Final Exam Study Guide History 1010
Final Exam Study Guide History 1010 1010
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robert Kessinger on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Auburn University taught by Daren Ray in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Bobby Kessinger 4/23/16 Final Study Guide Learning Objectives from the book Ch. 16 How did the Columbian Exchange improve nutrition in Europe and Asia? How did the patterns of disease change through the 16 and 17 centuries in the New World and the Old World? Why did the Europeans import slaves to the Americas? Where did pastoralism retreat and where did it remain robust? How did imperialism in Europe and Asia further the exploitation of the natural environment? How did the Spanish, Portuguese, and British patterns of land exploitation in the Americas differ? In what ways did Europeans and Asian governments further exploit their homelands? What more efficient means of exploiting their environment did natives of eastern North America develop? Ch. 17 th How did European elites attempt to change Christian practice and teachings during the 16 century? Why did Christian missions beyond Europe meet with limited success? th th How and where did Buddhism and Islam spread in the 16 and 17 centuries? How were the Americas and India examples of increasing global religious diversity? How did the Renaissance discovery of the world influence Western thinking about human nature? What were key elements of the new scientific thinking in the West? What reversed the historical technical superiority of China over Europe? Ch. 18 th th What impeded the political reunification of western Europe in the 16 and 17 centuries? What political concepts arose with the growth of the power of the states? How was the rise of the nuclear family part of a more general change in European social organization? How was the Ottoman Empire governed? What role did Shiite Islam play in Safavid Persia? How did Chinese society change under the Qing dynasty? How did the Tokugawa shoguns govern Japan? In what ways was Spain’s New World empire truly new? What roles did African states play in the Atlantic slave trade? Ch. 19 th Why did the world’s population increase in the 18 century? Why and to what extent did the economies of China, India, and the Ottoman Empire decline? What explains Western Europe’s productivity leaps? How did the imperial expansion stimulate economic activity? Ch. 20 th Why did the major Asian empires lose impetus in the 18 century? How did Britain become the dominant power in India? What problems did the Dutch face as imperialists? To what extent did slaves shape their own lives in America? Why did the British and Spanish colonies in the New World come to resent control from Europe? Ch. 21 How did European values change over the course of the 18 century? How did Asian examples influence the Enlightenment? How did people in China and Japan respond to European ideas in the 18 century? What were the main themes of the Enlightenment in Europe? Why was there a reaction against Enlightenment ideas, and what forms did it take? How did Enlightenment ideas influence the French Revolution and Napoleon’s policies? Learning Objectives Unit VII Early Encounters in the Columbian Exchange ◦ Define the Columbian Exchange ◦ Explain the difference between “historical imagination” and historical fiction? ◦ Compare responses of Africans and Native Americans to the arrival of European explorers and merchants? Readings: Canvas: Richter Canvas: Blackburn Making a Global Ecology ◦ Identify plants and animals that moved from the Eastern Hemisphere (Old World) to the Western Hemisphere (New World)? ◦ Explain why the exchange of diseases across these Hemispheres devastated American but not Eurasian populations? ◦ Contrast the ecological imperialism of landed empires with the strategies of maritime empires? Readings: Textbook Ch. 16 Merchants of Death Explain why enslaved Africans, rather than Native Americans or Europeans, provided the labor for the Atlantic plantation system Identify the role that EuroAfricans played in the Atlantic Slave Trade? Discuss the relationship between the Atlantic Slave Trade and Capitalism? Readings: Ch. 20, pp. 594599 Canvas: Burnard The Plantation Complex and the Roots of Capitalism Define “monocrop agriculture” and “slave society”? Identify the contributions of Africans to the success of plantation economies in the Americas? Discuss the relationship between the Plantation Complex and Capitalism? Readings: Review slides and Canvas: Burnard In Pursuit of Destiny: Religious Reformations in Europe and Beyond ◦ Identify three European reformation movements and the motivation they all shared? ◦ Define syncretism? ◦ Explain how the spread of Christianity in the Americas was similar to the spread of Buddhism in Mongolia and Manchuria in Asia? Readings: Ch. 17, pp. 496512 In Pursuit of Progress: Scientific Revolutions in