HD FS 129 - Final Exam Study Guide
HD FS 129 - Final Exam Study Guide HDFS129
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan K on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS129 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Countermine in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see HD FS 129 Final Exam Study Guide in Human Development at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
HD FS 129 Exam 4 Study Guide Unit 4 Lecture Material Gottman s research on marriage and divorce 0 Marital interaction assessment a videotape 15 minute discussion by husband and wife 0 Speci c affect coding system facial expression voice tone and body language 0 Positive affect humor affection validation joy 0 Negative affect disgust contempt criticism belligerence domineering Steps to Fair Fighting Dr Corneal s lecture on Late Adulthood and Death amp Dying quotHappy Elquot Documentary 0 Happiness can help you reach more goals have better relationships make more money do better on the job 0 People will like you more if you are happy 0 in 1981 happiness research was very unpopulareven thought they studied depression 0 in 903 people began to be more interested in it and now so many people are positive psych studies happiness Pie chart of happiness 0 50 based on genetics return to our set point 0 10 based on circumstances job money social status health where you live 0 40 is intentional activitybehavior actions we choose to do to become happier adapt to what you are doing and vary your activities Textbook Phases a person experiences when facing imminent death Cumulative Material Erikson s Stage Theory of Psychosocial Development 0 Trust Vs Mistrust birth 18 months 0 infants learn to trust that needs will be met or they learn to distrust am I being taken care of 0 parents should act consistently and sensitively towards children 0 let baby cry so they can learn to self sooth 0 2 Autonomy vs shame and doubt 18 months 3 years 0 let kids try and feed themselves even if it is messy tell them good job for trying to foster autonomy 0 kids learn to exercise their will to control themselves and to develop a sense of autonomy or they learn to feel shame and doubt about themselves potty trained 0 3 Initiative vs guilt 45 0 how much can kids do by themselves let kids fail wo guilt 0 kids need to fail in order to learn 0 kids learn to play with others or they will feel guilty 0 4 Industry vs inferiority 610 0 tell kids you worked really hard so they keep trying 0 telling them you39re so smart makes them not want to try new things 0 kids develop skills in various areas or feel inferior and insecure about achievements 0 5 Identity vs identity confusing 1122 0 who am I and who do I want to be 0 learn to see themselves as unique or feel confused as what their purpose and role in life is 0 identity crisis do you believe what parents believe 0 6 Intimacy vs isolation 2235 0 relationships with friends family partners 0 form close bonds and interpersonal relationships or learn to feel isolated and alone and avoid close contact with others 0 7 Generativity vs self absorption middle adulthood 0 what will I leave behind when I m gone 0 is not about generativity o feel generative with family volunteer work high positions in job teachers health care professions o productive members of society or selfcentered and inactive 0 8 Integrity vs despair late adulthood old age 0 did I live a life that I m proud of 0 re ect on life in a positive or negative way 0 9 Hope and faith vs Despair old age 0 looking back on life and being ready to die 0 opposite of bitter and angry Attachment across the lifespan o What is attachment 0 The strong emotional bond that children form with their caregivers It is an intense emotional relationship that emerges over time 0 Who is the originator of the attachment theory 0 John Bowlby 4 Phases of attachment 0 phase 1 birth 2 months 0 infants instinctually attach to any adult parents siblings grandparents 0 bond to anyone see throughout adoptive children 0 Infants instinctually attach to any adult whether it be parents siblings or grandparents 2 Phase 2 36 months 0 infants begin to direct attachment to primary caregivers o maternity leave 3 months off work 0 3 Phase 3 7 24 months 0 key stage 0 speci cally seek contact with their caregivers such as mom and dad o moms are preferred primary caregiver 0 4 Phase 4 24 months on 0 children become comfortable with receiving care from familiar others besides mom and dad Attachment categories 0 4 categories securely attached 60 use mom as secure base distress when mom leaves and stop exploration seek contact during reunion 2 insecurely attached avoid ant 20 rarely cry during separation avoid mom at reunion dislike physical contact mom isn t sensitive doesn t