Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide ARH253
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paula Ramirez on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Tucker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Exam Three Study Guide Modules 9 & 10 Module 9: NEOCLASSICISM under Napoleon 1. Gros, GirodetTrioson, and Ingres were all students of the artist JacqueLouis David, therefore they all displayed influences of the Neoclassical style while also leaning toward a more Romantic style. 2. The art commissioned under Napoleon is indicative of imperial iconography and had obvious influence over its viewers. 3. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 and became the First Consul of France in 1799. Then in 1804, Napoleon became Emperor while crowning himself at his coronation ceremony. His political decline began in 1812 with his retreat from Russia and ultimately ended with his defeat at 1815. 4. Napoleon chose JacquesLouis David as his court painter, giving him the title First Painter. 5. Napoleon established the First Republic of France. 6. In Gros’ Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, Napoleon’s gestures and action suggest comparisons drawn between him and Christ. 7. The Grande Odalisque depicts a Turkish harem girl in a very neoclassical way. While the setting is exotic and the subject is erotic, the style of painting is very neoclassical. Why? It still contains crucial elements adhering to the Neoclassical taste for the ideal. Romanticism 1. While Neoclassicism appealed to the viewer’s sense of reason and logic, Romanticism embraced and explored feeling. Artists and writers who subscribed to JeanJacques Rousseau’s views were known as Romantics. They believed humanity was born to live harmoniously with nature and was corrupted by civilization and progress. Romantic works of art appeal to one’s emotions. 2. While discussing the shift from Neoclassicism to Romanticism there is an apparent shift from reason to feeling. 3. Many times, Romantic imagery will explore the grotesque, nightmares, and images of the insane. This is indicative of the Romantic tendency to explore all facets of emotions. 4. Goya was a famous Spanish portrait painter who worked for Charles IV, the Spanish king. His work The Third of May, 1808 depicts an event after Spain was invaded by the French. What are the Romantic elements of the work? It’s a horrific image with unarmed figures and a Christlike figure (martyr). It encourages empathy for for the Spaniards by portraying horrified expressions and anguish on their faces, endowing them with a humanity lacking in the French firing squad. He uses stark darks and lights and extends the time frame depicted. 5. His Saturn Devouring His Children depicts a classical story in a very nonclassical style. How? It depicts the raw carnage and violence of Saturn.The painting can be said to be an expression of the artist’s despair over the passage of time. It conveys a wildness, boldness, and brutality that evokes an elemental response from all viewers. Who was Saturn? The Greek god Kronos. Saturn is associated with the notion of time. What is the Black Paintings series? The Black Paintings are frescoes he painted on the walls of his farmhouse in Quinta del Sordo, outside of Madrid. 6. Gericault’s Raft of Medusa depicts the aftermath of a 19 century shipwreck. How did Gericault prepare for this project? He visited hospitals and morgues to examine corpses, interviewed the survivors, and had a model of the raft constructed in his studio.It took him 8 months to complete. 7. Delacroix’s The Death of Sardanapalus depicts a literary subject written about in the 19 th century, a common subject for Romantics. th 8. Romantic landscapes also became popular in the mid19 century. How can a landscape painting be Romantic? Natural scenes can be shown to be emotional and spiritual. Artists would participate in the spirit of the landscape. 9. What is The Sublime? Feelings of awe mixed with terror; seen in landscape imagery; some images can be thrilling What is The Picturesque? The pleasurable, aesthetic mood of natural landscapes; Used nature as an allegory 10. The notion of The Sublime was first introduced by Edmund Burke who defined The Sublime as feelings of awe mixed with terror. 11. Caspar David Friedrich’s Abbey in the Oak Forrest depicts the Romantic interest in transcendental landscape. Also, there is an overall theme of death echoed in the location, subject, and background of the painting. 12. JMW Turner’s works are often composed of turbulent swirls of paint. The Slave Ship th responds to an 18 century event and this subject became an opportunity for the study of atmosphere and The Sublime. It was designed to stir the viewer’s emotions. It illustrates the idea of the sublime. 