Europe and Beyond ◦ Explain how the Columbian Exchange challenged classical traditions? ◦ Identify major natural philosophers and their fields of study? ◦ Identify the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? Readings: Ch. 17, pp. 513522 Military Empires: Old and New Compare the changing relationships between politics and religion in Western Europe and India? Identify examples of monarchs weakening aristocrats in the Ottoman Empire, China, and Europe? Define Sovereignty and Realpolitik? Readings: Ch. 18 Unit VIII: The Birth of Nations The Great Divergence Contrast artisanal production with factory production? Compare Chinese, Mughal, and Ottoman economies in the 18th century? Identify advantages of Europe’s oceanic empires over Asia’s landed empires in the eighteenth century? Readings: Ch. 19 Colonialism in Asia ◦ Identify the difference between imperialism and colonialism? ◦ Compare how Chinese colonization in Asia differed from European colonization in Asia? ◦ Explain how Great Britain gained territorial control in India? Readings: Ch. 20, pp. 584593 Colonialism in the Americas ◦ Compare how Spain, France, and England ruled their colonies? ◦ Describe the relationships between Native Americans and Europeans in different American colonies? ◦ Identify three reasons that colonists in the Americas resented the rule of European states? Readings: Ch. 20, pp. 600609 Seven Years War (in America) ◦ Why did England attack France's colony in North America when they were already fighting a war with France in Europe? ◦ What role did Native Americans play in the Seven Years War? ◦ In the treaty that ended the Seven Years War, why did France give up its claims to Canada in order to retain the small island of Guadaloupe in the Caribbean Sea? Readings: Review your answers to the film questions. Enlightenments ◦ Identify how China and the Ottoman Empire shaped Europe’s Enlightenment? ◦ Compare Europe’s Enlightenment with intellectual innovations in Japan? ◦ Explain how different Enlightenment philosophers preferred to determine the “general will”? ◦ Explain how the French revolution was “revolutionary” Richter Reading Quiz QUESTION Disease What nutritional disease did early European explorers often suffer? yaws diabetes scurvy anemia QUESTION Trade What European gifts did some early Indians interpret or remember as "blocks of wood and human blood"? axe heads and wine Christian crosses and wine wooden statues and wine sea biscuits and wine QUESTION Language Barriers How did Europeans visiting North America find interpreters to help them in their expeditions? They kidnapped children They relied on shipwrecked Europeans who had survived They got permission from chiefs to bring Indians back to Europe All of the above QUESTION Right of Conquest What is the legal document that Spanish explorers were required to read to potential victims before conquering them? adelantado conquistador requerimiento encomienda QUESTION Indian Politics According to Richter, Europeans contributed to but did not cause what political developments in North America Transition to larger confederations among Iroquois speakers Transition to smaller egalitarian communities in southeast North America Competition over trade routes among Timucuan speakers All of the above QUESTION Europeans in America Native North Americans often referred to the first Europeans they met as: their ancestors vampires white gods or spirits woodworkers or other craftsmen QUESTION Historical Imagination Which of the following types of sources help ground historical imagination in reality? documentary sources by European explorers oral traditions archaeological remains All of the above QUESTION Ecology of Empire? Why did de Soto bring thirteen pregnant pigs with him to Florida? to destroy the crops of local communities they were his personal pets to provide a mobile food supply None of the above QUESTION Motives What personally motivated Cartier and de Soto to explore Canada and Florida? A route to the Indian Ocean a hunt for sources of gold or other rare commodities a passion for making maps devotion to Christianity QUESTION European Explorers Match the European with the American region he explored or conquered. Select One Match With Pizarro ⇢ AHispaniola (Caribbean Islands) Columbus ⇢ BCanada's St. Lawrence River de Soto ⇢ CPeru Cartier ⇢ DSoutheast North America EMesoamerica Ch. 16 Reading Quiz QUESTION Crops Which staple crop provides ALL the essential nutrients for sustaining life if eaten in sufficient quantities? wheat rice maize potatoes QUESTION Crop Origins Coffee was originally cultivated where? Clickontarget question QUESTION Diseases True or False: After the Black Death of the 14th century, Eurasia never had any more recurrences of plague. True False QUESTION China What did the Manchu people who overthrew the Ming Dynasty call their own dynasty? Xia Qing Sui Jurchen QUESTION Territorialization Japan's conquest of the Ainu peoples in its