COM 202 Week 2 study questions
COM 202 Week 2 study questions COM 202A
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 202A at University of Washington taught by Malcolm Parks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications II in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Communication 202 Spring 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS: WEEKS 1-2 KEY TERMS: Source- The sender of a certain Decoding- interpreting and assigning message who encodes the message. meaning to the messages. Meanings are EX: Writer, TV producer, Advertising in people not in messages company Selective exposure- the types of Message- What the source encodes to information and sources for information the receiver. you seek rather than others EX: Advertisement, public service EX: types of TV shows, music, people announcement, conversation with your friend- what you want to tell them (can Selective attention- what we choose to be intentional or unintentional) think about deeper- can’t give equal attention to every bit of information- Channel- the medium through which Things that guide our attention: the message gets sent and influence 1. Potential threat or danger how the message is interpreted. 2. Comforting familiar things EX: TV, radio, internet, app on mobile 3. Vividness and novelty phone, speaking Selective perception- organize stimuli Receiver- person or group that gets the into patterns and interpret them by message and decodes it into meaning. relating them to past experiences and EX: Audience, person you are talking to expectations Feedback- a message the receiver Selective memory- we forget most of creates in response to the sender’s what we say and do and memory is message- source and receiver become constantly reconstructed interdependent and each behavior depends on others. Transactive memory- social memory, EX: response to someone’s comment how we use other people to remember things for us Noise- Distractions and things that EX: asking a friend to remind you to do interfere with the message reaching your laundry the receiver EX: radio static, loud conversations Transactive encoding- asking others to next to you, feeling of hunger remember something for you- other distracting you from lecture people become external storage Encoding- translating and/or Transactive retrieval- thinking about expressing inner thoughts and feelings who in a group is the most likely to into observable behavior or words- not have remembered something you forgot automatic and inner thoughts are often imperfectly expressed Co-constructed memory- when a group of friends have a shared experience, each pieces together what happened Communication 202 Spring 2016 and different version of the story converge Temporal & spatial displacement- not in the here and now that creates social Contested memory- when these people coordination, group cohesion, and in the group don’t agree on what deception. happened EX: recalling the past and planning the EX: Coach Owens future System 1- largely automatic and fast Symbol- it represents something else level of information processing that has that it does not resemble helped us to respond quickly- fast EX: the word bottle represents a bottle math, assumptions, stereotypes but it does not look like a bottle System 2- slower, more effortful, Referent- what we refer to when we deliberate processing when we really think or say something think about something and can over- EX: A girl sees a fluffy white puppy and ride errors of system 1- not automatic says “dog.” A boy hears the word “dog” and thinks of the Husky mascot. The Baseline information- simple girl’s referent is the fluffy white puppy, information we often ignore in quick the boy’s referent is the husky mascot. evaluations EX: the number of farmers in the world Semiosis- when we pair a symbol with is higher than librarians an inner idea we want that symbol to EX: only a bank teller is more common refer to because adding a second criteria EX: calling a fluffy white puppy “dog” narrows the pool Sapir-Whorf hypothesis – The language Semantic differential scales- a scale we use determines our perception from good to bad, weak to strong, or EX: the eskimos have 100 words for passive to active something rates from snow and we aren’t able to perceive 1-7 – how you assign things and people the differences in snow. If we don’t and make judgements have the word for it, we can’t perceive it Language- A collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary Linguistic determinism- Language meanings that are governed by rules determines the way you think and and used to communicate perceive EX: Words, drawings, carvings, gestures FOXP2 gene- a brain gene associated Denotative meaning- The most used, with language, was thought to mutate most agreed upon meaning for a word 50,000 years ago EX: dictionary definitions Regionalisms- different ways to say the Connotative meaning- personalized same word or communicate the same meanings for a word, a meaning that idea reflects an identity and/or experience. EX: soda, pop, dope, coke, pepsi The receiver’s connotative meaning will be different than the sender’s Dialect- a form of a