Exam 1 Study Guide
Popular in Basic Human Anatomy
Popular in Anatomy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANAT-A215 at a university taught by Steve Dougherty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 320 views.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Anatomy Lecture Exam I Study Guide IMPORTANT Everything in the lecture notes is fair game for the exam However this study guide outlines all of the main topics along with their subtopics INTRODUCTION LECTURE Body Organization 0 Chemical cellular tissue organ organ system and organismal levels 0 Planes of Reference and Descriptive Terminology o Anatomical position 0 Planes of reference Sagittal plane Midsagittal Coronal frontal Transverse horiszontal o Directional terms irection Term elative to front Anterior belly side or ack back side Posterior f the body Dorsal Ventral elative to the Superior lead or tail of the Inferior Ody Caudal Cranial Rostral elative to the Medial nidline or center Lateral f the body Medial 1ra2ble Anatomic Directional Terms Meaning In front of toward the front surface In back of toward the back surface At the back side of the human body At the belly side of the human body Closer to the head Closer to the feet At the rear or tail end At the head end Toward the nose Toward the midline of the body Away from the midline of the body Example The stomach is anterior to the spinal cord The heart is posterior to the sternum The spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the body The umbilicus navel belly button is on the ventral side of the body The chest is superior to the pelvis The stomach is inferior to the heart The abdomen is caudal to the head The head is cranial to the trunk The frontal lobe is rostral to the occipital lobe The lungs are medial to the shoulders The arms are lateral to the heart elative to point f attachment of he appendage Ipsilateral Contralater al Deep internal Superficial external Proximal Distal On the same side On the opposite side On the inside underneath another structure On the outside Closest to point of attachment to trunk Furthest from point of attachment to trunk Body Regions 0 Cephalic Region head OOOOOOO Facial region The right arm is ipsilateral to the right leg The right arm is contralateral to the left leg Muscles are deep to the skin The external edge of the kidney is super cial to its internal structure The elbow is proximal to the hand The wrist is distal to the elbow o Orbital nasal Buccal oral mental Cranial Region Neck or Cervical Region Pectoral Regions Mammary Regions Sternal Regions Axillary Regions Abdominopelvic Region Abdominal region Pelvic region 0 Upper extremity Deltoid region Brachial region Cubital Antebrachial Carpal Hand Palmar Dorsum 0 Lower extremity Femoral region Knee Patellar region Popliteal region Crural region I Tarsal region I FootpedaD Plantar Dorsum 0 Body Cavities o Dorsal I Cranial Cavity I Vertebral spinal cavity 0 Thoracic Cavity chest I Pleural cavities I Mediastinum Pericardial cavity 0 Abdominopelvic Cavity I Abdominal I Pelvic THE CELL LECTURE Plasma membrane 0 Structure 0 Function I Two types of transport I Three types of endocytosis o Specializations of plasma membrane I Microvilli cilia agellum Cytoplasmic Organelles o Mitochondria o Ribosomes o Endoplasmic reticulum I Smooth and rough o Golgi apparatus 0 Lysosomes o Centrioles Nucleus 0 Nuclear envelope 0 Nucleolus o Chromatin 0 Composition 0 Replication of DNA process CELL DIVISION LECTURE Cell Cycle 0 Two groups of cells I Somatic and sex 0 Two phases of cell cycle I Interphase Three different phases I Mitosis Mitosis o Prophase I Know the steps 0 Metaphase I Know the step 0 Anaphase I Know the steps 0 Telophase I Know the steps 0 Definition of cytokinesis Meiosis 0 Know definition of meiosis 0 Difference between mitosis and meiosis o Meiosis I I Know the steps and what is produced 0 Meiosis II I Know the steps and what is produced TISSUES I LECTURE Fourkinds oftissues Epithelia 0 Characteristics 0 Classification by layers I Simple I Stratified 0 Classification by cell shape I Squamous I Cuboidal I Columnar Types of simple epithelia 0 Simple squamous epithelium I Location I Function 0 Simple cuboidal epithelium I Location I Function 0 Simple columnar epithelium I Location I Function 0 Pseudostratified columnar epithelium I Location I Function Types of Stratified Epithelia o Stratified squamous epithelium I Keratinized Location Function I Nonkeratinized Location Function 0 Transitional Epithelium I Location I Function Glandular Epithelia o What is glandular epithelium o Exocrine Glands I Unicellular Location Function I Multicellular Merocrine glands 0 Example Apocrine glands 0 Example Holocrine glands 0 Example TISSUES II LECTURE Characteristics of connective tissues 0 Consists of I Cells I Matrix 0 Fibers Ground substance I Vascularity Classification of CT 0 Loose CT I Areolar CT Location Function I Adipose Location Function 0 Dense CT I Dense irregular CT Location Function I Dense regular CT Location Function Cartilage o Hyaline Cartilage I Location I Function 0 Fibrocartilage I Location I Function 0 Elastic Cartilage I Location I Function 0 Bone o 3kinds ofcellsinbone I Osteoblasts I Osteocytes I Osteoclasts o Zkinds ofbone tissue I Compact dense I Spongy cancellous Hemopoietic red bone marrow tissue found within spaces Makes blood Vascular Tissue Blood 0 Contains 0 Function Muscle Tissue 0 Classification I Smooth Visceral I Cardiac I Skeletal Nervous Tissue 0 Classification I Neurons I Supporting cells IN TE G UMEN TAR Y SYSTEM LECTURE Layers of integument o Epidermis o Dermis o Subcutaneous layer hypodermis Layers of epidermis o Stratum basale o Stratum Spinosum o Stratum Granulosum o Stratum Lucidum o Stratum Corneum Cells of epidermis o Keratinocytes o Melanocytes o Tactile Merkel Cells 0 Epidermal dendritic Langerhans cells Layers of Dermis o Papillary layer 0 Reticular layer Epidermis Derivatives 0 Hair I Function I 3parts o Nails I Function 0 Exocrine glands I Sebaceous Function I Sweat sudoriferous glands Eccrine 0 Location 0 Function Apocrine 0 Location 0 Function Ceruminous 0 Location 0 Function BONE I LECTURE Number of bones in adult skelton Subdivisions of skeleton 0 Axial and appendicular Gross anatomy of bones 0 Bone shapes I Long I Short I Flat Gross anatomy of long bone 0 Diaphysis Medullary cavity Epiphysis Articular cartilage Epiphyseal plate 0 Periosteum OOO Bone histology o 3 kinds of cells I Osteoblasts osteocytes osteoclasts 0 Compact bone I Osteons I Lamellae I Osteocytes I Lacunae I Canaliculi I Perforating canals I Interstitial lamellae I Circumferential lamellae BONE II LECTURE Definition of ossification Intramembranous ossification Endochondral ossification 0 Know the steps Definition of appositional bone growth Bone fractures 0 00000 0 Simple Compound Comminuted Compression Depressed Impacted Spiral Greenstick Fracture repair 0 Know the 4 steps AR TIC ULA TIONS LECTURE Classification of joints 0 Structure I Fibrous joints I Cartilaginous joints I Synovial joints 0 Movement I Synarthroses I Amphiarthroses I Biarthroses Fibrous joints 0 O Suture I Example Syndesmosis Example 0 Gomphosis Example Cartilaginous Joints 0 Symphysis Example 0 Synchondrosis Example Synovialloints o Generalized structure 0 Movements at synovial joints Flexion Dorsi exion Plantar exion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation Supination Pronation Circumduction Inversion Eversion Kinds of Synovial joints 0 Hinge o Pivot Example Example 0 Gliding Plane Example 0 Condyloid o Saddle Example Example 0 Ball and Socket Example
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