northern islands was similar to what European conquest in the seventeenth century? Spanish conquest of the Iberian peninsula English conquest of the Scots and other Celts Dutch conquest of the North Sea None of the above QUESTION West Africa The Songhay Empire of West Africa was conquered by what Mediterranean state? Italy Portugal Morocco Tunisia QUESTION Mughal Expansion Who often accompanied Mughal armies to aid their conquests? Lumberjacks Magicians Hot air balloon pilots Peasants QUESTION Decline of Pastoralists What factor(s) led to the decline of pastoralist empires? redirection of trade to the Indian Ocean instead of the Silk Road new gunpowder weapons were effective against cavalry farming populations increased faster than pastoralist populations all of the above QUESTION New American Empires Which European empire in America was distinguished by its focus on building cities? England France Portugal Spain QUESTION Commodities Match the following maritime empire with the goods they produced in America. Select One Match With Spain ⇢ Asugar and tobacco Britain ⇢ Bsugar and dyes Portugal ⇢ Csugar and furs France ⇢ Dsugar and cotton Egold Burnard Reading Quiz QUESTION Cash Crops Which cash crop was the most harmful to the health of agricultural laborers in the Americas? indigo rice coffee sugar cane QUESTION Why not Europeans? True or False: Early modern Europeans didn't feel selling African slaves was wrong because they didn't think slavery was bad. True False QUESTION Why Africans? West and Central Africans were willing to sell slaves Europeans because: they had already been selling slaves to Muslim North Africans for centuries political fragmentation promoted warfare that created many prisoners of wars there was no common religious or political ideology that united Africans all of the above QUESTION Organization of the TransAtlantic Slave Trade What did merchants bring back from the Americas on the final leg of the "triangle trade"? bills of exchange (kind of like a cashier's check) tropical produce specie (gold/silver coins) all of the above QUESTION The Middle Passage The Middle Passage is: A southern route across the Atlantic Ocean A dark tunnel between the warehouses and the slave market in El Mina The voyage of ships loaded with slaves across the Atlantic A famous account of enslaved Africans' voyage across the Atlantic Ocean QUESTION Volume Around how many enslaved Africans were forcibly transported across the Atlantic Ocean between 1501 and 1850? 500,000 1 million 10 million 50 million QUESTION Distribution Which region in the Americas received the most slaves? North America The islands of the Caribbean Sea Brazil QUESTION Sale in America What factor(s) influenced how much a buyer paid for an African slave? gender time of arrival (seasonality) quality of a slave's health all of the above QUESTION Slave Origins True or False: Slaves in British colonies usually worked with other slaves who spoke the same language and came from the same region of Africa. True False QUESTION Legacies How did the slave trade help start Europe's industrial revolution? Profits from the slave trade directly funded industrialization The slave trade helped develop business practices that supported industrical business ventures. The slave trade initiated West African demand for European manufactured goods B & C All of the above Ch 17 Reading Quiz Part I QUESTION New Islamic Frontiers Which new frontiers did merchants and mystics open for Islam in the early modern period? Southeast Asia and West Africa Arabia and Palestine the Americas Siberia and the Volga River QUESTION Altan Khan Altan Khan promoted which religion among the Mongols in Central and East Asia? Manicheanism Islam Buddhism Christianity QUESTION Martin Luther Martin Luther helped launch which movement The Civil Rights Movement The Yellow Turban Rebellion The Protestant Reformation The Spanish Inquisition QUESTION Council of Trent What was the goal of the Council of Trent? Reinforce the authority of Catholic clergy Suppress superstitious and pagan practices Respond to the influence of the Protestant Reformation All of the above QUESTION Spanish Inquisition The original purpose of the Spanish Inquisition was to: ensure new converts to Christianity weren't practicing Judaism or Islam in secret determine the effectiveness of torture in the Spanish justice system find and eradicate witches prosecute suspects charged with treason against the Spanish QUESTION Society of Jesus The Society of Jesus is: a fraternity at a European university an early Protestant church a Catholic order of monks a secret society of nobles QUESTION East Asian Christianity After Japan banned Christianity, who were the only Europeans they would trade with. French English German Dutch QUESTION Monks in America Which Catholic order of monks was criticized for simplifying Christian doctrine and baptizing Native Americans by the thousands? Dominicans Franciscans Jesuits