language that EX: sex- we all have meanings beyond shares much with the standard the dictionary definition language but differs in ways more than Communication 202 Spring 2016 accent or a few words but in grammar Slang- informal language used by too EX: Appalachian English people who belong to the same group or share and interest Technical jargon- specialized language to facilitate discussion on technical Specialized relational talk- similar to issues- makes communication more jargon but about relationships precise and enhances group cohesion EX: nick names, insults, words and EX: legal, professional, business, sports phrases, inside jokes Lecture 1: 1. According to the opening lecture, what is main thing that the study of communication about? - How we influence each other. No influence, no communication - We influence each other in many ways but words matter the most 2. According to the lecture on models of communication, where can we find meanings? - Meanings are in people and not in messages. - Messages are how we get to meanings but the receiver has to decode and interpret a meaning 3. According to Dr. Parks, what is the most important communication skill? - Anticipating how others are likely to interpret what you say and do and how others might respond to your message 4. Do sources always have to intend to communicate in order for communication to occur? - No, sources can send messages without knowing it – when silence says something to a receiver. The messages can also be decoded in a Communication 202 Spring 2016 different way than the source intended and often are EX: someone wears something that they don’t know is distracting their message 5. In the opening class, Dr. Parks pointed out that many children born into poverty experienced a “communication disadvantage.” What was it? - Kids in poverty have less opportunities to talk and develop communication skills than those in wealthier families- parents don’t model and talk and practice communication enough with their children 6. According to the first lecture, what kinds of talk are especially important for helping very young children develop language and social skills? - Modeling interaction before the child begins to speak - once the child talks, waiting for and responding to what the child says- engaging with and responding is key 7. According to the first lecture, what are the effects of expressing affection (kissing) more often? - More satisfied in relationships, less stress, lowered levels of cholesterol Lecture 2: 1. Perception involves a number of highly selective activities. Are we usually aware of these processes as they are occurring? - Not unless we stop to think about them 2. What is the reinforcement principle? How does it affect the way we process messages? - We seek information that agrees with our current views and avoid information that disagrees with them EX: if you dislike opera, you are Communication 202 Spring 2016 likely to make decisions leading away from further discovery in the genre - This affects our selective attentions, exposure, perception and memory by making those things we select more familiar and easy for us to pay attention to, expose ourselves to, perceive, and remember 3. What are three principles guiding what we pay attention to? - Potential danger or threat- physical or social - Things that are comforting and familiar- instant gratification - Vividness and novelty, out of the ordinary 4. Be able to distinguish between selective exposure, selective attention, selective perception, and selective memory. - Selective exposure (what you seek) You choose some types of information and sources for information rather than others EX: Types of TV shows - Types of music- Types of people you avoid and seek- places you avoid and seek - Selective attention (what you dwell on) A 2009 study by Roger Bohn and James Short at the University of California in San Diego The average American consumes about 34 Gigs or about 100,500 words per day from media alone Leaves out conversations with other people and face-to-face interactions- lectures - Selective perception (organizing and interpreting perceptions) Once you orient to something, you next have to make sense of it and we do that through selective perception by: 1. Organizing the stimuli into patterns Communication 202 Spring 2016 2. Interpreting them by relating them to past experiences and expectations All perception is influenced by the context Examples of selective perception Poor sales of early bread making machines that got better after a more expensive model was introduced The more expensive model made the other models seem not as expensive and sales shot up Restaurants do the same things with menu items Putting high priced items on the menu to provide a context for other items - Selective memory We forget most of what we say and do, what happens We do a better job at remembering things that reinforce our previous perceptions that were particularly striking EX: something really mean someone said Memory is not fixed- It is like a book being revised by each new experience The memory of today will change over time Especially with social relations- like a book re-written