme present in the small intestine that activates several other protein-digesting enzymes. Secretin: a peptide hormone produced by cells in the small intestine in response to the arrival of food from the stomach; stimulates secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas. Cholecystokinin: a peptide hormone secreted by cells in the lining of the small intestine; stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and of pile from the liver and gallbladder. Gastrin: a hormone produced by cells in the stomach lining in response to the arrival of food or to a neural signal from the brain; stimulates other stomach cells to release hydrochloric acid. Nuclease: any enzyme that can break down RNA or DNA molcules. Pancreatic amylase: an enzyme produced by the pancreas that breaks down glucose chains by catalyzing hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues. Pancreatic lipase: an enzyme that is produced in the pancreas and acts in the small intestine to break bonds in complex fats, releasing small lipids. Emulsification: the dispersion of fat into an aqueous solution; usually requires the adif oa an amphipathic substance such as a detergent or bile salts, which can break large fat globules into microscopic fat droplets. Liver: a large, complex organ of vertebrates that performs many functions, including storage of glycogen, processing and conversion of food and wastes, and production of bile. Bile: a complex solution produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the intestine; contains steroid derivatives called bile salts that are responsible for emulsification of fats during digestion. Gallbladder: a small pouch that stores bile from the liver and releases it as needed into the small intestine during digestion of fats. Large intestine: the distal portion of the digestive tract, consisting of the cecum, colon, and rectum; its primary function is to compact the wastes delivered from the small intestine and absorb enough water to form feces. Colon: the portion of the large intestine where feces are formed by compaction of wastes and reabsorption of water. Rectum: the last portion of the digestive tract; it is where feces are held until they are expelled. Cecum: a blind sac between the small intestine and colon; it is enlarged in some species (i.e. rabbits) that use it as a fermentation vat for digestion of cellulose. Appendix: a blind sac (having only one opening) that extends from the cecum in some mammals. Diabetes mellitus: a disease caused by defects in insulin production (type 1) or in the response of cells to insulin (type 2); characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels and huge amounts of glucose-containing urine. Insulin: a peptide hormone produced by the pancreas in response to high levels or glucose (or amino acids) in blood; enables cells to absorb glucose and coordinates synthesis of fats, proteins, and glycogen. Glucagon: a peptide hormone produced by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose; raise blood glucose by triggering breakdown of glycogen and stimulating gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis: synthesis of glucose, often from non-carbohydrate sources (i.e. proteins and fatty acids); in animals, occurs in the liver in response to low insulin levels and high glucagon levels. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: List the four steps animals use in obtaining nutrition Describe what essential nutrients are and examples of them. Differentiate between the different animal feeding strategies Understand the correlation of animal mouthpart structures and their function; know relevant examples discussed in class Explain the difference between an incomplete and complete digestive tract and the advantages for have a tubelike digestive tract. Describe the following information in regards to the mouth and esophagus: relevant enzymes; relevant glands; how food moves; any modified examples of these structures, what organisms possess these modifications, and the purpose of these modifications. Describe the following information in regards to the stomach: overall structure; relevant secretions, the cells that produce them, and what they help to do; the cells that produce stomach acid and how they are able to do this; any modified examples of these structures, what organisms possess these modifications, and the purpose of the modifications; you should be able to trace the path through the ruminant stomach. Describe the following information about the small intestine: three ways surface area is increased; any relevant hormones and enzymes and what they help to digest; how those enzymes are regulated (this should include digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids); how glucose is absorbed; how water is absorbed. Describe the following information about the large intestine: how water is reabsorbed; any important variations in structure and function (i.e. cecum and appendix); why rabbits eat their droppings. Describe how insulin and glucagon provide negative feedback in a homeostatic system for blood glucose levels. Describe the two forms diabetes it can take, the cause for each form, why the disease develops, and how diabetes is managed dependent on the form it takes. Discuss the type 2 diabetes epidemic and its correlation with obesity prevalence.
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