Cistercians QUESTION Creole Societies Confraternities were part of the religious social life of which Brazilian Christians? Native Americans Black Africans Europeans People of mixed descent QUESTION Sikhism Sikhism draws principles from what two religions? Christianity and Islam Judaism and Hinduism Buddhism and Islam Islam and Hinduism Ch 172 Reading Quiz QUESTION Heliocentrism Which natural philosopher in Europe first suggested that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun? Copernicus Newton Descartes Holst QUESTION Scientific Imagination Isaac Newton and other natural philosophers imagined the universe as: a great disc riding on top of a giant turtle a machine set in motion by gravity one of many intersecting dimensions a chaotic mass of unpredictable atoms QUESTION European ingenuity Earlier advances by Europeans in what technology helped them excel at astronomy? bird watching and iron working shipbuilding and medicine printing and paper glass making and clockwork QUESTION Scientific Thinking Empiricism is the idea that: reality is observable by the senses reality is an illusion reality includes the physical observable world and the unseen spiritual world reality is probably real, but it is impossible to prove QUESTION Emergence of "Science" The textbook suggests that science is most similar to what earlier way of organizing knowledge? medicine magic religion classical philosophy QUESTION A Global Renaissance? What did Renaissance philosophers in Europe share with Confucian scholars in Ming China? They both emphasized the knowledge of classical scholars. They both rejected the knowledge of classical scholars. They reinterpreted the knowledge of classical scholars to be less religious. They both ignored the classics completely. QUESTION Religious demography What accounts for the increasing number of Christians compared to Buddhists and Muslims in the Early Modern Era? Christians expanded into the Americas Christians were more flexible than other religions The Reformation made Christians more effective missionaries Christian states successfully enforced their religion on Muslim and Buddhist lands QUESTION Scientific method Which of the following assumption is important to the scientific method? reality is observable with the senses the universe can be explained rationally scientific observations can be verified independently by any one. all of the above Ch. 18 Reading Quiz QUESTION European Rivalries Other than Spain, which states had the most success in Western Europe during the 17th century? France and England Portugal and Luxembourg Denmark and Italy Sweden and the Netherlands QUESTION Concept Check According to the textbook, what is sovereignty? The right to print money The right to administer justice The right to conquer territory All of the above QUESTION Russian Empire Which czar reoriented Russia to focus more on its ties with Europe than with Asia? Ivan Moneybags Peter the Great Rasputin Vladimir Lenin QUESTION Early modern thinkers Hugo Grotius was an Early Modern: theologian painter legal scholar scientist QUESTION Religion and State in the Islamic World In which empire were Islamic scholars (ulama) employed and trained by the state? Mughal Safavid Ottoman Sokoto QUESTION Ming / Qing China What does the textbook call the Confucian scholars who ran the Chinese state during the Ming and Qing dynasties? Rajahs Mandarins Ronin Sipahllis QUESTION On Land and Sea Which Early Modern state combined agricultural production of land with control of oceanic commerce in a global empire? England France Austria Spain QUESTION African state building Which of the following African states used slave trading to support their economy? Dahomey Ashanti Akwamu All of the above QUESTION Queen Nzinga How did the Imbangala who supported the reign of Queen Nzinga in Central Africa recruit new soldiers? Promised recruits a share of war booty Kidnapped young boys Forced peasants into service None of the above QUESTION Japanese politics Who ruled Japan during the Tokugawa/Edo period? Samurai Shoguns Emperors Daimyo Ch. 19 Reading Quiz QUESTION Medical advances True or False: Inoculation against smallpox was invented in Europe. True False QUESTION Disease environment According to the textbook, the age of plague most likely ended because: governments sponsored vaccination programs viruses evolved to avoid killing their hosts cities improved sanitation doctors improved their ability to treat symptoms QUESTION Trade Gap How did Europe try to close the trade gap with China? Exploit Chinese market of opium addicts Produce silk, tea and porcelain themselves Decrease production costs and increase profits through mechanization All of the above QUESTION Chinese economy China could not (or would not) increase production because they: were stuck in a highlevel equilibrium trap believed commerce was immoral were too busy fighting wars with Russia All of the above QUESTION Indian Economy Who were the