match emotions and avoid baby 3 insecurely attached ambivalent quotmixed behaviors 10 intensely distressed by separation during reunion are ambivalent sought contact but pushed mom away don t trust them Also called quotResistantquot 4 insecurely attached disorganized show confusion quotfreezequot behavior in new situations severe neglect and abuse helicopter parents hover over kids Show confusion as main response to conditions Coparenting Jon s Lecture 0 De nition the way parents or parental gures share leadership by negotiating their perspective roles as heads of the family 0 Support 0000 Key component affirmation of other s competency as a parent good job today acknowledging and respecting others contributions upholding others parenting decisions and authority mom says no so dad says no also 0 authoritative parenting 0 Undermining o criticism 0 blame 0 competition to gain authority over other parent or gain more affection from the child than the other 0 Division of household labor o division of duties tasks responsibilities pertaining to childcare o moms report that unequal distribution of household chores is single most important trigger of con ict 0 not 5050 equal means agree on responsibilities Child rearing beliefs 0 moral values 0 behavioral expectations and discipline Measuring coparenting 3 ways 0 lab tasksplay tasks watch parents and kid and watch how they co parent 0 naturalistic observation siesta video observation watch how parents get kids ready for bed 0 questionnaires coparenting rating scale CRS Bene ts of breastfeeding 35 breast fed hardwired to nurse size doesn39t matter great for immune system loaded with antibodies continuous vs scheduled feedings infants are fed once every 3045 minutes smarter babies wean 36 months Child s adjustment following divorce Judith Wallerstein Preschool 0 fear of abandonment separation anxiety 0 confusion about visitation o difficulty in comforting self 58 year olds o preoccupation with feelings of rejection guilt loss 0 fear of being replaced remarry and have new baby 0 males have intense longing for dad 912 year olds o intense anger o psychosomatic symptoms stomach aches rashes headaches Adolescence o worry about own relationships 0 because they understand complexity they have difficulty sorting through issues Emerging adulthood o sleeper effect 0 anxiety about own successful involvement in romantic relationships 0 Females preoccupied with betrayal untrustworthy of a trustworthy person 0 males avoid relationships or are reserved in relationships Understanding correlations 0 correlation goal is to describe the strength and direction of relationship between 2 variables correlation coefficient that ranges from 1 to 1 if you are alive you are going to die strength the size of correlation 02weak 04moderate 09strong direction sign of correlation positive or negative positive as one variable increases the other increase variables are going the same direction 0 negative as one variable increases the other decreases variable are going in opposite directions Types of research designs 0 development designs 0 interested in the relationship between the age of subjects and another variable 0 cross sectional design 0 individual of different ages are compared on a particular variable at one point in time demonstrates age differences do people of different ages use technology differently advantage save time and money disadvantage cohort effect results may be due to subjects membership in a particular generation 0 longitudinal design 0 the best research 0 the same individuals are studies over an extended period of time usually years 0 advantages demonstrate age changes and truly studying developmental change 0 disadvantages time consuming risk of losing participants only studying on cohort expensive OOOO Levison s Developmental Tasks of Adulthood 0 Youngold o Finding positive meaning in being older originally studied men then brought in women Between ages 3040 easy to obtain a healthy image Between ages 4050 start to deal with physical problems 0 Destructioncreation o Becoming more aware of how we have acted in a harmful way toward others and trying to correct is Creation in the sense of how we can help other people How have we hurt other people How can I help the world 0 Masculinityfemininity o becoming more androgynous having characteristics of both sexes men become more nurturing women become more assertive especially at work mostly because they can focus on their careers now that their children are away Engagementseparation o resolving issues of work and family men of middle age start to pull back from their careers and little bit more Women have a much more challenging time balancing work and chores Identity formation 0 Erikson 0 identity a persistent sameness within one