with each new experience EX: Breakup- After time and a new relationship, you re-evaluate past perceptions of that person Police do about 75000 eye witness identifications every year- New York Times 2011 But eyewitnesses are often wrong a. About 1/3 are incorrect Communication 202 Spring 2016 b. In one study of 40 cases in which convictions were overturned by later DNA evidence, 90% of involved mistaken eyewitness identification 5. How much information does the average American consume from media each day? - 34 Gigs or 100,500 words per day from media alone 6. Once we put something into memory, does it ever change? - Yes, memory is never constant and always being reconstructed to tell a better story 7. What do errors in eyewitness identification of crimes tell us about how accurate our memories are? How often are eyewitnesses wrong? - Our memories are often not very accurate even if we are fairly certain - Eye witnesses are about 1/3 incorrect 8. How does the fact that so much information is available via computer change the way we go about remembering things? - We are often less likely to remember something if we are told or if we think it can be found online - We put things in computer and phone planners and rely on them to remind us of appointments - Taking notes on a computer is not as effective in remembering material as writing them by hand 9. What would Plato say about our use of books and computers to remember things for us? - Plato would be outraged! He thinks that even writing things down and placing internal memory onto an external source diminishes our ability and strength in remembering Communication 202 Spring 2016 Lecture 3: 1. What are positive steps you can take to overcome the biases of your tendency to think with “System 1”? - You can use mental reminders - Think about baseline information - Slow down and do the math - Think about the exceptions to your stereotypes 2. When you are trying to persuade others, what is the key question you should ask to determine if they are going to be responding with “System 1” or “System 2”? - Is my listener motivated to process my message in depth? 3. What should you do to be effective when trying to persuade people who are likely to respond with “System 1”? How about “System 2”? - If the listener is NOT motivated to process your message in depth, they are using system 1. You can: Portray yourself as an expert Focus on being attractive Phrase your message in terms of stereotypes and mental shortcuts Appeal to listener's emotions Make it easy for other's to respond the way you wish EX: Magazine renewal form "3 years (18 issues) $36.00- Best Deal!" Takes advantage of system 1 Bold letters, top of the list - If the listener IS motivated to process your message in depth, they are using system 2. You can: Communication 202 Spring 2016 Help the listener by eliminating disractions Prompt listener to bring in prior knowledge Use logical arguments supported by evidence This is used in public speaking and debate- classic persuasion 4. In class, we explored our meanings for words such as “love” and “football.” What were the four ideas illustrated by these examples? - Each word, each perception instantaneously triggers a set of associations in the brain (system 1) It happens rapidly We have little conscious control over it - These associations don’t reveal inner secrets, but they do show the other words and ideas that are most easily available to you once you think of the first word or idea - No two people will have exactly the same set of associations (though there may be some overlaps) Overlaps are more common when people have closer longer relationships Overlaps are common among people who share the same culture and same pattern of media consumption - The associations you have for a particular word or idea are part of your meaning for it 5. No two people will have exactly the same meanings for a word, but some pairs have more meanings in common than others. What makes these “overlaps” more common? - Overlaps are more common when people have closer longer relationships with each other - Overlaps are more common among people who share the same culture and media consumption Communication 202 Spring 2016 6. What are the three basic dimensions of affective meaning? - Whenever you encounter a word, person, or object you assign meaning along three dimensions: Evaluative: good ←→ bad Potency: strong ←→ weak Activity: active ←→ passive 7. What kinds of product names are most memorable for people? - Sounds that require the speaker to open the mouth wider ex: Omega - Names that have a “plosive” sound ex: Prozac, puma, fiesta - Bestselling trucks: Ford F-Series, Dodge Ram, Toyota Tacoma 8. How do advertisers and others take advantage of our positive and negative associations to persuade us? - They use positive associations to distract customers from facts that would make the product look bad if they thought about it - EX: Coke introduces "handheld" new size of coke in 2011 - Aimed at convenience store market - Claims they were sensitive to hard economic times - If you think about it, the name doesn’t make sense - Consider price: 12.5 oz for 89 cents when 16 oz goes for 99 