major consumers of Indian textiles? Dutch merchants The Ottoman sultan's harem New World Planters The court of the Mughal Empire QUESTION Search for resources What natural resource provided England with massive amounts of cheap energy? Oil Solar power Coal Peat Moss QUESTION Determining Value What factors determine the price of a consumer product? Supply and Demand (i.e. rarity) Cost of labor Capital (land, machines, and other inputs) All of the above QUESTION Global Gardens Why were European empires the most successful at introducing plant and animal species to new parts of the world? European scientists developed superior methods of classification European empires had colonies throughout the globe European farmers were more willing to emigrate All of the above QUESTION Global Commodities Which of the following is a global commodity the Europeans produced so they could cut out Asian middlemen? Tea Coffee Opium All of the above QUESTION New Europes Which of the following is not an example of a "New Europe"? New Zealand British North America Australia Tahiti Ch 20 Reading Quiz Part 1 QUESTION Chinese Colonization Which Chinese region did the textbook describe as the Wild West of China, complete with booming mining towns? Yunan Guangzhou Xinjiang Tibet QUESTION Resistant to Ottoman Empire Which new Islamic movement challenged the authority of the Ottomans in the Arabian Peninsula? Naqshbandiya Salafism Wahhabism None of the above QUESTION Resistance to Mughal Empire The Marathas who first stopped recognizing the authority of the Mughal emperors in India followed which religious tradition? Buddhism Christianity Islam Hinduism QUESTION British Conquest of India Britain was able to conquer much of the Mughal empire in India because: they were wealthier than the Mughals of internal dissent within the Mughal empire their military was more powerful All of the above QUESTION Arab Imperialism The Arab state of Oman established a tradingpost empire in which region of the world? Western Indian Ocean Eastern Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Reading Quiz 202 QUESTION Plains Indians Which Native American Indians on the Great Plains enriched themselves by raiding the Spanish to buy guns from the French? Sioux Comanche Araucano Cherokee QUESTION American Economies What led New England to develop an expertise in shipping? a strong market for whale oil border with Canada prevented western expansion rapid population growth outpaces agricultural resources all of the above QUESTION Colonial Wars Which conflict ended French control of Canada? War of American Independence Boston Tea Party King Phillip's War Seven Years War QUESTION American Independence Which American colony actually enjoyed a relatively smooth transition to independence? Haiti Brazil Mexico British North America QUESTION Native Policies What best describes the Spanish policy towards Native Americans in the 18th century? Quarantine Expulsion Assimilation Extermination Ch. 21 Reading Quiz QUESTION The Enlightenment What was the Enlightenment? A philosophical movement A religious movement A military confrontation All of the above QUESTION The Enlightenment Encyclopedia The Encyclopedia edited by Diderot took which political position? It favored constitutional governments. It praised Europe's system of monarchy and aristocracy. It condemned the idea of "natural equality" of all men. It challenged the separation of church and state. QUESTION Chinese Influence on the Enlightenment Which Enlightenment thinker was a big fan of China? Montesquieu Voltaire Hobbes Newton QUESTION Linguistic research Scholars discovered that which oriental language was related to Latin and Greek? Chinese Japanese Sanskrit Arabic QUESTION Enlightenment Economics Which of the following economic policies was recommended by enlightenment philosophers? free trade hoarding bullion (gold and silver) state monopolies control of colonial markets QUESTION Enlightenment and Religion How did most Enlightenment philosophers and feel about religion? Opposed organized religion Supported organized religion Replaced religion with new superstitions. Most Enlightenment philosopers were priests. QUESTION Opposition to the Enlightenment What movement challenged the Enlightenment focus on scientific observation with an emphasis on feelings? Scientism Naturalism Ecumenicism Romanticism QUESTION Religious Revival Which of the following men was not a preacher? George Whitfield John Wesley Jonathan Edwards Johann Sebastian Bach QUESTION Rousseau The philosopher Rousseau championed the idea of: enlightened despotism the general will populist religion free trade QUESTION French Revolution Who relied on a reign of terror to protect what he saw as the gains of the French Revolution? Napoleon Louis XVI Robespierre Marquis de Sade Tournament Questions SAFAVID: What was the name of the "redhat" cavalry that supported the Safavid empire? Mandarins Janissaries Qizilbash Samurai PORTUGUESE