s self and a sharing of one s essential character with others 0 crisis a period of role experimentation and active exploration of possibilities or alternative if you want to be different than parents commitment making a choice among alternatives changing political views 0 Active experimentation 0 hard in high school when you are living with parents 0 easier in college because you live alone 0 have more time in college to active experiment 0 Identity achievement 0 commitment made and crises experienced experienced o authoritative parents high on trust and high on control set age appropriate rules 0 Foreclosure o commitment made and no crisis experienced o Authoritarian parents high on control but not love dictatorship 0 Moratorium 0 have to go through this to get to achieved 0 no commitment made and experiencing crisis Diffusion o no commitment made and no crisis experienced o permissive parents high on warmth and love on discipline kids want to be cared aboutmost abuse drugs and alcohol Temperament 0 temperament an innate style of responding to the environment 0 Aspects of temperament 0 activity level does child have high or low ratio of active periods to inactive ones 0 Does not mean sleeping 0 ex when baby is awake do they want to hang out or do they move their arms and legs a lot 0 2 rhythmicity does child have regular body functions such as sleep and hunger 0 ex does baby eat and sleep at same time o quotHow predictable is the babyquot 0 3distractibility does some stimulation from environment easily create change in kids behavior 0 ex when baby easily gets distracted by little noises o quotHow distracted is the babyquot 4 Approach withdrawl does child move towards new person or object or does heshe hesitate 0 ex does baby grab new toy or cry when they are introduced to the new toy o quotIf I were to put something new in front of the baby does it intensely stare at it look away reach for it or try to bat it awayquot 5 adaptability does child handle changes in routine and environment with ease or difficulty 0 ex when parents need to change schedule because of work 0 quotIf the schedule gets changed is the baby easygoing about it or difficult about itquot 6 attention span and persistence does child play with a particular toy for a long period of time or short period of time o quotHow long does a baby focus on something or a speci c task Does he get bored with a task quickly or can he entertain himself for a long timequot 7 intensity of reaction does child have a high or low energy level when exhibiting emotions like crying or laughing 0 quotDo they have an extreme reaction Do they laugh hysterically at a joke or say 39that39s hysterical39quot 8 threshold of responsiveness does child require a great deal of stimulation in order to respond 0 ex sleep through anything or wake up easily 0 quotCan they sleep through a thunderstorm or do they wake up just from the door openingquot 9 quality of mood is child generally happy irritable or calm Categories of temperament shaped by parenting and environment 0 easy 40 not upset by novelty regular in eating sleeping elimination usually cheerful 0 slow to warm up 15 slow to accept novelty lower activity levels adjust slowly to new experiences 0 difficult 10 irritable hard to soothe irregular eating sleeping and elimination 0 not classi ed 35 a mixture of temperamental responses Cannot be classi ed temperament is modi able except for extremes 0 ex easy baby will adapt to divorce and really hard baby will have a difficult time adapting Goodness of t parents need to be different parents for their kids with different temperaments It is the parents responsibility to change and meet child on their level It is possible that goodness of t can change temperament 0 Creating childrearing environments that recognize each child39s temperament and encourage adaptive functioning It39s the parents responsibility to change in order to meet the child39s needs Research on couples deciding to have children 0 in 1950s 60s 70s the consistent top 2 reasons for choosing to marry were having kids and creating stability 0 percent of americans who consider children as very important to a successful marriage has dropped from 65 in 1990s to 40 in 2011 0 advantages of parenthood 0 giving and receiving warmth and affection 0 being accepted as responsible and mature members of the community 0 having someone to care for you when you are old 0 learning to be less sel sh and sacri ce Disadvantages of parenthood 0 loss of freedom being tied down 0 nancial strain 0 hard to balance family and work 0 loss of privacy and less time to spend with husbandwife Romantic and sexual relationships in adolescence Rose s Lecture romantic relationship mutually acknowledged ongoing interaction affection and current or anticipated