13. Albtht Bierstadt was a landscape artist from Solingen,Germany. He traveled West in the mid 19 century and painted lands most people had never seen. In his works he often focuses on the breathtaking scenery and natural beauty of the American landscape. How did his works encourage people to travel West? His works called national attention to the splendor and uniqueness of the regions beyond the Rocky Mountains and reinforced the idea of Manifest Destiny which held that westward expansion across the continent was the logical destiny of the U.S. What was a Panorama? A painting that is 10 feet wide and was aweinspiring. Realism 1. Realism developed as a reaction and new social awareness of 19 century society following the Industrial Revolution. 2. Realism subject matter included the mundane, working class, laborers, peasants. 3. Gustave Courbet is the artist most associated with Realism. He believed that art should open the public’s eyes to the world around them. Courbet famously stated, “ I have never seen an angel. Show me an angel, and I’ll paint one”. 4. His Stonebreakers depicts a young boy and grown man, caught in the midst of menial work. The viewer is unable to see their faces, why? To represent the working class Millet’s Gleaners has similar qualities, how so? He also found his subjects in the people and occupations of the everyday world.Millet shows the working poor and also doesn’t show their faces. 5. Honore Daumier is known for portraying social agitation or criticism. His Third Class Carriage shows his interest in the new industrial subject matter of the 19 century. 6. Rue Transnonain is an example of lithograph. 7. Many of Daumier’s political cartoons depict the king, Louis Philippe I. 8. Edouard Manet was an artist that bridged Realism and Impressionism. He departed from the classical emphasis on illusionism and 3dimensionality insisting on the manipulation of classical masters works in his Le Dejeuner sur L’Herbe and Olympia. The two works referenced in these paintings are Pastoral Symphony and Venus of Urbino. What did critics think of his work? They didn’t like the subject matter and how the figures were presented. 9. What is a daguerreotype? A photograph made by an early method on a plate of chemically treated metal; developed by Louis J. M. Daguerre. Pre-Raphaelitism 1. Where did the PreRaphaelite movement first emerge? England Who were the founders of the style? John Everett Millais; Dante Gabriel Rossetti 2. The subject matter that most influenced the PreRaphaelites was moralizing scenes, literary scenesArthurian, Shakespeare, English poetry. 3. The model for Everett Milias painting, Ophelia was Elizabeth Siddal. 4. Dante Rossetti’s Beata Beatrix was painted in memory of his wife. It’s inspired by Dante’s Beatrice from Vita Nuova. Module 10: Impressionism 1. What is the definition of Impressionism? An art movement born in the late19 century industrialized, urbanized Paris as a reaction to the sometimes brutal and chaotic transformation of French life, which made the world seem unstable and insubstantial; A late 19thcentury art movement that sought to capture a fleeting moment, thereby conveying the illusiveness and impermanence of images and conditions; Who coined the term? Monet 2. What is Haussmannization and how did it influence the Impressionist movement? Haussmanization is using attractive subjects for paintings; also fixing public health, new streets and mordernizing Paris. Haussman was the civic planner for the Modernization of Paris. Impressionists found Paris’s spacious boulevards and avenues to be a product of this. 3. What was the Modernization of Paris? It occurred from 18531870. It was commissioned by Napolean III. It was built by Baron Haussmann, a civic planner. It was the complete demolition of medieval Paris. Paris was given new avenues, boulevards, and a gridsystem. It had a focus on industry, capitalism, and opulence. 4. How is Impressionism a depiction of urbanized, modern Paris? It’s a reaction to the brutal chaos of modern life. 5. What is modernism? A movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th century and sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age. Modernist art goes beyond simply dealing with the present and involves the artist’s critical examination of the premises of art itself. 6. Influenced especially by Japanese prints. What aspects of the prints did Impressionists use in their works? Flatness; divergent lines; special relationship; linear quality 7. Most Impressionists employed a technique called plein air because they preferred painting outdoors to capture the landscape quickly. 8. Charles Baudelaire penned The Painter of the Modern Life, and wrote that modernity is “transitory, the fugitive, and contingent”. 