COLONIES: What was the name of Portugal colony in America? Goa Mozambique Angola Brazil HUMANITY: Where did homo sapiens emerge as a species? New Zealand Northern England South America East Africa SCALE OF SOCIETY: The first farmers probably organized themselves into: nationstates lineages guilds fraternities OCEANIC COMMERCE: Before the Early Modern Era, which ocean was the major region of trade? Atlantic Indian Arctic Pacific MONGOLS: When did the Mongols unify most of Asia under their rule? Bronze Age Late PostClassical Era Axial Age Early Modern Era FARMING: What evidence suggests that people started farming during the Neolithic era? New tools to process grain, like grinding stones diaries from foragers angry about having to settle down Oral traditions All of the above THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND CHINA: For Montesquieu, China was an example of a strong and moral government. oriental despotism. the rule of law. a corrupt scholarly class. MUGHAL EMPIRE: Who weakened the Mughal Empire by ignoring the authority of the emperor? Hindu Marathas Muslim princes A & B None of the above SEVEN YEARS WAR: What rights did France retain over Canada after the Seven Years War? To trap fur animals To fish near Canada shore To explore new territory To preserve their Protestant faith COLONIAL SETTLERS: What phrase describes the tendency of American colonists to develop a cultural identity distinct from the European communities they came from? Syncretism Stockholm syndrome "Going native" Creole mentalities NATIVE AMERICAN POLICY: 26) Which of the European states had a general policy of expelling Native Americans from their colonial territories? Great Britain France Spain The Dutch AMERICAN COLONIES: How did Spanish America differ from New France (Canada) in North America: Spain focused on building cities and mining Spain focused on trapping furry animals Spain was unable to assimilate Native Americans All of the above ASIAN ECONOMIES: Mughal and Ottoman rulers both focused on acquiring what kind of products during the 18th century? luxuries high bulk commodities military hardware none of the above THE GREAT DIVERGENCE: What is the primary advantage industrial production has over artisan production? Higher quality Scale of output per hour of labor Market value All of the above SOVEREIGNTY: Which model of sovereignty was the ideal that early modern European monarchs aspired to? delegated sovereignty absolute monarchy consensual politics popular sovereignty PLANTATION COMPLEX: True or False: Profits from slave plantations directly funded capitalist textile mills in Europe. True False INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE: A system of agriculture in which farmers produce one type of crop for export is called: polycrop agriculture unicrop agriculture monocrop agriculture slash and burn agriculture ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: What role did British bankers play in the Atlantic Slave Trade? They produced agricultural products for export They financed loans for commercial voyages They were the brokers between African rulers and European merchants All of the above MILITARY EMPIRES: Which of the following is an example of monarchs taking power away from elite aristocrats in the Early Modern Era? The Ottoman Empire replaced janissary armies with sipahi cavalry The Qing dynasty introduced laws that allowed aristocrats to "enclose" public grazing lands as private property European monarchs began relying on centralized, professional militaries to fight their wars rather than lords and knights. None of the above SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: Which of the following is a major assumption of the Scientific Revolution Empiricism Ecumenicism Ecological Determinism All of the above EAST ASIAN BUDDHISM: Which Mongol ruler sponsored the introduction of Buddhism to Mongolia? Genghis Khan Altan Khan Babur Timurlane REFORMATIONS : The Zealots of Piety in Russia emphasized what goal of the reformation? Reinforce the power of the Catholic Church Promote translation of the Bible into vernacular languages Align religious practice with Christian scripture Spread the Christian gospel to the New World PANDEMIC: Why were European diseases so devastating to American populations? Native Americans had weaker immune systems Native Americans had not been exposed to diseases from herd animals Native Americans were already on the brink of starvation from famine All of the above SEVEN YEARS WAR: True or False: The Seven Years War was only fought in Europe and India, so Native Americans were not involved True False HISTORY: True or False: Archaeology and Linguistics can complement written documents to understand the past. True False TECHNOLOGY: Early Neolithic communities innovated which technology? Chariots Farming Steel Plows Industrial Production FEUDALISM: True or False: Feudalism was a widespread political system throughout the world in the postclassical era. True False HIERARCHY VS HETERARCHY: True or False: All civilizations have organized their politics in a heterarchy that distributed power among equally important organizations. True False ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHERS: Which Enlightenment philosopher argued that direct democracy was the best way to determine and protect the “general will”? Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau Quesnay CHINESE COLONIALISM: How did the colonization of Chinese merchants in Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean differ from European colonization in the 18th century? Chinese merchants did not seek political control in the places where they migrated Chinese merchants focused primarily on trade rather than capitalist production Chinese merchants usually acted independently of China’s imperial government All of the above POPULATION GROWTH: Why did the human population increase substantially in most parts of the world during the 18th century? random mutations of disease improved food variety A & B None of the above PLANTATION COMPLEX: Which of the following is characteristic of a slave society? A small minority of the society is enslaved slavery is one of many forms of labor in the society the elite members of society all aspire to be slaveholders none of the above ATLANTIC SLAVERY: Which of the following is a reason that Europeans didn't use enslaved Europeans in Atlantic slave plantations? They didn't want to enslave other Christians They believed Europeans were too smart to be enslaved European slaves were too expensive All of the above RELIGION IN MUGHAL INDIA: Sikhism in the Mughal Empire was inspired by competition between Hindus and Muslims sponsored by Aurengzeb the dominant state ideology none of the above SPANISH CONQUEST: Bartolome de Las Casas believed Native Americans should not be enslaved founded a silver mine in the Philippines introduced sugar production to the Caribbean was secretly an atheist EARLY ENCOUNTERS: True or False: Africans and Native Americans completely rejected European ways of life during the Colombian Exchange True False ECOLOGICAL EXCHANGE: Okra originally comes from Alabama Asia West Africa Europe EARLY MODERN POLITICS: True or False: Realpolitik is the European notion that rulers can violate morality to sustain the interests of their state. True False COLONIAL ECONOMIES: Which of the following best describes the economy of New Spain? they developed a monocrop system of agriculture that focused on rice they found enormous deposits of gold and silver and sent it back to Spain they became the center of trade for Spain by shipping products from North America to Europe and colonies in the Caribbean Sea they built sugar plantations that depended on the labor of enslaved Africans AXIAL AGE: Which two religions were NOT innovated during the Axial Age? Islam and Sikhism Hinduism and Buddhism Christianity and Islam Judaism and Christianity SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: Francis Bacon is most commonly associated with which time of scientific method of inquiry: Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Alchemy Biology RELIGIOUS PRACTICES: Mixing religious traditions is called: Orthodoxy Predestination Transubstantiation Syncretism EARLY MODERN SOVEREIGNTY: True or False: The overall trend during the Christian Reformation was for Christian churches to increase their authority over kings and other rulers. True False ATLANTIC SLAVERY: Which of the following cash crops was likely introduced to the American plantation complex by enslaved Africans? Sugar Tobacco Rice Indigo OCEANIC EMPIRES: Why didn't the landed empires of Asia develop overseas colonies in the 18th century? They did not know how to build ships. Conquering territory to gain wealth was still very effective. They had not excess population to settle new lands All of the above NATIVE AMERICAN EMPIRES: What did the Sioux Indians adopt from Europeans to control most of the North American plains? steel plows flint the alphabet horses FRENCH REVOLUTION: King Louis XVI called together the Estates General in order to find a solution for: English aggression clerical abuse of parishioners peasant riots the state's bankruptcy RENAISSANCE: Renaissance scholars were inspired by: Recapturing the knowledge of Axial Age philosophers Progressing beyond the knowledge of Axial Age Philosophers The beauty of nature None of the above SPANISH EMPIRE: The Spanish island of the Philippines was most valued for its: sugar crop silver mines fabulous beaches consumers of Spanish goods Timeline: Era of Human Origins (250,000 – 40000 BCE) Paleolithic Age (40000 – 8000 BCE) Neolithic Age (8000 – 3000 BCE) Bronze Age (3000 – 1000 BCE) Axial Age (1000 BCE – 400 CE) Early PostClassical Era (400 – 1000 CE) Late PostClassical Era (1000 – 1500 CE) Early Modern Era (15001750 CE) 18 Century
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