sexual behavior 0 Dating begins 0 25 by age 12 o 50 by age 15 0 6875 by age 18 0 rst crush can happen in preschool Dating in adolescence 0 positive selfesteem and social competence 0 negative depression and con ictmood swings 0 good vs bad relationships 0 good kissing communication low aggression know when its over 0 bad lack of affection aggression Hookingup 0 taking over college campuses 0 but majority of sex during college occurs in romantic relationships 0 hooking up can be bad depending on gender attitudes about casual hooking up alcohol use 0 Sex and emotional health people who have sex early feel worse about rst time girls feel worse than boys not liking the person is top reason for feeling guilty about rst time girls cite physical pain and boys cite not feeling satis ed satisfaction with rst intercourse predicts satisfaction with later sexual encounters o condom use during rst intercourse predicts subsequent condom use 0 Tips for a good rst time o wait OOOOO like the personbetter yet love them don t get drunk use a condom sensual triad communication relaxation lubrication OOOO Empathy empathy recognize accepting and responding to emotions in others 0 reading nonverbal cues brings success popularity and friendships what you do about it is compassion sympathy feeling sorry for someone else selfawareness recognize accepting and expressing your own emotions Recognizing accepting and responding to another39s emotionsThe key to empathy is reading nonverbal cues amp communication It ain39t what you say it39s how you say it o What does empathy come from Being empathized with it is fostered and supported by the environment 0000 0 Personality Traits Stability vs Change Stability adult personality is stable over time change adult personality is a continual process of changing and growth Openness imaginative or practical conscientiousness organized or disorganized careful or careless disciplined or impulsive extraversion sociable or shy agreeableness softhearted or ruthless helpful and cooperative neuroticism calm and anxious 52 stayed the same 39 changed a little 9 changed a lot a person who scores high or low on a particular trait is likely to retain that standing throughout adulthood overall 91 felt personality was relatively stable agreeableness and conscientiousness increase in middle age neuroticism declines extraversion and openness either don t change or decrease slightly Know difference between integrity and hope faith integrity is being happy about life u live and hope is about being ready to die integrity 0 life has been meaningful and held purpose and life has been satisfying 0 age successfully be exible quotrole with the punches Hope and faith 0 to transcend life s circumstances o nding an inner peace 0 being able to let go o acceptance of death death in inevitable Romantic relationships majority of college relationships are romantic relationships romantic relationship mutually acknowledged ongoing interaction affection and current or anticipated sexual behavior Hookingup 0 taking over college campuses 0 but majority of sex during college occurs in romantic relationships 0 hooking up can be bad depending on gender attitudes about casual hooking up alcohol use Know 3 stages of imminent death Just the order of them Be at the same eye level eliminate distractions be aware of energy level of the person with regard to visiting follow the person s lead in accepting their death encourage expression of feelings empathy don t be afraid to ask person about their prognosis ask person if there is anyone they would like to contact encourage dying person to reminisce talk when they want to talk don t be afraid to say goodbye people need that release ID ego and superego 0 ID 0 Present at birth our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain to express the self 0 Basic drives SUPEREGO o In place by 36 years old Constraints placed upon child by parents and the demands of society What is expected by me What is appropriate and what is inappropriate behavior Culture and gender bound A lot of this will vary from parent to parent Parenting techniques 00000 0 Begins to form in infancy the way in which we cope with our instinctual drives ID and the demands made by parents and society SUPEREGO o I want to hit you because I am mad at you What we know the rules are 0 What you really want to do is eat that plate of fries but you know it is not good for you maybe you will only have ten of them 0 0 You know you really want to study for exam ID but your friends want to go out SUPEREGO so you fighting back and forth what you want to decide to do is your EGO o This is what I want to do this is what is expected this is what I am going to do 0 The behavior is the EGO
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