cents - New 12.5 oz bottle is 7.1 cents per oz but the 16 oz bottle is 6.2 cents per oz. that's a 15% price increase Lecture 4: 1. What are the essential characteristics of language? - Language is symbolic- it refers to or represents something else that it does not resemble Communication 202 Spring 2016 Ex: the word bottle doesn't look like a bottle- words are symbols that stand for something else - Humans share a universal grammar that enables language acquisition among the very young- babies come hardwired to learn language Still helps language grow if it is encouraged, modeled, and practiced - Language allows the generation of an infinite variety of messages within a rule-governed system (grammar)- no limit to correct sentences - Language lets us communication about things not in the here and now: (temporal and spatial displacement) This creates: a. Social coordination- ability to work together in complex ways b. Group cohesion- feel a part of a group c. Deception- its not a language if you cant use it to tell a lie - create false reality Ex: recalling the past, planning the future - Language works in conjunction with nonverbal codes to facilitate multi-faceted, even self-contradictory messages a. Irony b. Strategic ambiguity/ equivocation c. Conflicted messages 2. Be able to define and recognize examples of these four levels of language: phonetic, semantic, syntactic, pragmatic - Phonetic- the sounds of language- every language has a distinct set of sounds - Semantic- words and word meanings - Pairing two things: inner meanings and arbitrary symbols - We pair a symbol with some inner idea we want it to refer to - EX: For her "dog" is the symbol and that actual fuzzy white puppy- the referent- the thing she refers to- puppy - For him, he may think of "dog" as "dawg" and think of the husky mascot- the referent- the thing he refers to - husky - Syntactic a. Grammar: set of rules and patterns for forming words into larger thought units like phrases and sentences Learning to diagram sentence structures will make you a better writer and thinker b. Word order matters "I am going tomorrow" vs "Am I going tomorrow?" Same words different order and different meaning Communication 202 Spring 2016 - Pragmatic- refers to the way our use of language is affected by the social situation we are in - Grammar is about more than the order of words - It is more about the relationships among speaker, listener, objects, and actions- Grammar connects them all 3. Approximately how long ago did humans acquire language? - 50,000 years 4. What are two factors that may have helped humans to develop language? - Growing social and cultural complexity of interactions, relationships, and growing societies - FOXP2 gene associated with language centers in the brain started to mutate 5. What are three major functions of language? - A tool for influencing others - A tool for social bonding - Shapes the way we think and remember through words 6. Language allows us to communicate about events and things outside of the “here and now.” This helps create three very important things. What are they? - Social coordination- the ability to work together in complex ways like building a bridge - Group cohesion- feeling of belonging in a group - Deception- telling lies, creating false realities 7. What are two specific functions that jargon and technical language serve? Communication 202 Spring 2016 - Makes communication more precise - Enhances group cohesion- sense of belonging to a group when you use the same jargon 8. What are the major factors that cause languages to change over time? (Hint: migration is one, what are the others?) - Migration, isolation, invasion, colonization, travel, communication- as the world becomes more inter-connected, language becomes more shared 9. According to lecture which of the world’s language families has the most speakers? What single language is spoken by the most people? - The Indo-European family has the most speakers with 3 billion - but Mandarin Chinese is the single language with the most speakers at 1.2 billion 10.What is the difference between a dialect and a language? What role does power play in distinguishing the two? - What’s the difference Not just having different words or pronunciation No clear line between dialect and language Calling something a dialect is about politics and culture as much as language - "He been done work" vs "he finished work earlier" - People who view "Black English" as poor English make a political judgement Comes down to power Linguist Max Weinreich (1945) "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy" Language ↓ Family Communication 202 Spring 2016 ↓ Dialect 11.What level of language changes to fastest? Slowest? - Dialect changes the quickest based on region and groups of people, then families and then the language itself. EX: French and Italian eventually deviated enough from Latin to become their own languages 12.How many languages are spoken in the world and what proportion of them are in danger of going extinct? - Between 6,000 and 7,000 languages are spoken and many of them are in danger of going extinct
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