9. Monet’s Impression Sunrise gave the name to the movement. What does the viewer notice when looking at the painting? Monet makes no attempt to disguise the brushstrokes; sketchy quality; colors dancing on the water How does Monet’s painting embody Baudelaire’s commentary about modernity? He examines the premises of art itself. 10. Why did Monet paint series of works? He wanted to determined how light can change the mood and environment of a scene. 11. Edgar Degas depicted scenes of leisure. He was also highly influenced by japonisme the French fascination with all things Japanese. Mary Cassatt was also influenced by this movement. 12. Renoir was an Impressionist artist who focused on what kinds of subjects? Those involved in Parisian nightlife; leisure; dancehalls Le Moulin de la Galette depicts a popular outdoor dancehall in Paris. Post-Impressionism 1. PostImpressionism emerged as a reaction to Impressionism. Critics and some fellow Impressionists called Impressionism a Blind Alley referring to its lack of depth. 2. PostImpressionists pursued a more indepth focus on the formal qualities of art that include line, pattern, form and color; narrative. However, PostImpressionism is still rooted in Impressionism—how so? Subject matter remains similar but with new approaches 3. ToulouseLautrec’s At the Moulin Rouge is from his chronicle of paintings that depict Parisian nightlife. How is this painting still rooted in Impressionism? Subject matter However, how it also a clear departure into PostImpressionism? Investigation and experimentation of color and figure treatment 4. Georges Seurat investigated color and invented pointillism, a technique in which tiny dots are applied to an entire canvas. His painting, A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, is exemplary of his theories on color. 5. As opposed to the scientific investigation of color, Van Gogh pursued the emotional capabilities of color called expressionism. 6. Van Gogh and Gauguin focused on color in an attempt to express emotion. What do the colors of The Night Café suggest? A place where one can ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime. How does this painting evoke the “madness” that Van Gogh described in his letters to his brother? It’s reflected in the colors with vivid juxtaposed hues with fierce diagonal lines. The colors are also expressive with expressive brushstrokes. What was Van Gogh trying to communicate with Starry Night? A loss of reality or clarity; his mental health at this time. 7. Gauguin left Paris to live with peasant farmers in the western region of France, PontAven. His painting, The Vision After the Sermon, depicts the women of the village envisioning the biblical figure Jacob wrestling with an angel after hearing this same sermon in church. How is the painting exemplary of the Expressionist viewpoint? He abstracted the scene into a pattern. Shapes are angular, even harsh. He transformed traditional painting and Impressionism into abstract, expressive patterns. 8. Paul Cezanne wanted to make Impressionism solid and durable because he believed it lacked form and structure. His Mont SainteVictoire and The Basket of Apples both attempt to depict shape? in formless objects. He is clearly influenced by many? theories of matching complimentary colors. Symbolism 1. Symbolist artists followed the Impressionist and PostImpressionists preference of subjectivity over objectivity. They were attracted by the internal world of the imagination and by images that portray the irrational aspects of the human mind. 2. By the early 20 century, Symbolists were highly influenced by the psychoanalytical thinker Freud. 3. Other influences for the Symbolists included dreams. 4. Edvard Munch’s The Scream depicts a figure seemingly lost in the void. Munch was depressed most of his life and constantly depicted themes of the angst of the modern man. 5. The Scream was originally titled Despair. 6. Gustave Klimt contributed to the symbolist movement. Realist Sculpture 1. What are the characteristics of Rodin’s sculpture? Walking Man: Bronze; over life sized; focus on motion; less than perfect; Burghers of Calais: hyperrealist; lack of pedestal; at the viewer’s eye How does he display his interest in the emotional quality of sculpture? He has them either in motion or at eye level with the viewer. He wants to the viewer to have a more intimate experience. 2. What was the purpose of Rodin’s fragmentary sculptures? He wanted to create a taste for the incomplete. 3. What was the event surrounding the commission of Burghers of Calais? 100 years war when the English attacked Calais & their leaders offered their lives to save the city Why was it controversial? It was too unconventional and not traditional enough.
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